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ch. 1. 11, 15. Rom. v. 7, 8. Eph. v. 9. 1 John iii. 10.


xii. 50.

o see Gen.

xviii, 17.
ch. xvii, 26.

Acts xx. 27. pch. vi. 70:

another, as I [have] loved you. 13 m Greater love hath men..;,.5. no man than this, that a man lay down his life for his John iii. friends. 14 o Ye are my friends, if ye do whatsoever I n chia 15, command you. 15 p Henceforth I call you not servants; 9 for the servant knoweth not what his lord doeth : but I see. Gem. have called you friends; ro for all things that I have heard Acty: 29 of my Father I have made known unto you. 16 p Ye s have l. 18. not chosen me, but I t have chosen you, and 9 0 ordained you, 9 Mat.: vxviii. that ye should go and bring forth fruit, and that your i. 15. Col. o omit.

P render, No more do I call you. a render, because.

r render, because I made known unto you all things that I heard from my Father. 8 render, did not choose.

t render, chose. a render, appointed.

X render, bear.

1 John iv.

10, 10. q Matt. xxviii.

19. Mark


explained (see ch. xii. 31) to be, mutual knowledge. I made known unto you] love,-and that, after His example of Here again the allusion must be (see ch. Love to them. 13.A difficulty has xvi. 12) to their future state under the been unnecessarily found in this verse, dispensation of the Spirit: nay, even to because St. Paul, Rom. v. 6 ff., cites it as the fulness and completion of it, as Augus. a nobler instance of love, that Christ died tine remarks; compare the confession of for us when we were enemies. But mani. one of the greatest Apostles, 1 Cor. xiii. festly here the example is from common 10. “As we look for immortality of the life, in which if a man did lay down his flesh and salvation of the soul in the future, life, it would naturally be for his friends; although, having received the pledge of and would be, and is cited as, the greatest both, we are said to be already saved : so example of love. Nor again is there any we should hope for in the future the doctrinal difficulty: our Lord does not knowledge of all things which the Onlyassert of himself, that He laid down his begotten has heard from the Father, life only for his friends (as defined in the although Christ says He has already made next verse), but puts forward this side of thein known to us." Augustine. his Love as a great and a practical exam. 16.] See 1 John iv. 10, 19. Further proof ple for his followers. His own great of His love, in his choosing his, when they Sacrifice of Himself lies in the back had not chosen Him. appointed See ground of this verse; but only in the Acts xiii. 47: 1 Thess. v. 9, and reff. background, and with but one side of it Chrysostom and others explain it as meanseen, viz. his Love to them. See 1 Tim. ingplanted,in reference to the similiiv. 10, and compare 1 John iii. 16.

tude of the vine. But the parable seems 14.7 parallel to ver. 10,--and like it, to be no further returned to than in the guarded, in vv. 15, 16, 17, from legal allusion implied in bearing fruit. “ Ormisinterpretation. 15.] Spoken, by dained,in A. V., is objectionable, as conanticipation, of the state in which He veying a wrong idea, that of appointing to would place them under the Spirit. Nor the Ministry, which is not here present. is there any discrepancy with ch. xiii. 13,

that ye should go and bear fruit] 16, and ver. 20 here, which are also The word go probably merely expresses spoken of their future condition : for in (see Matt. xviii. 15; xix. 21, and Luke that sense both relations subsist together. viii. 14) the activity of living and deIt is the lower sense of the word rendered veloping principle; not the missionary servant (signifying botlı servant and slave), journeys of the Apostles, as some have which is brought out in this verse. The explained it. The fruit is not the Church, anticipatory character of the saying is to be founded by the Apostles, and enclearly shewn in the words, “ Knoweth not dure;—this is evident, for here the fruit what his lord doeth ;for this was pre- is spoken of with reference to themselves, cisely their present condition, but was and their ripening into the full stature of after His Ascension changed into light and Christ. Much of their fruit will be neces

xiv. 13.

s ver. 19.


