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ch. mi. 13.

me: and I say to this man, Go, and he goeth; and to another, Come, and he cometh; and to my servant, Do this, and he doeth it. 10 When Jesus heard it, he marvelled, and said to them that followed, Verily I say unto

you, I have not found so great faith, no, not in Israel. b Luke xiii. 20. 11 And I say unto you, That many shall come from the

east and west, and shall sit down with Abraham, and Isaac, and Jacob, in the kingdom of heaven. 12 But the & children of the kingdom shall be cast out into outer darkness: there shall be weeping and gnashing of teeth. 13 And Jesus said unto the centurion, Go thy way; and as thou hast believed, so be it done unto thee. And his servant was healed in the selfsame hour.

14 And when Jesus was come into Peter's house, he saw d 1 Cor. 11.5. his d wife's mother laid, and sick of a fever. 15 And he

touched her hand, and the fever left her: and she arose,
and ministered unto y them.
16 When the even was come, they brought unto him
X render, sons.

y read, him. myself under authority : and in turn know character of palsy among us, we read of a how others obey, having soldiers under similar case in 1 Macc. ix. 55, 56: “At me :'inferring, if then I, in my sub- that time was Alcimus plagued, and his ordinate station of command, am obeyed, enterprises hindered : for his mouth was how much more Thou, who art over all, stopped, and he was taken with a palsy, so and whom diseases serve as their Master !'. that he could no more speak any thing, That this is the right interpretation, is nor order any thing concerning his house. shewn by our Lord's special commendation So Alcimus died at that time with great of his faith, ver. 10. 10. marvelled) torment.” The disease in the text may to be accepted simply as a fact, as when have been an attack of tetanus, which Jesus rejoiced, wept, was sorrowful; not, the ancient physicians included under as some have foolishly done, to be ra- paralysis, and which is more common in tionalized away into a mere lesson to teach hot countries than with us. It could us what to admire. The mysteries of our hardly have been apoplexy, which usually Lord's humanity are too precious thus to bereaves of sensation. be sacrificed to the timidity of theologians. 14-17.) HEALING OF PETER'S WIFE'S

12. the sons the natural heirs, MOTHER, AND MANY OTHERS. Mark i. but disinherited by rebellion. outer 29—34. Luke iv. 38–41. From the other darkness) the darkness outside, i. e. out Evangelists it appears, that our Lord had side the lighted chamber of the feast, see just healed a dæmoniac in the synagogue ch. xxii. 13, and Eph. v. 7, 8. These verses at Capernaum : for they both state, when are wanting in St. Luke, and occur when they were come out of the synagogue, they our Lord repeated them on a wholly dif- entered into the house of Simon and Anferent occasion, ch. xiii. 28, 29. Compare drew,' &c. Both Mark and Luke are fuller a remarkable contrast in the Rabbinical in their accounts than the text. The exbooks illustrating Jewish pride: “God said pression (of the fever) it left her, is comto the Israelites, In the world to come mon to the three, as is also the circumI will spread for you a vast table, which stance of her ministering immediately the Gentiles shall see and be confounded.” after: shewing that the fever left her, not,

13. was healed] Of what precise as it would have done if natural means disease does not appear. In Luke he was had been used, weak and exhausted, but ready to die”-here he is “sick of the completely restored. 16.] at sunset, palsy, grievously tormented.But though Mark ver. 32: Luke ver. 40. From St. these descriptions do not agree with the Mark we learn that the whole city was

e Isa. liii. 4.

many that were possessed with devils : and he cast out the spirits with z his word, and healed all that were sick: 17 that it might be fulfilled which was spoken by Esaias the prophet, saying, e Himself took our infirmities, and e Pelli. 4. bare our sicknesses. 18 Now when Jesus saw great multitudes about him, he gave commandment to depart unto the other side. 19 And a certain scribe came, and said unto him, Master, I will follow thee whithersoever thou goest. 20 And Jesus saith unto him, The foxes have holes, and the birds of the air have nests; but the Son of man

z render, a: see Luke vii. 7.

