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Exc. 2. Rumpo, rupi, ruptum, to break. So ab-, cor-, di-, e-, inter-, intro-, ir., ob-, per-, præ-, pro-rumpo.

There are only two simple verbs ending in QUO, viz.
Coquo, coxi, coctum, to boil. So con-, de-, dis-, ex-, in-, per-, re-coquo.

Linquo, liqui, — to leave. The compounds have lictum; as, relinquo, reliqui, relictum, to forsake. So de-, and dērē-linquo.

RO. 1. Quæro, makes quæsivi, quæsitum, to seek. So ac-, an-, con-, dis-, ex-, in-, pers, re-quiro, -quisivi, -quisitum.

Těro, trivi, tritum, to wear, to bruise. So at-, con-, de-, dis-, ex-, in-, ob, per-, pro-, sub-těro

Verro, verri, versum, to sweep, brush, or make clean. So ā-, con-, de-, ēm, pre-, re-verro.

ūro, ussi, ustum, to burn. So ăd-, amb-, comb-, de-, ex-, in-, pěr., sub-uro. Gěro, gessi, gestum, to carry. So ag., con-, di-, in-, pro-, re-, sug-gěro.

2. Curro, cŭcurri, cursum, to run. So ac-, con-, de-, dis-, ex-, in, oc-, per-, præ-, pró-curro, which sometimes doubles the first syllable, and sometimes not; as, accurri, or accůcurri, &c. Circum-, rè-, suc-, trans-curro, hardly ever redouble the first syllable.

3. Sěro, sēvi, sătum, to sow. The compounds which signify planting or sowing, have sēvi, situm ; as, consěro, consēvi, consitum, to plant together. So as-, circum-, dēc, dis-, in-, inter-, ob-, pro-, re-, sub-, tran-sěro.

Sěro, - to knit, had anciently sérui, sertum, which its compounds still retain; as, asséro, asserui, assertum, to claim. So con-, circum-, de, dis-, ēdis-, ex-, in-, inter-sero. 4. Fŭro, to be mad, wants both preterite and supine.

SO has sīvi, situm ; as, Årcesso, arcessivi, arcessitum, to call, or send for. So căpesso, to take; fácesso, to do, to go away; lăcesso, to provoke. Exc. 1. Viso, visi, to go to see, to visit. So in-, -viso. Incesso, incessi,

to attack, to seize. Exc. 2. Depso, depsui, depstum, to knead. So con-, per-depso. Pinso, pinsui or pinsi, pinsum, pistum or pinsitum, to bake.

TO. 1. Flecto, has flexi, flectum, to bow. So circum-, de-, in-, re-, retro-flecto. Plecto, plexi and plexui, plexum, to plait. So implecto.

Necto, nexi and nexui, nexum, to tie, or knit. So ad-, vel an-, con-, circum-, in-, sub-necto.

Pecto, pexi and pexui, pexum, to dress, or comb. So de-, ex-, re-pecto.
2. Měto, messui, messum, to reap, mow, or cut down. So de-, e-, præ-měto.

3. Pěto, pětivi, pětītum, to seek, to pursue. So ap-, com-, ex-, im-, op, re-, sup-pěto.

Mitto, misi, missum, to send. So a-, ad-, com-, circum-, de-, di-, ē-, im-, inter-, intro-, o-, per, pre, præter, pro-, re-, sub-, supers, trans-mitto.

Verto, verti, versum, to turn. So a-, ad-, animad-, ante-, circum-, con-, de-, di-, en-, in-, inter-, ob-, per-, præ-, præter-, re-, sub-, trans-verto. Sterto, stertui,

So de-sterto. 4. "Sisto, an active verb, to stop, has stiti, stătum ; but sisto, a neuter verb, to stand still, has stěti, stătum, like sto. The compounds have stīti, and stitum ; as, assisto, astīti, astitum, to stand by. So ab-, circum-, con-, de-, exc-, in-, inter-, ob-, per-, re-, sub-sisto. But the compounds are seldom used in the supine.

VO, XO. There are three verbs in yo, which are thus conjugated : 1. Vivo, vixi, victum, to live. So ad-, con-, per, pro-, re-, super-vīvo.

to snore. >

Solvo, solvi, solūtum, to loose. So absolvo, to acquit, dis-, ex-, per-, --solvo.

Volvo, volvi, võlutum, to roll. So ad-, circum-, con-, de-, e, in-, ob-, per, pro-, ré-, sub-volvo.

