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chief priests and scribes stood and vehemently accused him. 11 h And Herod with his men of war set him at b Isa. lili. s. nought, and mocked him, and arrayed him in a gorgeous robe, and sent him again to Pilate. 12 And the same day * Pilate and Herod were made friends together : for before i Acts iv. 27. they were at enmity between themselves.

13 And Pilate, when he had called together the chief priests and the rulers and the people, 14 said unto them, * Ye have brought this man unto me, as one that per- kvv.1, 2. verteth the people: and, behold, 'I, having examined him I ver. s. before you, have found no fault in this man touching those things whereof ye accuse him : 15 no, nor yet Herod : for n I sent you to him; and, lo, nothing worthy of death is done nn unto him. 16 I will therefore chastise him, and release him. 17 [o For of necessity he must release one unto them at the feast.] 18 And m they cried out all at m Acts iii. 14.

n several of our early MSS, have, He sent him to us. nn render, by him.

omitted by most of the ancient authorities, but contained in some most ancient versions. able to appreciate the latter. 11.7 his How could St. John, if he composed his men of war are the body-guard in attend Gospel with that of St. Luke before him, ance upon Herod. a gorgeous robe) have here given us a narrative in which so Variously interpreted :-either purple, as important a fact as this is not only not rebefitting a king, -and why should this not lated, but absolutely cannot find any place be the very "scarlet robeafterwards of insertion ? Its real place is after Jobn used by Pilate's soldiers (Matt. xxvii. 28; ver.38 ;- but obviously nothing was further purple robe,” John xix. 2) ?-or white, from the mind of that Evangelist, for he as the word rendered bright" is under represents Pilate as speaking continuously. stood by some (but see note), Acts x. 30. 13—25.] FURTHER HEARING BEFORE

12.] The cause of the quarrel is PILATE, WHO STRIVES TO RELEASE HIM, uncertain : apparently something concern. BUT ULTIMATELY YIELDS TO THE JEWS. ing Herod's power of jurisdiction, which Matt. xxvii. 15—26. Mark xv. 6–15. was conceded by Pilate in this sending John xvii. 39, 40. Our account, while Jesus to him, and again waived by Herod entirely distinct in form from the others, in sending Him back again. From chap. is in substance nearly allied to them. In xiii. 1, Pilate appears to have encroached a few points it approaches John very on that jurisdiction. The remarks nearly, compare ver. 18 with John ver. 40, of some Commentators about their uniting also ver. 17 with John ver. 39. The in enmity against Christ, are quite beside second declaration of our Lord's innocence the purpose. The present feeling of Pilate by Pilate is in St. John's account united was any thing but hostile to the person of with the first, ver. 38. In the three first Christ, and Herod, by his treatment of Gospels, as asserted in our ver. 14, the Him, shews that he thought Him beneath questioning takes place in the presence of his judicial notice. This remission of the Jews : not so, however, in John (see Jesus to Herod seems not to have been in xviii. 28). 15.] Not as A. V., is done the possession of either of the other three unto him, but is done by him: meaning, Evangelists. It is worthy of notice that such is the issue of Herod's judgment: I they all relate the mocking by the soldiers assume that he has thus decided. of Pilate, which St. Luke omits, whereas 16.] Here, as Bengel observes, Pilate begins he gives it as taking place before Herod. to shew culpable weakness in yielding to This is one of the very few cases where the the Jews. If there be no fault in Him, nature of the history shews that both hap- why should He be corrected at all ?-the pened.

Let the student ask himself, Jews perceive their advantage, and from

D Exod. xiil.

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once, saying, Away with this man, and release unto us Barabbas : 19 who for a certain sedition made in the city, and for murder, was cast into prison. 20 Pilate therefore, willing to release Jesus, spake again to them. 21 But they cried, saying, Crucify him, crucify him. 22 And he said unto them the third time, Why, what evil hath he done? I have found no cause of death in him: I will therefore chastise him, and let him go. 23 And they were P instant with loud voices, requiring that he might be crucified. And the voices of them [PP and of the chief priests] prevailed. 24 And * Pilate gave sentence that it should be as they required. 25 And he released unto them him that for sedition and murder was cast into prison, whom they had desired; but he delivered Jesus to their will. 26 And as they led him away, they laid hold upon one Simon, a Cyrenian, coming out of the country, and on him they laid the cross, that he might bear it after Jesus. 27 And there followed him a great company of 4 people, and of women, which [r also] bewailed and lamented him. 28 But

Jesus turning unto them said, Daughters of Jerusalem, o Heb. xii. 2. 'weep not for me, but weep for yourselves, and for your Pi.e. urgent.