Luke vi. 40.

z Ezek. iii.7. a Matt. X. 22:

r ver.7: ch. fruit should remain : that ? whatsoever ye [9 shall] ask of

12. the Father in my name, he may give it you. 17 * These t1 John iii. I, things I command you, that ye love one another. 18 * If

the world z hate you, a ye know that it b hated me before u 1 John iv. 5. [it hated] you. 19 u If ye were of the world, the world I ch. xvii. 14. would love his own : but because ye are not of the world,

but I have chosen you out of the world, therefore the

world hateth you. 20 Remember the word that I said y Matt. 5. 24. unto you, y c The servant is not greater than his lord. If

ch. xii. 16. they [y have] persecuted me, they will also persecute you; ? Ezek. ii,z: 2 if they [y have] kept my d saying, they will keep your's XVI.. ch. also. 21 e But a all these things will they do unto you for y omit.

z render, hateth. & better imperative, know.

b render, hath hated. C render, There is no servant. d render, word.

e render, Howbeit. sarily the winning of others to Christ: plains this hatred, but derives additional but that is not the prominent idea here. comfort from it, as a sign that they were

that your fruit should remain] See not (any longer) of the world ; but chosen 2 John 8; Rev. xiv. 13. that what. out of it by Him, and endued with a new soever ye ask ...] This second that is life from above. By the result being parallel with the former one, not the expressed in the words, would love his result of it; the two, the bringing forth (its) own, not “would love you," we have of fruit and the obtaining answer to the true practice of the world hinted at, prayer, being co-ordinate with each other; and the false character of the world's love, but (vv. 7, 8) the bearing fruit to God's as a mere self-love, set forth. In this glory is of these the greater, being the loving their own,' the children of this result and aim of the other. 17.] The world fall into hating one another. expression these things refers (as almost Meyer remarks the solemnity of the world always in John, see verses 11, 21; xvi. 1, thus repeated five times. 20.] Our 25, 33; xvii. 1; xviii. 1 al.) back to what Lord had said it to thein in ch. xiii. 16, has gone before. The object of my en but with a different reference: the sense joining these things on you is (for all since here being, · Remember the saying, for it ver. 12 has been an expansion of the words is true in this matter also;' see Matt. .. as I loved you) that ye love one 24, where it is used in the same sense. another' (see 1 John iv. 11). Then from They, i. e. the worldthe persons constithe indefiniteness of this term, one another, tuting it. A difficulty has been raised our Lord takes occasion to forewarn them on the latter clause of this verse, because that however wide their love to one they " did not in any sense "keep" another, they cannot bring all within Christ's word, whereas they did persecute this category; there will be still the Him : and an attempt has been made world outside, which will hate them

to give to the word “keep" the sense of 18–27.] Their relation to the world: watching with a hostile intent, which it and vv. 18-21, ground of the world's will not bear. Nor is irony (Lampe, Stier) hatred. On the connexion, see above. in this latter clause at all in keeping with 18.] See ch. vii. 7. The verb rendered the solemnity of the discourse. There is in the A. V.ye know,” is most likely im- no real difficulty: the words simply mean, perative, know ye. The assertion of their the keeping My word and the keeping knowledge of the fact would in all likeli. yours are intimately joined, and when you hood have been otherwise expressed in the find the world or any part of the worlji do original. See more in the note in my the first, you may infer the other. The Greek Test. The great proof of this hatred issue of the condition, “ If they kept My to Him was yet to come, but is viewed as saying," was to be proved by their rejec. past. This knowledge brings comfort, tion and killing of the Lord Jesus. 1 Pet. iv. 12, 13. 19.] not only ex- 21.] Howbeit - stronger than merely


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Jaines iv. 17.

vii. 31 : ix.

