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your allies be your slaves, use them as such; command them to receive no other but your people. This belt preserves my words.

"We knockod the Twightwies and Chictaghicks on the head, because they had cut down the trees of peace, which were the limits of our country. They have hunted beaver on our lands. They have acted contrary to the customs of all Indians, for they left none of the beavers alive; they killed both male and female. They brought the Satanas into their country, to take part with them, after they had concerted ill designs against us. We have done less than either the English or French that have usurped the lands of so many Indian nations, and chased them from their own country This belt preserves my words.

+ Hear, Yonnondio. What I say is the voice of all the Five Nations. Hear what they answer. Open your ears to what they speak. The Senecas, Cayugas, Onondagas, Oneidas and Mohawks say, that when they buried the hatchet at Cadarackui in the presence of your predecessor, in the middle of the fort, they planted the tree of peace in the same place; to be there carefully preserved, that, in the place of a retreat for soldiers, that fort might be a rendezvous for merchants: that, in place of arms and ammunition of war, beavers and merchandize should only enter there.

Hear, Yonnondio. Take care for the future, that so great a number of soldiers as appear there, do not choke the tree of peace planted in so small a fort. It will be a great loss, if, after it had so easily taken root, you should stop its growth, and prevent its covering your country and ours with its branches. " I assure you, in the name of the Five Nations, that our warriors shall dance to the calumet of peace under its leaves; and shall remain quiet on their mats, and shall never dig up the hatchet, till their brother Yonnondio or Corlear shall either jointly or separately endeavour to attack the country which the Great Spirit has given to our ancestors. This belt preserves my words, and this other, the authority which the Five Nations have given me.”

Then addressing himself to the interpreter, he said: “ Take courage. You have spirit; speak, explain my words, forget nothing; tell all that your brethren and friends say to Yonnondio, your governor, by the mouth of Grangula, who loves you, and desires you to accept of this present of beaver, and take part with me in my feast, to which I invite you. This present of beaver is sent to Yonnondio, on the part of the Five Nations."

De la Barre was struck with surprise at the wisdom of this chief, and equal chagrin at the plain refutation of his own. He immediately returned to Montreal, and thus finished this inglorious expedition of the French against the Five Nations.

Granguda was at this time a very old man, and from this valuable speech we became acquainted with him-a very Nestor of his nation-whose powers of mind would not suffer in comparison with those of a Roman or a more modern senator. He treated the French with great civility, and feasted them with the best his country would afford, on their departure. -Drake.


As a matter of historical interest, and because the subject may still be regarded as pending before Congress, this memorial is published, not without the hope that the National Legislature may yet be persuaded to take the case under their favourable consideration.

Memorial to Congress in behalf of Wyoming. At a meeting held by Public Notice at the house of Wm. H. Alexander, in

Wilkesbarre, November 7th, 1837,-of a number of sufferers at Wyoming during the Revolutionary War, their descendants and others:

Gen. WILLIAM ROSS was called to the Chair, and
ANDERSON DANA appointed Secretary.

CHESTER BUTLER, Esq., from the Committee appointed at a former meeting for that purpose, reported a memorial to Congress which was adopted; and it was ordered that the same be signed by the Chairman and Secretary, in behalf of the Meeting, and be forwarded for presentation. To the Honourable, the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States, in

Congress assembled: By order of a public meeting, held at Wilkesbarre, Luzerne county, Pennsylvania, the subscribers present you the following memorial in behalf of the Wyoming sufferers, during the Revolutionary war, their heirs, widows, and legal representatives.

The circumstances of the invasion of the Wyoming settlement by the British and Indians; the battle and massacre; the entire expulsion of the inhabitants; the conflagration of their dwellings, and the devastation of their fields-are presumed to be familiar to all of you. In the annals of that fearful but glorious conflict, not a page recounts a livelier devotion to the cause of liberty, or depicts a bloodier field, deeper woes, or more extensive losses of property. Every historian who has written an account of the Revolutionary war, has told the story of her sufferings. All America and Europe were filled, at the time, with the melancholy details. It is not our purpose to awaken your sympathies; but so much we thought proper to say by way of introduction. We would address facts to your reason, and arguments to your understanding; looking to your deliberate judgments for a favourable response to our petition.