2. Texo, to weave, (the only verb of this conjugation ending in xo,) has texui, textum. So at-, circum-, con-, de-, in-, inter-, ob-, per-, præ-, pro-, re-, sub-texo.

Fourth Conjugation. Verbs of the fourth conjugation make the preterite in ivi, and the supine in itum ; as, Münio, mūnīvi, mūnitum, to fortify. Exc. 1. Singultio, singultivi, singultum, to sob. Sēpělio, sepělivi, sepultum, to bury.

Věnio, vēni, ventum, to come. So ad-, antes, circum-, con-, contra-, de-, e-, in-, inter-, intro-, ob-, per-, post-, præ-, sub-, super-věnio.

Vēneo, věnii, to be sold.

Salio, sălui, and sălii, saltum, to leap. The compounds have commonly sílui, sometimes silii, or silīvi and sultum ; as, transilio, transilui, transilii and transilivi, transultum, to leap over. So ab-, as, circum-, con-, de-, dis-, ex-, in-, re-, sub-, super-silio.

2. Amicio, has amăcui, amictum, seldom amixi, to cover or clothe. Vincio, vinxi, vinctum, to tie. So circum-, de-, e-, re-vincio. Sancio, sanxi, sanctum ; and sancīvi, sancītum, to establish or ratify. Exc. 3. Cambio, campsi, campsum, to change money. Sēpio, sepsi, septum, to hedge or enclose. So circum-, dis-, inter-, ob-, pre-sēpio.

Haurio, hausi, haustum, rarely hausum, to draw out, to empty, to drink. So de-, ex-haurio.

Sentio, sensi, sensum, to feel, to perceive, to think. So as-, con-, dis-, per-, præ-, sub-sentio.

Raucio, rausi, rausum, to be hoarse.
Exc. 4. Sarcio, sarsi, sartum, to mend or repair. So ex-, re-sarcio.

Farcio, farsi, fartum, to cram. So con-fercio ; ef-fercio, or ef-farcio; in-fercio, or in-farcio; re-fercio.

Fulcio, fulsi, fultum, to prop or uphold. So con-, ef-, in-, per-, suf-fulcio.

Exc. 5. The compounds of părio have pěrui, pertum; as, ăpěrio, apěrui, ăpertum, to open. So opěrio, to shut, to cover. But compěrio has compēri, compertum, to know a thing for certain. Rěpěrio, repěri, repertum, to find.

Exc. 6. The following verbs want the supine. Cæcutio, cæcutīvi, to be dim-sighted. Gestio, gestivi, to show one's joy by the gesture of his body. Glócio, glócivi, to cluck or cackle as a hen. Dementio, dementivi, to be mad. Ineptio, ineptivi, to play the fool. Prosilio, prosīlui, to leap forth. Fěrocio, ferocivi, to be fierce.

Ferio, to strike, wants both preterite and supine. So rěfério, to strike again.

DEPONENT AND COMMON VERBS.

A deponent verb is that which, under a passive form, has an active or neuter signification; as, Loquor, I speak; morior, I die.

A common verb, under a passive form, has either an active or passive signification ; as, Criminor, I accuse, or I am accused.

Most deponent verbs of old, were the same with common verbs. They are called Deponent, because they have laid aside the passive sense.

Deponent and common verbs form the participle perfect in the same manner as if they had the active voice; thus, Lætor, lætātus, lætāri, to rejoice; věreor, veržtus, věrēri, to fear; fangor, functus, fungi, to discharge an office; potior, potītus, potiri, to enjoy, to be master of.

The learner should be taught to go through all the parts of deponent and common verbs, by proper examples in the several conjugations; thus, lætor, of the first conjugation, like amor

Indicative Mode.
Present. Lætor, I rejoice; lætāris, vel -åre, thou rejoicest, &c.
Imperfect. Lætabar, I rejoiced, or did rejoice; lætabaris, &c.

Perfect. Lætatus sum vel fui,* I have rejoiced, &c.
Plu-perf. Lætatus eram vel fueram, I had rejoiced, &c.
Future. Lætabor, I shall or will rejoice; lætaběris, or -aběre, &c.
Lætaturus sum, I am about to rejoice, or I am to rejoice, &c

Subjunctive Mode.
Present. Læter, may rejoice; lætēris, or -ēre, &c.
Imperfect. Lætarer, I might rejoice; lætārēris, or -rēre, &c.
Perfect. Lætatus sim vel fuerim, I may have rejoiced, &c.
Plų-perf. Lætatus essem vel fuissem, I might have rejoiced, &c.
Future. Lætatus fuero, I shall have rejoiced, &c.