collected at the door; from St. Luke, that the dæmons cried out and said, Thou art Christ the Son of God.' And from both, that our Lord permitted them not to speak, for they knew Him. They brought the sick in the evening, either because it was cool,-or because the day's work was over, and men could be found to carry them,-or perhaps because it was the sabbath (see Mark i. 21, 29, 32), which ended at sunset. 17.] The exact sense in which these words are quoted is matter of difficulty. Some understand took and bare as merely took away,' and 'healed.' But besides this being a very harsh interpretation of both words, it entirely destroys the force of Himself, and makes it ex. pletive. Others suppose it to refer to the personal fatigue, (or even the spiritual exhaustion, [Olshausen,] which perhaps is hardly consistent with sound doctrine,) which our Lord felt by these cures being long protracted into the evening. But I believe the true relevancy of the prophecy is to be sought by regarding the miracles generally to have been, as we know so many of them were, lesser and typical out. shewings of the great work of bearing the sin of the world, which He came to accomplish ; just as diseases themselves, on which those miracles operated, are all so many testimonies to the existence, and types of the effect, of sin. Moreover in these His deeds of mercy, He was 'touched with the feeling of our infirmities :' wit. ness His tears at the grave of Lazarus, and His sighing over the deaf and dumb man, Mark vii. 34. The very act of compassion is (as the name imports) a suffer ing with its object; and if this be true between man and man, how much more strictly so in His case who had taken upon Him the whole burden of the sin of the world, with all its sad train of sorrow and suffering.

18--IX. 1.] JESUS CROSSES THE LAKE. INCIDENTS BEFORE EMBARKING. HE STILLS THE STORM. HEALING OF TWO DÆMONIACS IN THE LAND OF THE GADARENES. Mark iv. 35-v. 20: Luke ix. 57-60; viii. 22-39, on which passages compare the notes.

18.] It is obviously the intention of St. Matthew to bind on the following incidents to the oc. currence which he had just related. 19.] Both the following incidents are placed by St. Luke long after, during our Lord's last journey to Jerusalem. For it is quite impossible (with Greswell, Diss. iii. p. 155 sq.) in any common fairness of interpretation, to imagine that two such incidents should have twice happened, and both times have been related together. It is one of those cases where the attempts of the Harmonists do violence to every principle of sound historical criticism. Every such difficulty, instead of being a thing to be wiped out and buried up at all hazards (I am sorry to see, e.g., that Dr. Wordsw. takes no notice, either here or in St. Luke, of the recurrence of the two narratives), is a valuable index and guide to the humble searcher after truth, and is used by him as such (see Introduction).

20. the son of man) “It is thought that this phrase was taken from Daniel vii. 13, to which passage our Saviour seems to allude in ch. xxvi. 64, and probably Stephen in Acts vii. 56. It appears from John xii. 34, that the Jews understood it to mean the Messiah : and from Luke xxii. 69, 70, that they considered the Son of Man to mean the same as the Son of God.Dr. Burton. It is the name by which the Lord ordinarily in one pregnant word designates Himself as the Messiah-the Son of God mani. fested in the flesh of man-the second Adam. And to it belong all those conditions, of humiliation, suffering, and ex

I see 1 Kings

xix, 20.

bury my father. 22nLord, suffer me fimother of his

hath not where to lay his head. 21 And another of his disciples said unto him, f Lord, suffer me first to go and bury my father. 22 But Jesus said unto him, Follow me; and let the dead bury their dead.

23 And when he was entered into a ship, his disciples followed him. 24 And, behold, there arose a great tempest in the sea, insomuch that the ship was a covered with the waves; but he was asleep. 25 And his disciples came to him, and awoke him, saying, Lord, save us: we perish.

26 And he saith unto them, Why are ye fearful, () ye of g Ps. Ixv. 5-7 : Lumnix, : ' little faith? Then he arose, and & rebuked the winds and cvii. 29.

a render, being covered. altation, which it behoved the Son of Man Mark iv. 38 = Master, Master, we perish, to go through. 21.] In St. Luke we Luke viii. 24. On these and such like find, that our Lord previously commanded variations, notice the following excellent and him to follow Him. Clement of Alexandria important remarks of Augustine: “The reports this as having been said to Philip. sense of the disciples waking the Lord and But if so, He had long ago ordered Philip seeking to be saved, is one and the same : to follow Him, taking St. Luke's order of nor is it worth while to enquire which of the occurrence. A tradition of this nature these three was really said to Christ. For was hardly likely to be wrong ; so that whether they said any one of these three, perhaps the words Follow me are to be or other words which no one of the Evantaken (as in John xxi. 19, 22) as an admo- gelists has mentioned, but of similar import nition occasioned by some slackness or as to the truth of the sense, what matters symptom of decadence on the part of the it?” We may wish that he had always Apostle. The attempt to evade the strong spoken thus. Much useless labour might words of our Lord's command by supposing have been spared, and men's minds led to that to bury my father means, to reside the diligent enquiry into the real difficulties with my father till his death' (Theophy of the Gospels, instead of so many spending lact), is evidently futile, since first to go time in knitting cobwebs. But Augustine and buryis plainly said of an act waiting himself in the very next sentence descends to be done ; and the reason of our Lord's to the unsatisfactory ground of the Harrebuke was the peremptory and all-super- monists, when he adds. “ Though it may be seding nature of the command “ Follow also, that when many were calling upon me.22. the dead] First time, as Him, all these may have been said, one by Rev. iii. 1, spiritually,--second, literally one, another by another.” His mind howdead. The two meanings are similarly ever was not one to rest contented with used in one saying by our Lord in John xi. such sophisms; and all bis deeper and more 25, 26. See Heb. vi. 1; ix, 14: and the carnest sayings are in the truer and freer weighty addition in Luke, ver. 62.