PP omitted in some of our earliest MSS. 4 render, the people.

r omit. this moment follow it up. 25. him been of that kind of well-meant sympathy that for sedition and murder was cast which is excited by an affecting sight, into prison] The description is inserted such as that of any innocent person delifor the sake of contrast ;- see Acts iii. 14. vered to so cruel a death. This description St. Luke omits the scourging and mocking need not of course exclude many who may of Jesus. It is just possible that he might have wept from deeper and more personal have omitted the mocking, because he had motives, as having heard Him teach, or related a similar incident before Herod; received some benefit of healing from Him, but how shall we say this of the scourging, or the like. 28.] turning unto them— if he had seen any narratives which con after He was relieved from the burden of tained it? If St. Luke bad had any mate the cross. This word comes from an eyerials wherewith to fill up the break between witness. for me-His future course verses 25 and 26, I have no doubt he would was not one to be bewailed-see especially have done so.

on this saying, Heb. xii. 2,—“who for the 26–33.] HE IS LED FORTI TO CRU. joy set before Him endured the cross, de. CIFIXION. Matt. xxvii. 31–34. Mark spising the shame.” Nor again were His xv. 20—23. John xix. 16, 17. Our ac- sacred sufferings a mere popular tragedy count is an original one-containing the for street-bewailing; the sinners should affecting narrative, vv. 27–32, peculiar weep for themselves, not for Him. to itself.

26. coming out of the for yourselves, and for your children ... country] See on Mark. after Jesus -see Matthew ver. 25, where the people is peculiar to Luke, and a note of ac called down the vengeance of His blood on curacy. 27.] These were not the themselves and upon our children.Many women who had followed Him from of those who now bewailed Him perished Galilee, but the ordinary crowd collected in the siege of Jerusalem. Those who now in the streets on such occasions, and were young wives, would not be more than consisting, as is usually the case (and espe- sixty when (A.D. 70) the city was taken. cially at an execution), principally of But to their children more especially bewomen. Their weeping appears to have longed the miseries of which the Lord here

19. ch. xxi.

Rev. vi. 16:

ix. 6. r Prov. xi. 31.

Jer. xxv. 29. Ezek. II. 47.

1 Pet. iv, 17. s Isa. liii. 12.

J

children. 29 P For, behold, the days are coming, in the.p Matt, wly. which they shall say, Blessed are the barren, and the 28. wombs that never bare, and the paps which never gave suck. 30 9 Then shall they begin to say to the mountains, 9 Isa. tl. 10. Fall on us; and to the hills, Cover us. 31 r For if they do here. vi. 18: these things & in a green tree, what t shall be done u in the ben...... dry ? 32 8 And there were also two other[] malefactors [], i Pet. 1:17. led with him to be put to death. 33 And when they were come to the place, which is called w Calvary, there they crucified him, and the malefactors, one on the right hand, and the other on the left. 34 [Then said Jesus, Father, 8 render, to the green tree.

t render, must. U render, to the dry. "dele the commas: see note. W render, a skull.