Imperative.
Present. Letare vel -ůlor, rejoice thou: lætator, let him rejoice, &c.

Infinitive.
Present. Lætari, to rejoice.
Pcrfect. Lætatus esse vel fuisse, to have rejoiced.
Future. Lætaturus esse, to be about to rejoice.
Lætaturus fuisse, to bave been about to rejoice.

Participles.
Present. Lætans, rejoicing.
Perfect. Lætatus, having rejoiced.
Future. Lætaturus, about to rejoice.

Lætandus, to be rejoiced at.

In like manner conjugate in the First Conjugation, Abominor, to abhor.

Grātúlor, to rejoice, to wish one Palpor, or -o, to stroke or soothe. Adulor, to flatter.

joy.

Pătrocinor, to patronize. Æmŭlor, to vie with, to envy. Grăvor, to grudge.

Percontor, to inquire. Altercor, to dispute, to make a Hărišlor, to conjecture. Pěregrinor, to go abroad. repartee.

Helluor, to guttle or gormandise, Périclítor, to be in danger. Apricor, to bask in the sun.

to waste.

Pigněror, to pledge.
Arbritror, to think.
Hortor, to encourage.

Piscor, to fish.
Aspernor, lo despise.

Hallucinor, to speak at random, Popúlor, and -o, to lay waste. Aversor, to dislike.

to err.

Prædor, to plunder. Auctionor, to sell by auction. Imāginor, to conceive.

Prælior, to fight. Aucupor, and -o, to hunt after. Îmnitor, to imitate.

Præstólor, to wait for. Augăror, and -o, to forebode, or Indignor, to disdain.

Prævārýcor, to go crooked, to presage by augury. Inficior, to deny.

shuffle or prevaricate, Auspicor, to take an omen, to Insector, to pursue, to inveigh Précor, to pray. begin.

against.

Deprěcor, to entreat, to pray Auxilior, lo assist. Insidior, to lie in wait.

against.
Bacchor, to rage, to revel, to riot. Interprětor, to explain. Procor, to ask, to woo.
Calumnior, to accuse falsely. Jăcŭlor, to dart.

Rěcordor, to remember.
Căvillor, to scoff.
Jocor, to jest.

Refrågor, to be against.
Cauponor, to huckster, to retail. Lāmentor, to bewail.

Rimor, to search. Causor, lo plead in 'excuse, lo Lucror, to gain.

Rixor, to scold or brawl. blame. Luctor, to wrestlé.

Rusticor, to dwell in the counCircŭlor, to meet in companies, Māchinor, to contrive.

try. to stroll, to talk. Mědicor, to cure.

Scrutor, to search.
Conessor, to revel.

Měditor, to muse, or ponder Sólor, to comfort.
Comitor, to accompany.
Mercor, to purchase.

Spătior, to walk abroad.
Commentor, to meditate on, or Mětor, to measure.

Spěcŭlor, to view, to spy. write what one is to say. Minor, to threaten.

Stipůlor, to stipulate or agree.
Concionor, to harangue.
Miror, to wonder.

Stõmăchor, to be angry.
Conflictor, to struggle.
Misěror; to pity.

Suavior, to kiss.
Conor, to endeavour.
Moděror, to rule.

Suffrāgor, to vote for one, 10 Conspicor, to spy, to see. Modŭlor, to play a tune.

favour.
Contemplor, to view.
Mörigěror, to humour.

Suspicor, to suspect.
Convivor, to feast.
Möror, to delay.

Tergiversor, to boggle, to put off. Cornicor, to chatter like a crow. Mūněror, to present.

Testor, to witness.
Criminor, to blame.
Mūtuor, to borrow.

Tūtur, to defend.
Cunctor, to delay.
Nūgor, to trifle.

Vădor, to give bail, to force to Dētestor, to abhor.

Obtestor, to beseech.
Dóminor, to rule.
Odoror, to smell.

Vagor, to wander.
Epůlor, to feast.
Opěror, to work.

Vātěcinor, to prophesy.
Exsecror, to curse.
Õpinor, to think.

Vēlítor, to skirmish.
Fămŭlor, to serve.
õpitŭlor, to help.

Věněror, to worship.
Férior, to keep holy-day. Oscălor, to kiss.

Vēnor, to hunt.
Frustror, to disappoint.
Otior, to be at leisure.