my name's sake, because they know not him that sent me. 22 b If I had not come and spoken unto them, they ? had b ch. ix. 41. not had sin: "but now they have no & cloke for their sin. c Rom. i. 20. 23 He that hateth me hateth my Father also. 24 If I a 1 John ii. 23. had not done among them e the works which none other ech. ii. ? man did, they f had not had sin : but now have they both 82. seen and hated both me and my Father. 25 But sh this cometh to pass,] that the word might be fulfilled that is written in their law, ' They hated me without a cause. Ps: 1XXV. 10: 26 8 But when the Comforter is come, whom I will send 8 Luke Itiv. unto you from the Father, [h even] the Spirit of truth, 17,26 A which proceedeth from the Father, he shall i testify of n l' John v. 6. I render, would not have.

8 render, for perspicuity, excuse. h not expressed in the original.

i render, bear witness.

xix. 4.

49. ch. xiv.

7, 13. Acts

But :”—nay, so far is this from being so, testimony of His works among them also, that it is on this very account, because ye as leaving them again without excuse ;belong to Me, that they will thus treat they had had ocular witness of His mission. you. all these things--all that is im- 25.] But all this not as an accidental plied in hating and persecuting. It thwarting of My word and work among was on account of bearing the Name of them, but as a matter predicted in Scripture. Christ that the Christians were subjected

in their law, ch. X. 34 and note. to persecution in the early ages, and that To suppose any irony in these words, as they are even now hated by those who De Wette does (“they are true followersknow Him not: but this is to them com- out of their law'), is manifestly against fort and joy, see Acts v. 41: 2 Cor. xii. 10: the whole spirit of our Lord's reference to Gal. vi. 17: 1 Pet. iv. 14. they know the law. It is called their law,'_“the not] not, •They know Him not as having law which they are ever turning over and sent Me'- but they know not Him who vaunting themselves about,” as Bengel has sent Me. Ignorance of God (not de says, -as condemning them, though their siring the knowledge of His ways) is the boast and pride. without a cause, as great cause of hostility to Christ and His answering to they have no excuse for their. servants. 22. The sinfulness of this sin,” ver. 22. The citation is prohate. See ch. ix. 41 and note.

bably from Psalm Ixix., which treats of the If I had not come and spoken unto them, rejection and sufferings of the Messiah. i. e. discoursed to them, generally: not,

26.] This assurance carries on the acquainted them with their sin. The sin testimony concerning Christ, - which the spoken of is, not the generally sinful state world should see and hear, and yet reject of the world,- nor the sin of unbelief in and hate Him,-even to the end of time, Christ, which they of course could not by means of the Spirit of Truth : so that have committed, had He never come : but on the one hand this seeing and hating the sin of hatred to Him and His, which must not be expected to cease as long as might have been excused otherwise, but the Spirit bears this witness, -and on the now that He had come and discoursed other, He, the Spirit of Truth, will never with them, had no excuse, since He bad cease to overcome the bating world by this plainly shewn them the proofs of His mis. His testimony. the Comforter (Para. sion from the Father. Thus He shews clete) 7 See ch. xiv. 16 and note. that they embraced the side of evil of their whom I will send] Stier dwells on the own accord, and had no pretext of self. accurate division of the clauses here, the justification. 23.] See ch. xiy. 9. Comforter whom I will send,”—but “the Human regards, whether of love or of Spirit of Truth which proceedeth from hatred, towards Him who is the only the Father.” The first clause he regards manifestation of the Father to His crea- as spoken with reference to the mediatorial tures, are in fact directed towards the dispensation, of the Spirit in His office as Father Himself; see Ps. lxix. 9, cited in Paraclete, sent from the Father by the Rom. xv. 3. 24.) He refers to the glorified Son (or, by the Father in the

8, 21, 22:
ii. 32: iii.
15: iv. 20,

39: xiii. 31. 1 Pet. v. 1.

