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MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES ON BOOK VI.

1. Through_D, any point in the base of a triangle ABC, straight lines DE, DF are drawn parallel to the sides AB, AC, and meeting the sides at E, F : shew that the triangle AEF is a mean proportional between the triangles FBD, EDC.

2. If two triangles have one angle of the one equal to one angle of the other, and a second angle of the one supplementary to a second angle of the other, then the sides about the third angles are proportional.

3. AE bisects the vertical angle of the triangle ABC and meets the base in E; shew that if circles are described about the triangles ABE, ACE, the diameters of these circles are to each other in the same ratio as the segments of the base.

4. Through a fixed point o draw a straight line so that the parts intercepted between 0 and the perpendiculars drawn to the straight line from two other fixed points may have a given ratio.

5. The angle A of a triangle ABC is bisected by AD meeting BC in D, and AX is the median bisecting BC: shew that XD has the same ratio to XB as the difference of the sides has to their sum.

6. AD and AE bisect the vertical angle of a triangle internally and externally, meeting the base in D and E; shew that if O is the middle point of BC, then OB is a mean proportional between OD and OE.

7. P and Q are fixed points ; AB and CD are fixed parallel straight lines ; any straight line is drawn from P to meet AB at M, and a straight line is drawn from Q parallel to PM meeting CD at N: shew that the ratio of PM to QN is constant, and thence shew that the straight line through M and N passes through a fixed point.

8. If C is the middle point of an arc of a circle whose chord is AB, and D is any point in the conjugate arc; shew that

AD+DB : DC :: AB : AC. 9. In the triangle ABC the side AC is double of BC. If CD, CE bisect the angle ACB internally and externally meeting AB in D and E, shew that the areas of the triangles CBD, ACD, ABC, CDE are as 1, 2, 3, 4.

10. AB, AC are two chords of a circle ; a line parallel to the tangent at A cuts AB, AC in D and E respectively : shew that the rectangle ÁB, AD is equal to the rectangle AC, AE.

11. If from any point on the hypotenuse of a right-angled triangle perpendiculars are drawn to the two sides, the rectangle contained by the segments of the hypotenuse will be equal to the sum of the rectangles contained by the segments of the sides.

12. D is a point in the side AC of the triangle ABC, and E is a point in AB. If BD, CĘ divide each other into parts in the ratio 4:1, then D, E divide CA, BA in the ratio 3 : 1.

13. If the perpendiculars from two fixed points on a straight line passing between them be in a given ratio, the straight line must pass through a third fixed point.

14. PA, PB are two tangents to a circle ; PCD any chord through P: shew that the rectangle contained by one pair of opposite sides of the quadrilateral ACBD is equal to the rectangle contained by the other pair.

15. A, B, C are any three points on a circle, and the tangent at A meets BC produced in D: shew that the diameters of the circles circumscribed about ABD, ACD are as AD to CD.

16. AB, CD are two diameters of the circle ADBC at right angles to each other, and EF is any chord ; CE, CF are drawn meeting AB produced in G and H; prove that

the rect. CE, HG=the rect. EF, CH. 17. From the vertex A of any triangle ABC draw a line meeting BC produced in D so that AD may be a mean proportional between the segments of the base.

18. Two circles touch internally at O; AB a chord of the larger circle touches the smaller in C which is cut by the lines OA, OB in the points P, Q: shew that OP: OQ :: AC : ČB.

19. AB is any chord of a circle ; AC, BC are drawn to any point C in the circumference and meet the diameter perpendicular to AB at D, E: if O is the centre, shew that the rect. OD, OE is equal to the square on the radius.

20. YD is a tangent to a circle drawn from a point Y in the diameter AB produced ; from D a perpendicular DX is drawn to the diameter ; shew that the points X, Y divide AB internally and externally in the same ratio.

21. Determine a point in the circunference of a circle, from which lines drawn to two other given points shall have a given ratio.

22. O is the centre and OA a radius of a given circle, and V is a fixed point in OA; P and Q are two points on the circumference on opposite sides of A and equidistant from it; QV is produced to meet the circle in L; shew that, whatever be the length of the arc PQ, the chord LP will always meet OA produced in a fixed point.

23. EA, EA' are diameters of two ircles touching each other externally at E; a chord AB of the former circle, when produced, touches the latter at C', while a chord A'B' of the latter touches the former at C: prove that the rectangle, contained by AB and A'B', is four times as great as that contained by BC' and B ́C.

24. If a circle be described touching externally two given circles, the straight line passing through the points of contact will interseet the line of centres of the given circles at a fixed point.

25. Two circles touch externally in C; if any point D be taken without them so that the radii AC, BC subtend equal angles at D, and DE, DF be tangents to the circles, shew that DC is a mean proportional between DE and DF.