Versor, to be employed.
Fūror, to steal.

Pālor, to stroll or straggle. Vöciferor, to brawl. Glorior, to boast.

* Fui, fueram, &c. are seldom joined to the participles of deponent verbs; and not so often to those of passive verbs. as, sum, eram, &c.

give bail.

In the Second Conjugation, Mereor, měritus, to deserve.

Pollicěor, pollicitus, to promise. Tueor, tuitus, or tutus, to defend.

Liceor, licitus, to bid at an auction.

In the Third Conjugation, Amplector, amplexus ; and complector, complexuş, to embrace. Revertor, reversus, to return.

In the Fourth Conjugation, Blandior, to soothe, to flatter.

Partion, to divide. Mentior, to lie.

Sortior, to draw or cast lots.
Molior, to attempt something difficult.

Largior, to give liberally.
Participle Perfect, Blandītus, mentītus, molītus, partītus, sortītus, largātus.

There are no exceptions in the First Conjugation.

EXCEPTIONS IN THE SECOND CONJUGATION.

Reor, rătus, to think.
Miséreor, misertus, or not contracted, miseritus, to pity.

Făteor, fassus, to confess. The compounds of făteor have fessus ; as, profiteor, professus, to profess. So confiteor, to confess, to own or acknowledge.

EXCEPTIONS IN THE THIRD CONJUGATION. Labor, lapsus, to slide. So al-, col-, de-, di-, e-, il-, inter-, per, præter-, pro-, ro-, sub-, subter-, super-, trans-lābor.

Ulciscor, ultus, to revenge.
Utor, usus, to use. So ab-, de-utor.

Loquor, lóquūtus, or locütus, to speak. So al-, col-, circum-, e-, inter-, ob-, præ-, pro-loquor.

Sěquor, sèquutus, or sécutus, to follow. So as-, con-, ex-, in-, ob-, per-, pro-, re-, sub-séquor.

Quěror, questus, to complain. So con-, inter-, præ-quěror.

Nitor, nīsus, or nixus, to endeavour, to lean upon. So ad-, vel ano, con-, C-, in-, ob-, re-, sub-nītor : but the compounds have oftener nixus.

Păciscor, pactus, to bargain. So de-peciscor.

Grădior, gressus, to go. So ago, ante-, circum-, con-, de-, di-, e-, in-, intro-, præ-, præter, pro-, re-, retro-, sug-, super, trans-gredior.

Proficiscor, profectus, to go a journey.
Nanciscor, nactus, to get.
Patior, passus, to suffer. So per-pětior.
Apiscor, aptus, to get. So adipiscor, adeptus; and indipiscor, indeptus.
Comminiscor, commentus, to devise or invent.
Fruor, fruitus or fructus, to enjoy. So per fruor.
Oblīviscor, oblitus, to forget.
Expergiscor, experrectus, to awake.
Morior, mortuus, to die. So com-, de-, e-, im-, inter-, præ-mărior.
Nascor, nātus, to be born. So ad-, circum-, de-, e-, in-, inter-, re-, sub-nascor.
Orior, ortus, orīri, to rise. So ab-, ad-, co-, ex-, ob-, sub-órior.

The three last form the future participle in žtūrus ; thus, mörítūrus, nascătūrus, oriturus.

EXCEPTIONS IN THE FOURTH CONJUGATION.
Métior, mensus, to measure. So ad-, com-, di-, e-, pro-,

re-mētior.
Ordior, orsus, to begin. So ex-, red-ordior.
Expěrior, expertus, to try.
Opperior, oppertus, to wait or tarry for one.

The following verbs want the participle perfect :
Vescor, vesci, to feed.

Ringor, ringi, to grin like a dog. Liquor, liqui, to melt or be dissolved.

Prævertor, præverti, to get before, to outrun. Mědeor, mederi, to heal.

Diffiteor, Diffiteri, to deny. Rěmīnscor, reminisci, to remember.

Divertor, diverti, to turn aside, to take lodging. Irascor, irasci, to be angry,

Défetiscor, defetisci, to be weary or faint. The verbs which do not fall under any of the foregoing rules are called Irregular.

H

mus,

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-uit ;

-uere.

-sit;

The irregular verbs are commonly reckoned eight: sum, eo, queo, volo, nolo, mālo, fēro, and fio, with their compounds.

But properly there are only six : nolo and malo being compounds of volo.

