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DERIVATION AND COMPOSITION OF VERBS.
Verbs are derived either from nouns or from other verbs.
Verbs derived from nouns are called Denominative ; as, Cæno, to sup; laudo, to praise; fraudo, to defraud; lapido, to throw stones; opěror, to work; frumentor, to forage; lignor, to gather fuel, &c. from cæna, laus, fraus, &c. But when they express imitation or resemblance, they are called Imitative; as, Patrisso, Græcor, būbülo, cornicor, &c. I imitate or resemble my father, a Grecian, an owl, a crow, &c. from pater, Græcus, bubo, cornix.
of those derived from other verbs, the following chiefly deserve attention; namely, Frequentatives, Inceptives, and Desideratives.
1. FREQUENTATIVES express frequency of action, and are all of the first conjugation. They are formed from the last supine, by changing ātu into ito, in verbs of the first conjugation; and by changing u into o, in verbs of the other three conjugations; as, clamo, to cry, clamšto, to cry frequently; terreo, territo; verlo, verso; dormio, dormito.
In like manner, Deponent verbs form Frequentatives in or; as, minor, to threaten; minitor, to threaten frequently.
Some are formed in an irregular manner; as, nato from no; noscito from nosco ; scitor, or rather sciscilor from scio; pavšto from paveo; sector from sequor ; loquitor from loquor. So quærito, fundito, agito, fluito, &c.
From Frequentative verbs are also formed other Frequentatives; as, curro, curso, cursito ; pello, pulso, pulsito, or by contraction, pulto; capio, capto, capăto; cano, canto, cantilo; defendo, defensi, defensito; dico, dictos dictito ; gero, gesto, gestito ; jacio, jacto, jactito; venio, ventito ; mutio, musso, (for mutito) mussito, &c.
Verbs of this kind do not always express frequency of action. Many of them have much the same sense with their primitives, or express the meaning more strongly.
2. INCEPTIVE Verbs mark the beginning or continued increase of any thing. They are formed from the second person singular of the present of the indicative, by adding co; as, caleo, to be hot, cales, calesco, to grow hot. So in the other conjugations, lăbasco from labo; tremisco from tremo, obdormisco from obdormio. Hisco from hio is contracted for hiasco. Inceptives are likewise formed from substantives and adjectives ; as, puerasco from puer; dulcesco from dulcis; juvenesco from juvenis.
All Inceptives are Neuter verbs, and of the third conjugation. They want both the preterite and supine ; unless very rarely, when they borrow them from their primitives.
3. DESIDERATIVË Verbs signify a desire or intention of doing a thing. They are formed from the latter supine, by adding rio, and shortening the u; as, conälūrio, I desire to sup, from cænatu. They are all of the fourth conjugation; and want both preterite and supine, except these three, ësūrio, -īvi, -itum, to desire to eat; partărio, -īvi, —, to be in travail : nuptūrio, ivi, desire to be married, There are a few verbs in LLO, which are called Diminutive ; as, cantillo, sorbillo, -are, I sing, I
To these some add albico, and candico, -are, to be or to grow whitish; also, nigrico, fodico, and vellico. Some verbs in SSÓ are called Intensive; as, Capesso, facesso, petesso or petisso, Í take, I do, I seek earnestly.
Verbs are compounded with nouns, with other verbs, with adverbs, and chiefly with prepositions. Many of these simple verbs are not in use; as, Futo, fendo, specio, gruo, &c. The component parts usually remain entire. Sometimes a letter is added; as, prodeo, for pro-eo: or taken away; as, asporto, omitto, trado, pejěro, pergo, debeo, præbeo, &c. for absporto, obmitto, transdo, perjuro, perrego, dehibeo, præhibeo, &c. So demo, premo, sumo, of de, pro, sub, and emo, which anciently signified to take, or to take away. Often the vowel or diphthong of the simple verb, and the last consonant of the preposition, is changed; as, damno, condemno; calco, conculco; lado, collido; audio, obedio, &c. Affero, aufěro, collaudo, implico, &c. for adfero, abfero, conlaudo, inplico, &c.
