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All the early part of the season, was a time of high excitement in the Valley. The German battalion, and Major Powell's command had arrived in April. In May, one regiment came in from York county, Pa. Another regiment from New Hampshire, and a company commanded by Captain John Paul Schotts.*
On the 26th of May, the 3d Jersey regiment reached Easton, where the 1st Jersey regiment, two regiments from New Hampshire, and Col. Proctor's artillery, were already assembled. A strong detachment was sent forward to open a passage for the artillery, who cut the way from Stroudsburg, crossing the Lehigh four miles above Stoddartsville, which has ever since been known as Sullivan's road, and is still occasionally traveled. While at Easton, two soldiers of Col. Hubley's regiment were executed for marauding; and two other men were arrested, and condemned to death for endeavoring to persuade soldiers to desert; one of them was pardoned, the other who had been a lieutenant in the militia, was placed in irons to be moved with the army.
On the 18th of June the troops left Easton, and encamped at Windgap, near Heller's—19th, at Larner's, on the Pocono—20th, at Chouder's camp-21st, at Fatigue camp-22d, at Sullivan's camp, at Great Meadows, seven miles from the Valley, and on the 23d, ar. rived at Wyoming. The whole army was encamped on the river flats, below Wilkesbarre, a portion of them occupying old Fort Durkee. Here on the 1st day of July, was executed the lieutenant of militia, condemned at Easton, the first, and only instance of capital punishment, ever witnessed within the limits of Luzerne county.
Boats having been provided on the lower waters of the Susquehanna for that purpose, a large fleet arrived on the 24th, loaded with provisions and military stores. The artillery thundered, and the music in sweeter strains sounded a joyous welcome.
Not a single movement of importance had escaped the observation of the vigilant and alert Indian Council, and their British allies. The numbers and aim of the American army were perfectly comprehended, and its strength known to be too powerful, successfully to be encountered by any force in their power to combine. A system of tactics, devised with skill, and executed with intrepid boldness, was entered upon, with the hope of distracting the attention of Gene
Captain Schotts was a Prussian officer of merit, who had served in the armies of Frederick the Great. Offering his services to Congress, that boly on most respectable recommendations, immediately proffered him the commission of captain. Becoming a citizen of Wyoming, we shall have occasion to speak of him again.
ral Sullivan, dividing his army, and thwarting the great object of the campaign. During the month of July, attacks were made by strong bodies of Indians and British, on the right and left of the American army. The first attack was upon Freeland's Fort, fifteen miles from Northumberland, up the west branch of the Susquehanna. Two hundred and fifty men, of whom eighty were British troops, commanded by Captain M.Donald, the rest Indians, led by Hiokoto, a veteran brave of the Seneca tribe, appeared before the stockade, and demanded its surrender. The means of defence being wholly inadequate, and fair terms of capitulation being offered, the garrison capitulated. Gordon states, that contrary to Indian usage, the women and children, were suffered to retire into the settlements. Policy would obviously dictate some restraint on their savage ferocity, for their own women and children, it was quite probable, would soon be at the mercy of the Americans.
A party sent from Northumberland, to succor the garrison at Freeland's, were brought to action with a superior force, when two officers, Captains Hawkins and Boon, with fourteen of their men, were killed and scalped. The victorious enemy advanced towards Northumberland, with the addition of an hundred men, whom they had kept in reserve, creating in Fort Augusta, and all the neighboring settlements, the utmost alarm.*
The same week of the invasion by Hiokoto and M.Donald, Brandt, the dreaded Thayendenegea, with a party of warriors, fell upon the Minisink settlement, in Orange county, New York, killing several of the inhabitants, and making others prisoners. Ten houses, twelve barns and two mills, were consumed by fire. About a hundred and fifty militia from Goshen and the neighborhood, marched in pursuit. The wary Brandt, cunning as he was brave, saw in their hasty advance, victims to his superior prowess. The rarely failing expedient of exchanging a round or two, and then retreating as if driven back, and thus leading the too confident enemy into an ambuscade, was successfully resorted to, and it is melancholy to relate, that more than an hundred were left dead on the field. An attack followed on the Connecticut settlement on the Lackawaxen, within the town
* Some years after the war, Captain M'Donald, having business with the American government, on his way from Canada ventured, from pride or curiosity, to visit the ground of his victory, and tarried part of a night at Northumberland. Alarmed at certain movements, indicating hostility, he bired a servant to take him down the stream in a canoe, before daylight should expose him to his (as he had reason to suppose) excited enemies. His fine horse after remaining nearly a year with the inn-keeper unclaimed, was sold for his keeping.
of Westmoreland, which was broken up, several lives lost, and a number of persons taken prisoners. Brandt returned from this expedition, with trifling loss on his own part, having nearly double as many scalps and prisoners as he mustered warriors. Thus, messenger after messenger, express following express, came in to General Sullivan, from the east and southwest, from his right and his left, announcing invasion, massacre, and conflagration, all around him. Fixed in his purpose, pursuing his settled policy, he detached not a man from his main body, but gave immediate orders, that the artillery should be placed in the boats, and every preparation made for immediate departure.
Details are necessary to give the reader a just idea of the impudent boldness of these savage warriors. Three thousand men were encamped at Wyoming; yet on the 28th of July, a messenger came in haste from Shawneer a mile or two from the tents, desiring the presence of Dr. Ellmore, the Indians having shot a man, both in his side and thigh.