spirit of the above extract. The above 23.) This journey across the lake, with its remarks are more than ever important, now incidents, is placed by St. Mark and St. that a reaction towards the low literal harLuke after the series of parables como monistic view has set in, and the inspiration mencing with that of the sower, and re- of the mere letter is set up against those corded in ch. xiii. By Mark with a precise who seek for life in searching the real note of sequence: the same day, when the spirit of the Scriptures. even was come, he saith unto them," Mark 26.] The time of this rebuke in the text iv. 35. 24. being covered compare precedes, but in Mark and Luke follows, Mark iv. 37: Luke viji. 23. By keeping to the stilling of the storm. See the last the strict imperfect sense, we obviate all note. They were of little faith, in that necessity for qualifying these words: the they were afraid of perishing while they ship was becoming covered, &c. All lakes had on board the slumbering Saviour: bordered by mountains, and indeed all hilly they were not faithless, for they had recoasts, are liable to these sudden gusts of course to that Saviour to help them. Therewind. 25. ] Lord, save us: we perish= fore He acknowledges the faith which Master, carest thou not that we perish, they had ; answers the prayer of faith, by

por 62.

the sea; and there was a great calm. 27 But the men marvelled, saying, What manner of man is this, that even the winds and the sea obey him ?

28 And when he was come to the other side into the country of the b Gergesenes, there met him two possessed with devils, coming out of the tombs, exceeding fierce,

b read, Gadarenes. working a perfect calm: but rebukes them capolis. Burckhardt and others believe for not having the stronger, firmer faith, that they have found its ruins at Omkeis, to trust Him even when He seemed in- near the ridge of the chain which divides sensible to their danger. The symbolic* the valley of Jordan from that of the sea of application of this occurrence is too striking Tiberias. The territory of this city might to have escaped general notice. The Saviour well extend to the shore of the lake. It with the company of His disciples in the may be observed, that there is nothing in ship tossed on the waves, seemed a typical any of the three accounts to imply that reproduction of the Ark bearing mankind the city was close to the scene of the on the flood, and a foreshadowing of the iniracle, or the scene of the miracle close Church tossed by the tempests of this to the herd of swine, or the herd of swine, world, but having Him with her always. at the time of their possession, close to the And the personal application is one of lake. Indeed the expression “a good way comfort, and strengthening of faith, in off from them,ver. 30, implies the condanger and doubt. 27. the men] trary with regard to the swine. It apThe men who were in the ship, besides pears, from Burckhardt, that there are our Lord and His disciples. 28.] many toinbs in the neighbourhood of the Among the difficulties attendant on this ruins of Gadara to this day, hewn in the narrative, the situation and name of the rock, and thus capable of affording shelter. place where the event happened are not It may be well in fairness to observe, that the least. Origen discusses the three, Ge. " Gergesenes" can hardly have arisen. as rasa, which he found in the text in his sometimes represented, entirely from Oritime, but pronounces to be a city of Arabia, gen's conjecture, as it pervades so many having no sea or lake near it, -Gadara, MSS. and ancient (it is true, not the most which he found in a few MSS., but disap. ancient) versions. We cannot say that a prores, as a city of Judæa, not near any lake part of the territory of Gadara may not or sea with cliffs ;-and Gergesa, which he have been known to those who, like Matsays is a city on the lake of Tiberias, with thew, were locally intimate with the shores a cliff hanging over the lake, where the of the lake, by this ancient and generally spot of the miracie was shewn. Notwith- disused name. Still however, we are, I standing this, it appears very doubtful conceive, bound in a matter of this kind to whether there ever was a town named follow the most ancient extant testimony. (ergesha (or -sa) near the lake. There were See further on the parallel places in the Gergashites (Joseph. i. 6. 2) in former Mark and Luke. two possessed days, but their towns had been destroyed with devils] In Mark v. 2, and Luke by the Israelites at their first irruption, viii. 27, but one is mentioned. All three and never, that we hear of, afterwards Evangelists have some particulars pecurebuilt (see Deut. vii. 1: Josh. xxiv. 11). liar to themselves; but Mark the most, Gerasa (now Dscherasch) lies much too far and the most striking, as having evidently to the East. The town of Gadara, alluded proceeded from an eye-witness. The “ we to in the text, was a strong chief city in are manyof Mark is worth noticing, in Peræa, opposite Scythopolis and Tiberias to reference to the discrepancy of number in the East, in the mountain, at whose foot were the two accounts, as perhaps connected the well-known warm baths. It was on with the mention of more than one by our the river Hieromax, and sixty stadia from Evangelist, who omits the circumstance Tiberias, a Greek city (see reft. to Jose connected with that speech. exceedphus and Eusebius in my Gr. Test.). It ing fierce] See the terribly graphic acwas destroyed in the civil wars of the count of St. Mark (v. 3-6). The dæinoJews, and rebuilt by Pompeius, presented niac was without clothes, which though reby Augustus to King Herod, and after lated only by St. Luke (viii. 27), yet, with his death united to the province of remarkable consistency, appears from St. Syria. It was one of the ten cities of De Mark's narrative, where he is described as