PARTICIPLE. A Participle is a kind of adjective formed from a verb, which in its signification implies time.
It is so called, because it partakes both of an adjective and of a verb, having gender and declension from the one, time and signification from the other, and number from both.
Participles are declined like adjectives ; and their signification is various, according to the nature of the verbs from which they come ; only participles in dus, are always passive, and import not so much future time, as obligation or necessity.
Latin verbs have four Participles, the present and future active; as, Amans, loving; ămātúrus, about to love: and the perfect and future passive; as, amātus, loved, amandus, to be loved.
The Lasins have not a participle perfect in the active, nor a participle present in the passive voice; which defect must be supplied by a circumlocution. Thus, to express the perfect participle active in English, we use a conjunction, and the plu-perfect of the subjunctive in Latin, or some other tense, according to its connexion with the other words of a sentence; as, he having loved, quum amavisset, &c.
Neuter verbs have commonly but two Participles; as, Sědens, sessurus ; stans, statūrus.
sup a little.
From some neuter verbs, are formed Participles of the perfect tense; as, Erratus, festinatus, juratus, laboratus, vigilatus, cessatus, sudatus, triumphatus, regnatus, decursus, desitus emeritus, emersus, obitus, placitus, successus, occasus, &c. and also of the future in dus; as, Jurandus, vigilandus, regnandus, carendus, dormiendus, erubescendus, &c. Neuter passive verbs are equally various Veneo has no participle; Fido, only fidens and fisus ; solco, solens, and solitus; vapůlo, vapulans, and vapulaturus ; Gaudeo, gaudens, gavisus, and gavisurus; Audeo, audens, ausus, ausurus, audendus. Ausus is used both in an active and passive sense; as, Ausi omnes immane nefas, ausoque potiti. Virg. Æn. vi. 624.
Deponent and Common verbs have commonly four Participles; as, Loquens, speaking ; locutūrus, about to speak; locutus, having spoken ; loquendus, to be spoken. Dignans, vouchsafing; dignaturus, about to vouchsafe; dignatus, having vouchsafed, being vouchsafed, or having been vouchsafed; dignandus, to be vouchsafed. Many participles of the perfect tense from Deponent verbs have both an active and passive sense ; as, Abominatus, conatus confessus, adortus, amplexus, blandītus, largitus, mentitus, oblitus, testatus, veneratus, &c.
There are several Participles compounded with in signifying not, the verbs of which do not admit of such composition: as, Insciens, insperans, indicens for nondicens, inopinans, and neco pinans, imměrens ; Næsus, impransus, inconsultus, incustoditus, immetatus, impunitus, imparatus, incomitatus, incomptus, indemnatus, indotatus, incorruptus, interritus, and imperterritus, intestatus, inausus, inopinatus, inultus, incensus for non census, not registered; infectus for non factus, incisus for non visus, indictus for non dictus, &c. There is a different incensus from incendo; infectus from inficio ; invisus from invždeo ; indictus from indico, &c.
If from the signification of a Participle we take away time, it becomes an adjective, and admits the degrees of comparison; as, Amans, loving, amantior, amantissimus; doctus, learned, doctior, doctissimus : or a substantive; as, Præfectus, a commander or governor; consonans, f. sc. litera, a consonant; continens, f. sc. terra, a continent; confluens, m. a place where two rivers run together; oriens, m. sc. sol, the east ; occidens, m. the west; dictum, a saying ; scriptum, &c.
There are many words in ATUS, ITUS, and UTUS, which, although resembling participles, are reckoned adjectives, because they come from nouns, and not from verbs; as, alatus, barbatus, cordatus, caudatus, cristatus, aurītus, pellitus, turritus ; astutus, cornutus, nasutus, &c. winged, bearded, discreet, &c. But auratus, æratus, argentatus, ferratus, plumbatus, gypsatus, calceatus, clypeatus, galeatus, tunicatus, larvatus, palliatus, lymphatus, purpuratus, prætextatus, &c. covered with gold, brass, silver, &c. are accounted participles, because they are supposed to come from obsolete verbs. So perhaps calamistratus, frizzled, crisped, or curled; crinitus, having long hair; peritus, skilled, &c.