The Wyoming settlements were made under the authority of Connecticut. A town called Westmoreland was erected here, attached to the county of Litchfield, near three hundred miles distant, the laws of Connecticut prevailed. Civil and military officers derived their commissions from that state. Representatives were sent from here to her legislature; and the troops raised in Westmoreland were part of the Connecticut line on the Continental establishment. Several towns of Connecticut were burnt by the enemy: New London, Danbury, Westmoreland, Fairfield, Groton and others, were among the number. Connecticut has made all those towns, except one, full and ample remuneration for their losses. Westmoreland, or Wyoming, alone received nothing. Five hundred thousand acres of land, in the Western Reserve, were granted in 1792 to those towns, valued at 6s. 8d., a French crown, per acre-amounting to between five and six hundred thousand dollars. This was a beneficent act on the part of Connecticut, and will redound in all future time to her honour. Was not the grant also just as well as beneficent! Did not the recipients deserve—were they not entitled to this grant? Was not their claim founded in the principles of eternal equity and everlasting justice? Who ever heard a doubt expressed of the righteousness of their claim? If, then, it was just and equitable that New London, Danbury, Fairfield and those other towns should be indemnified, is it not clear as demonstration, that Westmoreland, or Wyoming-where a heavier sacrifice of life, far deeper personal sufferings, and more extensive losses were sustained, was also entitled to remuneration?

We anticipate here, that honourable members may say—"Your claim is doubt. less just.–Standing on its own merits of services, sufferings and losses, it is a strong claim; and when it is considered relatively to those other towns of Connecticut, provided for, it appears of unquestionable validity. But when your parent state was making so ample provision for others similarly situated, why did you not then apply to her for aid? While we admit the claim just, we cannot see as yet, how the general government can be held liable to make you compensation.” To this we would reply with all truth and simplicity:

The reason why no provision was made for Westmoreland is simple and easily told.—About the conclusion of the war, by the decree of Trenton, which settled the long existing controversy in respect to these lands, the jurisdiction over

Westmoreland ceased in Connecticut, and was transferred to Pennsylvania. It was not until about ten years after this event that Connecticut so far recovered her resources as to be able to make remuneration to those suffering towns which she indemnified. Being no longer a portion of the state, no provision was made for us, as there doubtless would have been, had Westmoreland continued a component part of Connecticut.

Pennsylvania, with a liberality and public spirit most honourable to her patriotism and justice, has granted ample rewards to officers and soldiers of her line, and to others, whose sufferings and merits in the cause commended them to her consideration. Not having been harmoniously a part of Penneylvania, but maintaining an attitude of opposition, if not of hostility, during, and indeed for some time after the war, it could not be asked or expected that she would make good the losses, or grant rewards for the sufferings of the Wyoming people. So that, to use a common but expressive phrase, “ between two stools we came to the ground.” Moreover, the disasters of the war utterly prostrated the people of Wyoming. Most of our natural guardians and protectors were slain, and amongst them many of our chief men; widows and orphans, aged or very young men, destitute and poor, constituted our chief population. The unhappy dispute, since, so satisfactorily adjusted by our present parent and protector, noble and liberal Pennsylvania, still continued, as you doubtless know, to perplex and impoverish us. To obtain this day our daily bread," occupied the thoughts and exertions of us all, and no application was made to Connecticut to share in the bounty she was liberally dispensing. But we ask your patience while we show, as we are sure we can, that to the general government we have a right fairly to look for aid. The services performed, the sufferings endured, and the losses sustained were all in the public service, for the general cause. They all tended to the great end of accomplishing national independence, which has brought prosperity so unbounded to our beloved country. All the debts founded on contract having been paid, Congress have recently, with just and liberal hand, been meting out to claimants, not by contract, but in equity, liberal rewards for services performed, sufferings endured, or losses sustained. In those three particulars, no claim can be stronger than that of Wyoming.

Moreover, there is a strong point which we mean to indicate, but not to argue, which statesmen, familiar with the springs of events, will judge whether it has truth for its foundation. About the close of the war, when the issue was certain, and a great empire of independent and powerful sovereignties was taking rank among the nations, it was deemed of the utmost importance that all dispute about territory and jurisdiction should be put to rest. Powerful states were to be conciliated by the favourable adjustment of their claims. Indemnifications were to be allowed to others. Little would those patriots have deserved the award we all yield their wisdom and sagacity, if they had not adopted proper measures to harmonize conflicting interests, and to consolidate the union. How far the national policy we speak of influenced the various measures and final decision which confirmed to Pennsylvania the whole extent of her chartered limits, and granted to Connecticut an indemnification in Ohio, we need not here demonstrate. Certainly that policy was, in a national point of view, wise-a benefit to Connecticut-a blessing to Pennsylvania; and if

, for the common good, it excluded Westmoreland from a participation with other towns indemnified, is it not right that the common purse should afford her such remuneration as may be just?