omitted by the Vatican MS., and by the original corrector of the Sinaitic MS. speaks. 29. the days are coming] 2, 46; xlii. 9, &c.). They who have this Between this and then, would be time defence, will not need to call on the rocks for that effectual weeping, which might to hide them. 31.] This verse - the save both themselves and their children; - solemn close of our Lord's teaching on see Acts ii. 37, 38,-but of which few earth-compares His own sufferings with availed themselves. These few are re- that awful judgment which shall in the markably hinted at in the change to the end overtake sinners, the unrepentant - third person, which excludes them-they human kind-the dry tree. These things shall say, i. e. not men in general, nor - were a judgment on sin ;—He bore our * My enemies, but the impenitent among sins ;-He-the vine, the green tree, the you,--those who weep merely tears of idle fruit-bearing tree,- of Whom His people sympathy for Me, and none of repentance are the branches,-if He, if they in Him for themselves ;-those who are in Jeru. and in themselves, are so treated, so tried salem and its misery, which My disciples with sufferings, what shall become of will not be. On the saying itself, them who are cast forth as a branch and compare the whole of Hosea ix., especially are withered ? Read 1 Peter iv. 12–18; vy, 12-16. 30.] This is cited from - ver. 18 is a paraphrase of our text. the next chapter of Hosea (x. 8). It was Theophylact's comment is excellent: “If partially and primarily accomplished, when they do these things to Me, fruitful and multitudes of the Jews towards the end of ever-flourishing and immortal from my the siege sought to escape death by hiding Godhead, what will happen to you, unthemselves in the subterranean passages fruitful, and void of all life-giving righteand sewers under the city, as related by ousness ?”—The explanations which make Josephus: who adds that more than two the green tree mcan the young, and the thousand were found dead in these biding. dry, the old,-or the green tree mean the places, besides those who were detected women comparatively innocent, the dry, there and killed. ... But the words are the guilty, at the destruction of Jerusalem, too solemn, and too often used in a more —seem to me unworthy of the place which awful connexion, for a further meaning to the words hold, though the latter agrees escape our notice: see Isa. ii. 10, 19, 21, with the symbolism of Ezek. xx. 47, comand Rev, vi. 16, where is the striking ex. pared with xxi. 4. 32.] Since the pub. pression from the wrath of the Lamb”— lication of the first edition of this work, the of Him who now was the victim about to additional evidence of the Sinaitic MS. has be offered. And the whole warning—as made it appear that we ought to read the every other respecting the destruction of text simply, two other malefactors: not, as Jerusalem-looks through the type to the I maintained before, “two others, maleantitype, the great day of His wrath. factors." Now, the days are coming—then “the 33–49.] THE CRUCIFIXION, MOCKgreat day of His wrath is come,” Rev. vi. ING, LAST WORDS, AND DEATI OF JESUS. 17. It is interesting to see how often Matt. xxvii. 35–50. Mark xv. 24–37. David, who had passed so long in biding John xix. 18–30; with however some among the rocks of the wilderness from particulars inserted which appear later in Saul, calls the Lord his Rock (see Ps. xviii. the other gospels. 34.] Spoken ap

* Matt. Vi forgive them; for u they know not what they xx do.] And Acte vii. 1 Cor. iv.12, they parted his raiment, and cast lots. 35 And the people

stood beholding. And the rulers also [y with them] deZech. xil. 10.

rided him, saying, He saved others; let him save himself, if he be ? Christ, the chosen of God. 36 And the soldiers also mocked him, coming to him, and offering him vinegar,

37 and saying, If thou be the king of the Jews, save IX or, are doing.

y omit. z the reading is uncertain. The best of our most ancient authorities have, the Christ of God, the chosen : see note. parently during the act of the crucifixion,or council, who delivered Him up, see John immediately that the crosses were set up. xi. 49, “ye know nothing,”--then of all, Now, first, in the fullest sense, from the whose sin is from lack of knowledge of the wounds in His Hands and Feet, is His truth, of what sin is, and what it has Blood shed, for the forgiveness of sins done,-even the crucifixion of the Lord. (Matt. xxvi. 28), and He inaugurates His But certainly from this intercession is intercessional office by a prayer for His excluded that one sin—strikingly brought murderers—“forgive them.This also is out by the passage thus cited as coma fulfilment of Scripture, Isa. liii. 12,- mitted by him who said it, viz. Caiaphas, where the contents of our verses 33, 34 —and hinted at again by our Lord, John are remarkably pointed out.

His xix. 11- and perhaps also by the awful teaching ended at ver. 31. His High answer Matt. xxvi. 64,—thou saidst it'Priesthood is now begun. His first three viz. in prophecy, John xi. 49; see also sayings on the Cross are for others : see Matt. xxvi. 25,-and on the sin alluded to, ver. 43: John xix. 26, 27. Father] Matt. xii. 31 : 1 John v. 16. Observe He is the Son of God, and He speaks in that between the two members of this the fulness of this covenant relation, prayer lies the work of the Spirit leading I knew that Thou always hearest Me:" to repentance-the prayer that they may - it is not merely a prayer-but the prayer have their eyes opened, and know what of the Great Intercessor, which is always they have done : which is the necessary heard. Notice that even on the Cross, subjective condition of forgiveness of sins, there is no alienation, no wrath of con- see 2 Tim. ii. 25, 26.