There is a kind of Verbal adjectives in BUNDUS, formed from the imperfect of the indicative, which very much resemble Participles in their signification, but generally express the meaning of the verb more fully, or denote an abundance or great deal of the action ; as, vitabundus, the same with valdè vitans, avoiding much. Sal. Jug. 60, and 101. Liv. xxv. 13. So errabundus, ludibundus, populabundus, moribundus, &c.
GERUNDS AND SUPINES. GERUNDS are participial words, which bear the signification of the verb from which they are formed; and are declined like a neuter noun of the second declension through all the cases of the singular number, except the vocative.
There are both in Latin and English, substantives derived from the verb, which so much resemble the Gerund in their signification, that frequently they may be substituted in its place. They are generally used however in a more undetermined sense than the Gerund, and in English have the article always prefixed to them. Thus, with the Gerund, Delector legendo Ciceronem, I am delighted with reading Cicero. But with the substantive, Delector lectione Ciceronis, I am delighted with the reading of Cicero.
The Gerund and Future Participle of verbs in io, and some others, often take u, instead of e; as, faciundum, di, do, dus; experiundum, potiundum, gerundum, potundum, ducundum, &c. for faciendum, &c.
SUPINES have much the same signification with Gerunds, and may be indifferently applied to any person or number. They agree in termination with nouns of the fourth declension, having only the accusative and ablative cases.
The former Supine is commonly used in an active, and the latter in a passive sense, but sometimes the contrary; as, coctum non vapulatum, dudum conductus fui, i.e. ut vapularem, v. verberarer, to be beaten. Plaut.
ADVERB. An adverb is an indeclinable part of speech, added to a verb, adjective, or other adverb, to express some circumstance, quality, or manner of their signification.
All adverbs may be divided into two classes, namely, those which denote Circumstance; and those which denote Quality, Manner, &c.
I. Adverbs denoting CIRCUMSTANCE are chiefly those of Place, Time, and Order. 1. Adverbs of Place, are five-fcld, namely, such as signify,
1. Motion or rest in a place.
Towards the right.
Towards the left.
4. Motion from a place. Alicubi,
From the same place.
From some place.
If from any place.
On both sides. Intrd,
From the ground
To some place.
5. Motion through or by a plac
1. Some particular lime, either present, past, future, or indefinite.
In the mean time.
2. Continuance of time Then. Tum,
3. Vicissitude or repetition of lime.
For several times.
Ever and anon, now ana
Four times, &c.
DERIVATION, COMPARISON, AND COMPOSITION OF ADVERBS. 125
1. QUALITY, simply; as, benè, well; malè, ill; forlitoci bravely; and innumerable others that come from adjective nouns or participles.
2. CERTAINTY ; as, profectò, certè, sānè, plānè, ne, útique, ita, ètiam, truly, verily, yes; quidni, why not? omnino, certainly.
3. CONTINGENCE; as, fortè, forsan, fortassis, fors, haply, perhaps, by chance, peradventure.
4. NEGATION; as, non, haud, not; nequäquam, not at all; neuliquam, by no means ; minime, nothing less.
5. PROHIBITION; as, ne, not.
8. SEPARATION; as, seorsum, apart; sēpărālim, separately ; sigillatim, one by one ; viritim, man by man; oppidätim, town by town, &c.
9. JOINING TOGETHER; as, simul, unà, păriter, together; gěněraliter, generally ; üniversaliter, universally; plerumque, for the most part.
10. INDICATION or POINTING OUT; as,.en, ecce, lo, behold.
11. INTERROGATION ; as, cur, quäre, quamobrem, why, wherefore ? num, an, whether : quomodo, quì, how? To which add, Ubi, quò, quorsum, unde, quà, quando, quamdir, quoties.