SUM has already been conjugated. After the same manner are formed its compounds, ad-, ab-, de., inter-, præ-, ob-, sub-, super-sum, and in-sum, which wants the preterite ; thus, adsum, adfui, adesse, &c.

PROSUM, to do good, has a d where sum begins with e; as,
Ind. Pr. Pró-sum,

prod-es,
prod-est;

pro-sùmus, &c.
Im. Prod-ěram, prod-eras, prod-erat ; prod-eramas, &c.
Sub. Im. Prod-essem, prod-esses, prod-esset ; prod-esse-g

&c.
Imperat. Prod-esto, prod-este.

Infinit. Pres. Prod-esse.
In the other parts it is like šum: Pro-sim, -sis, &c. Pro-fui, fueram, &c.
POSSUM is compounded of potis, able, and sum; and is thus conjugated :

Possum, poţui, posse, To be alle.

Indicative Mode.
Pr. Possuin, potcs,

potest; possumus, potestis, possunt.
Im. Pot-ěram, -eras,

-erat ;
-eramus,

-erant.
-eratis,

-uerunt. Per. Pot-ui, -uisti,

-uimus,

-uistis,
Plu. Pot-uěram, -ueras,

-uerat;
-ueramus,

-uerant.

-ueratis,
Fut. Pot-ěro, -eris,

-erit;
-erimus,

-erunt.

-eritis, Subjunctive Mode.

-sis, Pr. Pos-sim,

-simus, -sitis,

-sint.
Im. Pos-sem, -ses,

-set ;
-sēmus,

-sent.

-sētis,
Per. Pot-uěrim, -ueris,

-uerit;
-uerimus,

-ueritis, -uerint.
Plu. Pot-uissem, -uisses,

-uisset;

-uissemus, -uissetis, -uissent. Fut. Pot-uěro, -ueris,

•uerit;

-uerimus, -ueritis, -uerint.
Infinitive.
Pres. Posse. Per. Potuisse. The rest wanting.

EO, ivi, itum, īre, To go.

Indicative Mode.
Pr. Eo,

is,
it ;
imus,

eunt.

ītis,
Im. Ibam,

ibas,
ibat;
jbamus, ibatis,

ibant.
Per. Ivi,
ivisti,

ivimus,
ivistis,

iverunt, ivere Plu. Iveram, iveras,

iveramus, iveratis, iverant.
Fut. Ibo,
ibis,
ibimus, ibitis,

ibunt.
Subjunctive Mode.
Pr. Eam,
eas,
eamus,

eant.

eatis,
Im. Irem,

ires,
iret ;
iremus,
iretis,

irent.
Per. Iverim, iveris,

iverit;

iverimus, iveritis, iveript. Plu. Ivissem, ivisses, ivisset, ivissemus, ivissetis, ivissent. Fut. Ivero,

iveris,

iverit; iverimus, iveritis, iverint. Imperative.

Infinitive.

ite,
SI,

Pres. Ire.
Pres.

eunto.

Perf. Ivisse,
Fut. Esse iturus, -a, -um,

Fuisse iturus.
Participles.

Gerunds.

Supines.
Pr. lens, Gen, euntis.

Eundum.

1. Itum. Fut. Iturus,

Eundi. -a, -um.

2. Itu.

Eundo, &c. The compounds of Eo are conjugated after the same manner; ăd-, áb-, ex-, ob-, rěd-, sub-, pěr., cò-, žn-, præ-, ante-, prod-eo : only in the perfect, and the tenses formed from it, they are usually contracted, thus, adeo, adii, seldom adivi, aditum, adire, to go to; perfect, adii, adiisti, or adisti, &c. adiēram, adiërim, &c. So likewise veneo, venii, , to be sold, (compounded of venum and eo.) But ambio,-ivi, -ātum, -ire, to surround, is a regular verb of the fourth conjugation.

Eo, like other neuter verbs, is often rendered in English under a passive form ; thus, it, he is going ; ivit, he is gone ; qvěrat, he was gone ; iverit, he may be gone, or shall be gone. So venit, he is coming ; vēnit, he is come.; vēněrat, he was come, &c. In the passive voice these verbs, for the most part, are only used impersonally; as, itur ab illo, he is going ; ventum est ab illis, they are

We find some of the compounds of eo, however, used personally; as, pericula adeuntur, are andergone, Cic. Libri Sibyllini inadili sunt, were looked into, Liv. Flumen pedibus transiri potest, Cæs. Inimscitia subeantur, Cic.

ivit ; iverat , ibit ;

eat;

{ito,

ito;

itote,

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come.

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