Again—The old continental Congress passed a resolution, Oct. 10, 1780, in which it was declared, in reference to the unappropriated lands which may be ceded to the United States, “ that the necessary and reasonable expenses which any particular state shall have incurred since the commencement of the present war, in subduing the British posts, or in maintaining forts and garrisons within and for the defence of, or in acquiring any part of the territory that may be ceded or relinquished to the United States, shall be reimbursed.Although the words of the resolution do not reach us, we do respectfully suggest, that its spirit makes strongly in favour of the Wyoming claim.

During the revolutionary war, Wyoming stood an extreme frontier-an outpost on the borders of the settlements of the savage enemy. To Sunbury, the nearest inhabited place down the Susquehanna, it was sixty miles; through the Great

Swamp it was sixty miles; a pathless wilderness to Bethlehem or Easton. The warlike and bloody Mohawks, Senecas, and others of the Six Nations, occupied all the upper branches of the Susquehanna, and were within a few hours sail of our settlements, which were exposed to constant attacks. Our pathways were ambushed, and midnight gleamed with constant conflagration of our dwellings. Thus exposed we stood as a shield to all the inhabitants below Us. In this situation every man might justly be regarded as on duty continually. Every man might have been considered as enlisted for and during the whole war. There was no peace, no security at Wyoming. The husbandman took his hoe in one hand and his rifle in the other, to his cornfield. Several forts were built and garrisons steadily maintained. Such was the case with Jenkins's Fort, Forty Fort, and the fort of Wilkesbarre. This was done by the people, by the militia, by common consent and common exertion.* Three hundred miles from Connecticut, it was vain to ask assistance from her, exerting every nerve as she was for the common defence and for the protection of her extensive and exposed sea board. If states which ceded lands were entitled to be reimbursed for keeping up forts, we submit whether a people situated like those of Wyoming, may not properly ask for reimbursement--since not only themselves, but a wide extent of country below, slept in comparative security through their position and exertions ?

But Congress early saw and felt for the extremely exposed situation of Wyoming. On the 230 August, 1776, resolutions were entered into, of which one is in the following words: “That two companies on the continental establishment be raised in the town of Westmoreland, and stationed in proper places for the defence of said town and parts adjacent, till further orders of Congress.” The Monday fol. lowing, August 26, "Congress proceeded to the election of sundry officers, when Robert Durkee and Samuel Ransom were chosen captains of the two companies ordered to be raised in Westmoreland ; James Wells and Perrin Ross first Lieutenants; Heman Swift and Matthias Hollenback ensigns of said companies." Thus the general government-the continental Congress, took the special defence of Wyoming into their own hands. They were satisfied, it seems that the militia, however well organized, were not sufficient for its defence. A regular force was deemed necessary, and orders were issued for raising that force for the special defence of that town and parts adjacent." By another clause it was provided that the men thus raised should be liable to serve in any part of the United States. This provision, notwithstanding they were raised expressly for the defence of the inhabitants, &c., was perfectly proper; for if the savages on the upper waters of the Susquehanna should be driven off by a force from Albany or elsewhere, so that the source of impending danger should be removed, there was nothing more proper than that those companies, being no longer needed for the defence of the inhabitants, should be marched elsewhere at the discretion of Congress. Imperious necessity, however, almost immediately induced Congress, without the implied contingency of the proximate enemy being removed, to call their services in another quarter. On the 25th October, 1776, the battle of White Plains was fought, and Washington retreated. November 16, Fort Washington surrendered to the enemy, who immediately pushed his victorious troops in pursuit of the American army, and on the 2d December his excellency retired through Princeton to Trenton, Lord Cornwallis pushing upon his rear. «The army,"


Marshall," at no time during the retreat, exceeded four thousand men, and on reach

* Extract from the Westmoreland records.