Those Adverbs which are called Comparative, denote,
1. EXCESS; as, Valdè, maximè, magnopěre, maximopere, summopere, admodum, oppidò, perquam, longè, greatly, very much, exceedingly ; nimis, nimium, too much ; prorsus, penitus, omnino, altogether, wholly : magis, more; meliùs, bettěr; pejus, worse; fortiùs, more bravely; and optime, best; pessimè, worst; fortissimè, most bravely; and innumerable others of the comparative and superlative
degrecs. 2. DEFECT; as, Ferme, fărè, propemodum, pēnè, almost; părum, little ; paulo, paululum, very little.
3. PREFERENCE; as, potiùs, sătiùs, rather; potissimùm, præcăpuè, præsertim, chiefy, especially ; imò, yes, nay, nay rather, yea rather.
4. LIKENESS or EQUALITY; as, ita, sic, ăded, so ; ut, ùti, sicut, sicuti, vělut, velūti, ceu, tanquam, quasi, as, as if; quemadmodum, even as ; sătis, enough; ibidem, in like manner; juxta, alike, equally.
5. UNLIKENESS or INEQUALITY; as, aliter, secus, otherwise, alioqui or alioquin, else ; nëdum, much more or much less.
6. ABATEMENT; as, sensim, paulātim, pědětentim, by degrees, piece-meal; rix, scarcely ; ægrè, hardly, with difficulty. *7. EXCLUSION; as, tantùm, sölum, mödd, tantummodo, duntaxal, dēmun, only.
DERIVATION, COMPARISON, AND COMPOSITION OF ADVERBS. Adverbs are derived,
1. From substantives, and end commonly in TIM or TUS; as, Partim, partly, by parts ; nominalim, by name; generalim, by kinds generally ; speciatim, vicatim, gregatim ; radīcitus, from the root, &c.
2. From adjectives, and these are by far the most numerous. Such as come from adjectives of the first and second declension, usually end in E; as, liberè, freely; plenè, fully : some in O, UM, and TER; as, falsò, tantum, graviter : a few in A, ITUS, and IM; as, rectà, antiquitus, privatim. Some are used two or three ways, as, primum, v. -o; purè, -iter ; certè, -d; cautè, -tim; humane, -iter, -itus, publicè, publicitùs, &c. Adverbs from adjectives of the third declension commonly end in TER, seldom in É; as, turpiter, feliciter, acriler, pariter ; facilè, repente ; one in O, omnino. The neuter of adjectives is sometimes taken adverbially; as, recens natus, for recenter ; perfidum ridens, for perfide, Hor. multa reluclans, for multum or valde, Virg. So in English we say, to speak loud, high, &c. for loudly, highly, &c. In many cases à substantive is understood; as, primò, sc. loco, optatò advenis, sc. tempore ; hàc, sc. viâ, &c.
3. From each of the pronominal adjectives, ille, iste, hic, is, idem, &c. are formed adverbs, which express all the circumstances of place; as, from ille, illic, illuc, illorsum, illiuc, and illac. So from quis, ubi, quo, quorsam, unde, and quà. Also of time; thus, quando, quandiu, &c.
4. From verbs and participles; as, cæsim, with the edge; punctim, with the point; strictim, closely; from cædo, pungo, stringo ; amanter, properanter, dubilanter ; distinctè, emandate ; merito, inopinato, &c. But these last are thought to be in the ablative, having ex understood.
6. From prepositions ; as, intus, intro, from in; clanculum, from clam; subtus, from sub, &c.
Adverbs derived from adjectives are commonly compared like their primitives. The positive generally ends in e, or ter ; as, durè, facilè, acriter ; the comparative, in ius ; as, durius, faciliùs, acríùs; the superlative, in žme; as, durissimè, facillimè, acerrimè.
If the comparison of the adjective be irregular or defective, the comparison of the adverb is so 100; as, benè, meliùs, optimè , malè, pejus, pessimè ; parum, minus, minimè, and -um; mullùm, plus, plurimùm ; prope, propius, proximè ; ocyàs, ocyssime ; prius, primd, -um; nuper, nuperrime; nove and noviler, novissimè ; meritò, meritissimò, &c. Those adverbs also are compared whose primitives are obsolete; as, sæpè, sæpiùs, sæpissimè ; penitus, penitius, penitissime ; salis, satiùs : serus, secius, &c. Magis, maxime ; and potius, potissimum, want the positive.