26. If through the middle point of the base of a triangle any line be drawn intersecting one side of the triangle, the other produced, and the line drawn parallel to the base from the vertex, it will be divided harmonically.

27. If from either base angle of a triangle a line be drawn intersecting the median from the vertex, the opposite side, and the line drawn parallel to the base from the vertex, it will be divided harmonically.

28. Any straight line drawn to cut the arms of an angle and its internal and external bisectors is cut harmonically.

29. P, Q are harmonic conjugates of A and B, and C is an external point; if the angle PCQ is a right angle, shew that CP, CQ are the internal and external bisectors of the angle ACB.

30. From C, one of the base angles of a triangle, draw a straight line meeting AB in G, and a straight line through A parallel to the base in E, so that CE may be to EG in a given ratio.

31. P is a given point outside the angle formed by two given lines AB, AC; shew how to draw a straight line from P such that the parts of it intercepted between P and the lines AB, AC may have a given ratio.

32. Through a given point within a given circle, draw a straight line such that the parts of it intercepted between that point and the circumference may have a given ratio. How many solutions does the problem admit of ?

33. If a common tangent be drawn to any number of circles which touch each other internally, and from any point of this tangent as a centre a circle be described, cutting the other circles ; and if from this centre lines be drawn through the intersections of the circles, the segments of the lines within each circle shall be equal.

34. APB is a quadrant of a circle, SPT a line touching it at P; C is the centre, and PM is perpendicular to CA; prove that

the ASCT : the A ACB :: the A ACB : the ACMP.

35. ABC is a triangle inscribed in a circle, AD, AE are lines drawn to the base BC parallel to the tangents at B, C respectively; shew that AD=AE, and BD : CE :: AB2 : AC2.

36. AB is the diameter of a circle, E the middle point of the radius OB; on AE, EB as diameters circles are described ; PQL is a common tangent touching the circles at P and Q, and AB produced at L: shew that BL is equal to the radius of the smaller circle.

37. The vertical angle C of a triangle is bisected by a straight line which meets the base at D, and is produced to a point E, such that the rectangle contained by CD and CE is equal to the rectangle contained by AC and CB: shew that if the base and vertical angle be given, the position of E is invariable.

38. ABC is an isosceles triangle having the base angles at B and C each double of the vertical angle : if BE and CD bisect the base angles and meet the opposite sides in E and D, shew that DE divides the triangle into figures whose ratio is equal to that of AB to BC.

39. If AB, the diameter of a semicircle, be bisected in C, and on AC and CB circles be described, and in the space between the three circumferences a circle be inscribed, shew that its diameter will be to that of the equal circles in the ratio of 2 to 3.

40. O is the centre of a circle inscribed in a quadrilateral ABCD; a line EOF is drawn and making equal angles with AD and BC, and meeting them in E and F respectively : shew that the triangles AEO, BOF are similar, and that

AE : ED=CF : FB.

41. From the last exercise deduce the following: The inscribed circle of a triangle ABC touches AB in F; XOY is drawn through the centre making equal angles with AB and AC, and meeting them in X and Y respectively: shew that BX : XF=AY : YC.

42. Inscribe a square in a given semicircle.
43. Inscribe a square in a given segment of a circle.

44. Describe an equilateral triangle equal to a given isosceles triangle.

45. Describe a square having given the difference between a diagonal and a side.

46. Given the vertical angle, the ratio of the sides containing it, and the diameter of the circumscribing circle, construct the triangle.

47. Given the vertical angle, the line bisecting the base, and the angle the bisector makes with the base, construct the triangle.

48. In a given circle inscribe a triangle so that two sides may pass through two given points and the third side be parallel to a given straight line.

49. In a given circle inscribe a triangle so that the sides may pass through the three given points.

50. A, B, X, Y are four points in a straight line, and O is such a point in it that the rectangle OA, OY is equal to the rectangle OB, OX; if a circle is described with centre O and radius equal to a mean proportional between OA and OY, shew that at every point on this circle AB and XY will subtend equal angles.

51. O is a fixed point, and OP is any line drawn to meet a fixed straight line in P; if on OP a point Q is taken so that OQ to OP is a constant ratio, find the locus of Q.

52. O is a fixed point, and OP is any line drawn to meet the circumference of a fixed circle in P; if on OP a point Q is taken so that OQ to OP is a constant ratio, find the locus of Q.

53. If from a given point two straight lines are drawn including a given angle, and having a fixed ratio, find the locus of the extremity of one of them when the extremity of the other lies on a fixed straight line.

54. On a straight line PAB, two points A and B are marked and the line PAB is made to revolve round the fixed extremity P. C is a fixed point in the plane in which PAB revolves ; prove that if CA and CB be joined and the parallelogram CADB be completed, the locus of D will be a circle.

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