so that no man might pass by that way. 29 And, behold, they cried out, saying, What have we to do with thee, [c Jesus,] thou Son of God ? art thou come hither to torment us before the time? 30 And there was a good way off from them an herd of many swine feeding. 31 So the devils besought him, saying, If thou cast us out, suffer us to go away into the herd of swine. 32 And he said unto them, Go. And when they were come out, they went into

Comit. sitting, clothed, and in his right mind, at any Christian idea of the perfection of Jesus's feet, after his cure. so that truthfulness in Him who was Truth itself, no man] Peculiar to this Gospel. 29.] to suppose Him to have used such plain before the time, is peculiar to this Gos- and solemn words repeatedly, before His pel : Son of God, common to all.

disciples and the Jews, in encouragement 30. a good way off] The Vulgate rendering, of, and connivance at, a lying superstinot far off,does not seem accordant with tion. (3) After these remarks, it will be the other accounts, both of which imply unnecessary to refute that view of dæmo. distance: Mark v.11: Luke vü. 32. These, niacal possession which makes it iden. especially the first, would seem to imply that tical with mere bodily disease,-as it is the swine were on the hills, and the scene included above; but we may observe, that of the miracle at some little distance, on it is every where in the Gospels distinthe plain. 31.) St. Mark and St. Luke guished from disease, and in such a way give, as the ground of this request, that as to shew that, at all events, the two they might not be sent out of the land = were not in that day confounded. (See into the abyss, i. e. out of their permitted ch. ix. 32, 33, and compare Mark vii. 32.) residence on earth to torment before the (4) The question then arises, Granted the time in the abyss. See note on Luke. plain historical truth of dæmoniacal pos.

32.] This remarkable narrative session, what was it? This question, brings before us the whole question of in the suspension, or withdrawal, of the DÆMONIACAL POSSESSIONS in the Gos- gift of discerning of spirits' in the mopels, which I shall treat here once for all, dern Church, is not easy to answer. But and refer to this note hereafter. I we may gather from the Gospel narratives would then remark in general, (I. 1) that some important ingredients for our de. the Gospel narratives are distinctly pledged scription. The dæmoniac was one whose to the historic truth of these occurrences. being was strangely interpenetrated (pos. Either they are true, or the Gospels are false. sessed' is the most exact word that could For they do not stand in the same, or a be found) by one or more of those fallen similar position, with the discrepancies in spirits, who are constantly asserted in detail, so frequent between the Evangelists: Scripture (under the name of dæmons, but they form part of that general ground. evil spirits, unclean spirits, their chief work in which all agree. (2) Nor can it being the devil or Satan) to be the enemies be said that they represent the opinion of and tempters of the souls of men. (See the time, and use words in accordance with Acts v. 3: John xii. 2, and passim.) He it. This might have been difficult to answer, stood in a totally different position from but that they not only give such expressions the abandoned wicked man, who morally is as possessed with devils, dæmonized (Mark given over to the devil. This latter would v. 16: Luke viii. 36), and other like ones, be a subject for punishment; but the but relate to us words spoken by the Lord dæmoniac for deepest compassion. There Jesus, in which the personality and pre appears to have been in him a double will sence of the dæmons is distinctly implied. and double consciousness—sometimes the See especially Luke xi. 17–26. Now either cruel spirit thinking and speaking in him, our Lord spoke these words, or He did not. sometimes his poor crushed self crying out If He did not, then we must at once set aside to the Saviour of men for mercy: a terthe concurrent testimony of the Evangelists rible advantage taken, and a personal to a plain matter of fact; in other words realization, by the malignant powers of establish a principle which will overthrow evil, of the fierce struggle between sense equally every fact related in the Gospels. and conscience in the man of morally If He did, it is wholly at variance with divided life. Hence it has been not im

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