Adverbs are variously compounded with all the different parts of speech; thus, postridie, mag ropěre, maximopere, summopere, tantopere, multimodis, omnimodis, quomodo, quare; of postero die, magno opere, &c. Ilicet, scilicet, videlicet, of ire, scire, videre, licet ; illico, of in loco; quorsum, of quo versum ? comminus, hand to hand, of cum or con and manus ; eminus, at a distance, of e and manus ; quorsum, of quo versum ; denuo, anew, of de novo ; quin, why not, but, of qui ne ; cur, ol cui rei ; pedetentim, step by step, as it were, pedem tendendo ; perendie for perempto die; nimirum, of ne, i. e. non, and mirum ; antea, postea, præterea, &c. of ante, and ea, &c. Ubivis, quovis, undelícet, quousque, sicut, sicuti, velut, veluti, désüper, insuper, quamobrem, &c. of ubi, and vis, &c. nudiustertius, of nunc dies tertius ; identidem, of idem ei idem ; impræsentiūrum, i. e. in tempore rerum præsentium, &c.
Obs: 1. The adverb is not an essential part of speech. It only serves to express shortly, in one word, what must otherwise have required two or more; as, sapienter, wisely, for cum sapientia ; hic, for in hoc loco ; semper, for in omni tempore ; semel, for und vice ; his, for duabus vicibus ; Mehercule, for Hercules, me juvet, &e.
OBS. 2. Some adverbs of time, place, and order, are frequently used the one for the other; as, ubi, where or when ; inde, from that place, from that time, after that, next; hactěnus, hitherto, thus far, with respect to place, time, or order, &c.
OBS. 3. Some adverbs of time are either past, present, or future ; as, jam, already, now, by and by; olim, long ago, some time, hereafter. Some adverbs of place are equally various ; thus, esse peregrè, to be abroad ; ire peregrè, to go abroad; redire peregrè, to return from abroad.
OBS. 4. Interrogative adverbs of time and place doubled, or compounded with cunque, answer to the English adjection, so ever; as, ubiubi, or ubicunque, wheresoever; quoqud, quocunque, whithersoever, &c. The same holds also in interrogative words ; as, quotquot, or quotcunque, how many soever ; quantusquantus, or quantuscunque, how great soever ; utut, or utcunque, however or howsoever, &c.
PREPOSITION. A Preposition is an indeclinable word, which shows the relation of one thing to another.
There are twenty-eight prepositions, which govern the accusative; that is, have an accusative after them. Ad, To.
Propter, For, hard by.
In the power of:
On the farther side.
Beyond The Prepositions which govern the ablative are fifteen ; namely, A,
} Of, out of
Wilh the knowledge of.
Up to, as far as. of These four govern sometimes the accusative, and sometimes the ablative. In, In, into. Sub, Under. Súper, Abore. Subter, Beneath. Obs. 1. Prepositions, are so called, because they are generally placed before the word with which they are joined. Some however, are put after; as, cum, when joined with me, te, se, and sometimes with quo, qui, and quibus ; thus, mecum, tecum, &c. Tenus is always placed after; as, mento tenus, up to the chin. So likewise are versus and usque.
OBS. 2. Prepositions are often compounded with other parts of speech, particularly with verbs ; as, subire, to undergo.
Prepositions are also sometimes compounded together; as, Ex adversus eum locum, Cic. Ex adversum Athenas, C. Nep. In ante diem quartum Kalendarum Decembris distulit, i. e. usque in eum diem, Cic. Supplicatio indicta est ex ante diem quintum idus Octob. i. e. ab eo die, Liv. Ex ante pridie Idus Septembris, Plin. But prepositions compounded together commonly become adverbs or conjunctions ; as, propălam, protinus, insuper, &c.
OBS. 3. Prepositions in composition usually retain their primitive signification; as, adeo, to go co; præpono, to place before. But from this there are several exceptions ; 1. IN joined with adjec