2 Pet. i. 16. k Luke i. 2.



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a Matt. xi. 6:

xxiv. 10:

Luke mdixime : 27 and iye also k shall bear witness, because k ye have 11.37 ? 'il been with me from the beginning. 83: v . XVI. 1 These things have I spoken unto you, that ye y Pet. 1.16. a should not be offended. 2 • They shall put you out of the 1 John i. synagogues : yea, the time cometh, that whosoever killeth

: you will think that he m doeth God service. 3 And a these beh.. 92,54: things will they do [n unto you], because they have not C Acts vill known the Father nor me. 4e0 But these things have I dCh..21. P told you, that when I the time shall come, ye may remem1 Cor. ii. 8. 1 Tim. i. 13. ch. xiii. 19: xiv. 29. k render, are witnesses.

1 render, the hour, or, an hour. m better, offereth a service to God. n omitted by most of the ancient authorities. O render, Nevertheless.

P render, spoken unto you. q read and render, their hour is come.

xii. 42.

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ix 1: xxvi. AO W

9, 10, 11. d ch. xv. 21.

Rom. x.2.


Son's name, ch. xiv. 26), and bringing in But both the one and the other are given the dispensation of the Spirit; the second, by the self-same SPIRIT ;-neither of them in strictness of theological meaning, of the inconsistent with, or superseding the other. essential nature of the Spirit Himself, that

from the beginning, as in Luke i. He proceedeth forth from the Father. 2, and in the sense of Acts i. 21 ;– from (And if from the Father, from the Son the beginning of the Lord's ministry.' also,-see ch. xvi. 15, and those passages The present tenses set forth the connexion where the Spirit is said to be His Spirit, between the being (continuing to be) wit. Rom. viii. 9; Gal. iv. 6; Phil. i. 19; 1 Pet. nesses, and the being (having been throughi. 11, also Rev. xxii. 1.) Perhaps however out) companions of the Lord in His minis. it is better to take the whole as spoken try. Thus we have in 1 John üi. 8, “the with reference to the mediatorial dispensa. devil sinneth from the beginning." tion. Then the former description is CHAP. XVI. 1-33.] The promise of the parallel with the latter, and the procession Comforter expanded in its fulness. And from the Father is the sending by the Son. herein, vv. 1-15, the conditions of His At all events, this passage, as Beza re. coming and His office. 1.] These marks, cannot be alleged either one way things, viz. ch. xv. 18–27,—not only the or the other in the controversy with the warning of the hatred of the world, but Greek church, which maintains that the the promise of the testifying Spirit (Stier). Holy Spirit proceeds from the Father

2.] On putting out of the Syna. alone, not as we (see Nicene Creed) from gogue, see eh. ix. 22; xii. 42. The the Father and the Son. 27.] The word yea introduces a yet more grievous disciples are not, as some have supposed, and decisive proof of their nature. here mentioned as witnesses separate from that he offereth a service to Goal The and working with the Holy Spirit. The verb in the original is the technical word witness is one and the same; the Spirit for offering a sacrifice. The Rabbinical will witness in and by them : the intro books say that “he who sheds the blood ductory clause, when the Comforter is of an infidel is as one offering a sacrifice.” come, belongs to the whole; see Luke See 1 Cor. iv. 13, and note. 3.) See xxiv. 48, 49, where this is strongly ex- Luke xxii. 34; ch. xv. 21; Acts iii. 17; pressed. This verse alludes to the his. and 1 Tim. i. 13. 4.] Nevertheless torical witness which the Holy Ghost in here indicates no contrast, but only breakthe ministers and eye-witnesses of the ing off the mournful details, and passing word, Luke i. 2, should enable them to back to the subject of ver. 1. If we are give,- which forms the human side of this to seek any contrast, it will be between great testimony of the Spirit of truth, and the “non-knowledgeof the world, and OF WHICH OUR INSPIRED GOSPELS ARE the “rememberingof the church. The THE SUMMARY: the Divine side being, one know not what they are doing : the His own indwelling testimony in the life other know well what they are suffering. and heart of every believer in all time.