From some cause, left unexplained, a large number of the German battalion had become disaffected and deserted. The deserters were arrested, and twenty-nine tried by a court-martial were condemned to die. After being held some time in confinement, being penitent, they united in a petition that their lives might be spared. A board of officers, over which Gen. Poor presided, on inquiry, recommended them to mercy; and the settlement and army were gratified with the pardon of the whole, who returned cheerfully to duty, and conducted themselves, thenceforward, with unexceptionable propriety.
On the evening of the 28th, Col. Reed arrived with ninety wagons loaded with stores, and on Saturday the 31st of July, the whole camp was in commotion, in obedience to marching orders.*
The artillery being destined to proceed by water, having been placed on board, the command was confided to Col. Proctor. An hundred and twenty boats following in line, with sufficient space between to avoid accidents, must have extended nearly two miles. The army that marched by land, consisting
1st. Of the brigade of Gen. Poor, composed, besides others, of the two regiments from New Hampshire, and one from Massachusettsthe latter under the orders of Col. Dearborn.
The drums beat and the fifes played, in sprightly unison, the Rereillie.
“ Don't you hear your General say,
2d. A brigade from New Jersey, of which the first, second and third regiments, from that state, composed a part; Gen. Maxwell.
3d. The Pennsylvania brigade, commanded by Gen. Hand, which among others included the regiments of Col. Richard Butler, Col. Hubley, and Col. Hartley, and the German battalion, (or regiment, as it is sometimes termed by the ancient people and old writers.)
4th. A strong detachment from Morgan's rifle corps, in command of Major Parr, in which were engrafted for the expedition a number of expert riflemen from Wyoming.
5th. Capt. Spalding's Westmoreland Independent Company. 6th. Capt. Schott's company of Riflemen.
7th. A company of Wyoming militia, chiefly riflemen, under the command of Capt. John Franklin; the whole under the orders of Major-General Sullivan. As chief guide, the General reposed on the skill of Lieutenant John Jenkins. The whole force consisted of about thirty-five hundred men; and in taking up the line from Wilkesbarre, the following was the prescribed order of march, to be adhered to as nearly as the extremely broken country, narrow defiles, and rugged roads would permit, until Gen. Clinton should be met at Tioga Point. “The light corps,” says the journal of a brigade chaplain, “which, agreeable to general orders, were to march in three columns, were, by Gen. Hand, arranged as follows :
Eleventh Pennsylvania regiment, and Capt. Spalding's Indepen. dent Company advanced by platoons from the centre of a line formed by them, and constituted a column to proceed on the main road. The German regiment, and Capt. Schott's Independent corps from the right of said regiment formed a column, and marched on the right of the eleventh, etc., having their right flank covered by one-third of the light infantry, of the eleventh, and Schott's riflemen in Indian file. Two thirds of the light infantry of the eleventh, and Capt. Spalding's riflemen marched in Indian file on the left of the column, to cover its left flank, and answer the purpose of a third column. Each column and flanking party had proportioned to their strength respectively, a small party advanced in front. The same order to be observed, if possible, until our arrival at Tioga Point." Two thousand pack horses attended the army. Col. Zebulon Butler was left with as many men as he deemed the circumstances to require, for the protection of Wyoming.
At nine of o'clock, every thing being in readiness, the fleet left their moorings, saluting the fort as they passed, with thirteen cannon. The honour was returned in the best style by the four pounder.
The army marching up on the east side, and extending more than a mile, now shut out, by hill or wood, from the sight of the boats, and now coming near the bank, and in full view, colours waved from each squadron of the advancing fleet; colours floated on the breeze from every column of the army; the rolling drums, the ear-piercing fifes, bands of music on board and on shore, pouring forth martial and patriotic airs, filled the Valley with the concord of sweet and inspiring strains. Hill answered to hill, mountain echoed to mountain. Here was all the pomp, and pride and circumstance of glorious war. The scene presented, was, in the highest degree, grand and sublime! But hark! How changed those notes ! As the fleet approached Monockasy Island, a portion of the battle ground, the music struck a solemn dirge, in honour of the patriot dead. Then followed a moment of silence, when the whole proceeded in business order, to the accomplishment of the great object of the expedition.
31 The army encamped, the first night, on the large flat at the conAuence of the Susquehanna and Lackawanna; on the 5th at Wya. lusing; on the 9th, at Queen Esther's Plains, (Sheshequin,) and on the 11th, reached Tioga Point, having to wade the Susquehanna, deep to their armpits—their cartridge boxes borne aloft on their bay. onets. Here they encamped, being still in the town of Westmoreland. On the march, two soldiers died suddenly, and one of Col. Proctor's men was wounded. A number of cattle, and several packhorses were precipitated from narrow defiles down the mountains, and dashed to pieces on the river bank.
General James Clinton, who had wintered on the Mohawk, had advanced to the head of the Susquehanna river, at Otsego lake, and had there built two hundred batteaux. Having dammed up the outlet, he prepared an artificial fresh, on which he was wafted down an hundred miles. On the 22d of August, escorted by Gen. Poor, who had advanced to meet him with a detachment from his brigade, the arrival of Gen. Clinton was welcomed by a salvo of artillery.
In the mean time the Indians had discovered themselves on several points ; attacked some of our small parties, and taken the scalps of a serjeant and two or three men.* On the 25th of August, a captain of the New Hampshire troops was accidently killed.
At Tioga Point, a strong stockade was erected, into which all the stores, not absolutely needed, were placed. Two or three
* The journal of a New Hampshire officer, states " that Gen. Hand lost six men killed, three officers and seven men wounded in a skirmish on the 12th of August."