At a town-meeting legally warned and held in Westmoreland, Wilkesbarre district, August ye 24th, 1776, Col. Butler was chosen moderator for ye work of ye day.

Voted, It is the opinion of this meeting that it now becomes necessary for ye inhabitants of this town to erect suitable fort or forts, as a defence against our common enemy.

August 28th, 1776, this meeting is opened and held by adjournment. Voted, Ye three field officers of ye regiment of this town be appointed as a committee to view the most suitable places for building forts for ye defence of said town, and determine on some particular spot or place or places in each district for the purpose, and mark out the same.

Voted, That the above said committee do recommend it to the people in each part as shall be set off by them to belong to any fort, to proceed forth with in building said fort, &c. without either fee or reward from ye said town.

ing the Delaware was reduced to less than three thousand, of whom not quite one third were militia of New Jersey.” “The commander-in-chief found himself at the head of this small band of soldiers, dispirited by their losses and fatigues, retreating almost naked and barefoot in the cold of November and December, before a numerous, well appointed and victorious army."

On the 12th December, Congress passed a resolution setting forth that, "whereas the movements of the enemy have rendered this city (Philadelphia) the seat of war, &c., they resolved to adjourn to meet at Baltimore. The SAME DAY they adopted the following resolution : "Resolved, that the two companies raised in Westmoreland be ordered to join Gen. Washington WITH ALL POSSIBLE EXPEDITION."

Thus within less than four months from the first order to raise these companies, and probably within less than ninety days from their enlistment and organization, the extreme and pressing exigencies of the general cause required that they should be withdrawn from the country they were raised to defend, to aid Washington in resisting the alarming advances of the enemy.

The consequences which followed it required but little sagacity to foresee. Stimulated to revenge by the aid sent from Wyoming to Washington; incited by the consequent weakness of the settlements to attack them; and urged by policy to compel the withdrawal from the commander-in-chief of part of his men, by forcing them home to defend their own firesides-the enemy was not long in planning their attack.

The British having gained possession of Philadelphia, inevitable necessity did not allow his excellency to dispense with the services of the Westmoreland companies, but the reiterated rumours of preparations to attack Wyoming, again en gaged 'the attention of Congress. They saw, felt, and acknowledged its exposed situation; but while the heart was assailed, and the whole force of the country was concentrated for its protection, little aid but encouraging words, could be afforded to the threatened extremities. In March, 1778, about ninety days before the invasion, Congress resolved " That one full company of foot be raised in the town of Westmoreland on the east branch of the Susquehanna for the defence of said town and the settlements on the frontiers, and in the neighbourhood thereof, against the Indians and other enemies of the state; the said companies to be enlisted for one year from the time of their enlistment, unless sooner discharged by Congress.” That "the company find their own arms, accoutrements, clothes and. blankets, and provision was made that these should be paid for.

Thus a third company was raised in this infant and small settlement, having to clothe and arm themselves, if they could, and an exhausted treasury promised to repay the charge. This company was in the battle, and almost literally annihilated.

On the first of July, 1778, Col. John Butler, of the British army, with 400 men regulars and tories, and with 500 Indian warriors, entered the valley of Wyoming. Rumours of the meditated eruption had preceded them, and pressing solicitations had been sent to head-quarters. A number of the officers of the two companies had returned on furlough. The militia were mustered. Old men and boys took their muskets. Retirement or flight was impossible. There seemed no security but in victory. Unequal as was the conflict, and hopeless in the eye of prudence; the young athletic men fit to bear arms, and raised for their special defence, being absent with the main army; yet the inhabitants, looking to their dependent wives and little ones, took counsel of their courage, and resolved to give the enemy battle. On the third of July, about 400 men under the command of Col. Zebulon Butler, marched out to meet the British and their savage allies; being more than double their numbers. On the right wing the conflict was sharply contested for some time, and the enemy gave way. On the left, out flanked by the savages, the men fought, and fell rapidly, until an order was given to fall back and present a longer front to the enemy; a manæuvre which could not be executed under the destructive fire of the Indian rifles. Confusion, ensued—a disastrous retreat followed, and a most cruel massacre consummated the bloody tragedy. We cannot dwell on the battle and the consequent horrors. It would be useless if we could. Brother fell by the side of brother; father and son perished on the same field. More than half our little army were slain; many of the rest were wounded: and the

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