their hour] i. e. the time of their


ch, vii. 33:

ber that I told you of them. r And these things I said ssee Matt. ix. not unto you at the beginning, because I was with you. 5 But now & I go my way to him that sent me; and none o ver. 10, 10. of you asketh me, Whither goest thou ? 6s But because I . 8: xiv. have said these things unto you, h sorrow hath filled your h ver. 22. oh. heart. 7 Nevertheless I tell you the truth, It is expedient for you that I t go away : for if I ago not away, ithe i ch. vii. 89 Comforter will not come unto you; but k if I x depart, I 5.20 will send him unto you. 8 And when he is come, he will Eph. iv. 8.



xiv. 10, 26:

k Acts ii. 83.

r render, But.

8 render, Yet. t render, depart.

u render, depart not.

X render, go. happeving. The “I” before told you anxious to know what advantages are to of them is emphatic, ‘I MYSELF :'--that be derived from it; but (ver. 6) you are it was I MYSELF who told you. A diffi. all given up to grief on account of what culty has been found in the latter part of I have said. 6.] ‘Grief has filled, the verse, because our Lord had repeatedly entirely occupied, your heart (not “your announced to them future persecutions, and hearts,but singular, as common to all, that at least as plainly as here, Matt. v. 10; see Rom. i. 21), to the exclusion of any x. 16, 21-28, and elsewhere. And hence regard of my object in leaving you.' some Commentators find ground for sup. These are the same disciples who afterposing that the chronological order of the wards, when their risen Lord had ascended to discourses has not been followed in the heaven,, without any pang at parting with three first Gospels. But there is in reality Him, returned with great joy to Jerusalem, no inconsistency, and therefore no need Luke xxiv. 52. Augustine remarks that for such a supposition. This declaration, “there is beneath this mild rebuke a tacit as here meant, was not made before, be. consolation. For while He blames them cause He was with them. Then clearly it in that they neglected enquiring whither is now made, in reference to His immediate He was going, He virtually excuses this departure. And if so, to what will these their negligence, in that it arose from their things most naturally refer? To that full being overwhelmed with sorrow.” and complete account of the world's mo. 7.] Nevertheless refers to the last clause, tives, and their own office, and their comfort --notwithstanding that no one of you under it, which He has been giving them. asks me, I Myself will tell you the real This He had never before done so plainly, state of the case. It is expedient for though occasional mention has been made you, implies that the dispensation of the even of the help of the Spirit under such Spirit is a more blessed manifestation of trials; see Matt. x. 19, 20. because I was God than was even the bodily presence of with you] While the Lord was with them the risen Saviour. Every rendering (compare Matt. ix. 15), the malice of the of this verse ought to keep the distinction world was mainly directed against Him, between the two verbs which our Lord and they were overlooked : see ch. xviii. 8. uses in speaking of His departure; which

In this past tense, I was, we have the is not accurately done in the A. V. Deanticipatory character of the discourse part and go seem to be the best words: again manifest. The Lord looks upon His the first expressing merely the leaving earthly course as ended. 5.] This is them, the second, the going up to the occasioned by the foregcing, but in fact Father. The I before depart is again begins the new subject, the condition of emphatic: that I, for my part, should the Comforter's coming and none of leave you. This saying of our Lord, you asketh me ....] They had (see ch. that the Comforter will not come, except xiii. 36; xiv. 5) asked this verbally before: He himself depart, is a convincing proof, our Lord therefore cites the question here if one more were needed, that the gift of in some other and deeper sense than they the Spirit at and since the day of Pentehad used it there. I believe the meaning cost, was and is something TOTALLY DISto be: «None of you enquires into the TINCT from any thing before that time : a NATURE of My departure, so as to appear new and loftier dispensation. 8-11.] VOL. I.


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