35.] The demnation, between the Father and the insults of the people are by no means exSon. forgive them] Who are here cluded, even if the words with them be intended ? Doubtless, first and directly, omitted : nay they are implied, by the the four soldiers, whose work it had been and .... also which follows in the next to crucify Him. The words they know verse. To find a discrepancy with Mat. not what they are doing point directly at thew and Mark here, is surely unfair :this : and it is surely a mistake to sup- the people's standing looking on, does pose that they wanted no forgiveness, not describe their mind towards Jesus : because they were merely doing their duty. St. Luke reports no more than he had Stier remarks, “ This is only a misleading before him: and the inference may be fallacy, for they were sinners even as drawn that those whom he has related to others, and their obedient and unsuspect. have cried out an hour ago, Crucify him,' ing performance of their duty was not - would not have stood by in silence. without a sinful pleasure in doing it, or On ver. 48, see note there. the rulers at all events formed part of their entire are the chief priests and members of the standing as sinners, included in that sin Sanhedrim, Matthew, ver 41. of the world, to which the Lord here concluding words may be rendered either ascribes His Crucifixion.” But not only (see the reading in the margin) the Christ to them, but to them as the represen- of God, His elect one, -or, the elect Christ tatives of that sin of the world, does of God. I prefer the former : but either this prayer apply. The persons pointed way, the Christ of God must be taken togeat by they are all mankind, -the Jewish ther. 36.] A different incident from nation, as the next moving agent in His that related in Matthew, ver. 48; Mark, death,--but all of us,- inasmuch as for our ver. 36; John, vv. 28, 29. It was about sins He was bruised. for they know the time of the mid-day meal of the not what they do, primarily, as before, soldiers, -and they in mockery offered Him spoken of the soldiers,-then of the their posca or sour wine, to drink with

The

thyself. 38 And a superscription also was written over him [a in letters of Greek, and Latin, and Hebrew], This is the King of the Jews.

39 And one of the malefactors which were hanged railed on him, saying, b If thou be Christ, save thyself and us. 40 But the other answering rebuked him, saying, Dost not thou fear God, seeing thou art in the same condemnation ? 41 And we indeed justly; for we receive the due reward of our deeds: but this man hath done nothing amiss. 42 And d he said unto Jesus, Lord, remember me when thou comest e into thy kingdom. 43 And Jesus said unto him, Verily I say unto thee, To day shalt thou be with me in

& omitted by some of the most ancient authorities.
b the most ancient authorities have, Art not thou the Christ?
C render, Dost thou also not.
d the most ancient authorities read, he said, Jesus, remember me. ..

e render, in. them. 38.7 See on Matthew, ver. 37. dom, in which the ancient Fathers were

over him, on the projecting up to rise, &c.,- with the conviction, that right beam of the cross. 39-43.] Jesus is the Messiah. What is really Peculiar to Luke. St. Matthew and St. astounding, is the power and strength of Mark have merely a general and less pre- that faith, which, amidst shame and pain cise report of the same incident. All and mockery, could thus lift itself to the were now mocking; the soldiers, the rulers, apprehension of the Crucified as this King. the mob :-and the evil-minded thief, per. This thief would fill a conspicuous place in haps out of bravado before the crowd, a list of the triumphs of faith suppleputs in his scoff also. 40.] Bengel mentary to Heb. xi. in thy kingsupports the notion that this penitent dom] The A. V., following the Latin Vulthief was a Gentile. But surely this is an gate (so also Luther), renders this into unwarranted assumption. What should a thy kingdom,” which is a sad mistake, Gentile know of Paradise, or of the king- as it destroys the force of the expression. doin of the Messiah as about to come? It is in thy kingdom-with thy king

The silence of the penitent is broken dom, so “shall come in His glory,” Matt. by the us of the other compromising him xxv. 31, which we (A. V.) have translated in the scoff. also alludes to the mul. rightly. The above mistake entirely loses titude-Dost thou too not fear God ? (as the solemn sense of comest-making it thou oughtest to do) seeing that .... merely comest into,' just as we say to

41. We] He classes himself with “come into " an estate : whereas it is the the other in condemnation, but not in his chief word in the clause, and “in Thy prayer afterwards. · amiss] literally kingdomits qualification, at thy coming unseemly. This is a remarkable testi- in thy kingdom.

It will be seen mony to the innocence of Jesus from one that there is no necessity for supposing who was probably executed for his share the man to have been a disciple, as some in those very tumults which He was ac have done.

It is remarkable how, cused of having excited. 42.] The in three following sayings, the Lord apthief had heard of the announcements pears as Prophet, Priest, and King: as which Jesus bad made,-or at all events Prophet, to the daughters of Jerusalem ;of the popular rumour concerning his as Priest, interceding for forgiveness ;Kingdom. His faith lays hold on the as King, acknowledged by the penitent truth that this is the King of the Jews thief, and answering his prayer. in a higher and immortal sense. There 43. Verily I say unto thee.....] The is nothing so astounding in this man's Lord surpasses his prayer in the answer; faith dogmatically considered, as has been the verily I say unto thee, to day, is the thought; he merely joins the common reply to the uncertain “when (whensobelief of the Jews of a Messianic King. ever) ” of the thief.

To day] i. c.

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