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duci parere, It is the part, or duty of soldiers, &c. Laudare se vani ; vituperare stulti est, Sen. Hominis est errare ; Arrogantis est negligere quid de se quisque sentiat, Cic. Pecus est Melibæi, Virg. Hæc sunt hominis, Ter. Pauperis est numerare pecus, Ovid. Temeritas est florentis ælatis, prudentia senectutis, Cic. | Meum, tuum, suum, nostrum, vestrum, are excepted; as,

Tuum est, It is your duty. Scio tuum esse, I know that it is your duty. Obs. 1. These possessive pronouns are used in the neuter gender instead of their substantives, mei, tui, sui, nostri, vestri. Other possessives are also construed in this manner; as, Est regium, est humanum, the same with est regis, est hominis. Et facere et pati fortia, Romanum est, Liv. ii. 12.

Obs. 2. Here some substantive must be understood; as, officium, munus, res, negotium, opus, &c. which are sometimes expressed ; as, Munus est principum ; Tuum est hoc munus, Cic. Neutiquam officium liberi esse hominis puto, Ter. In some cases, the preceding substantive may be repeated ;

Hic liber est (liber) fratris. In like manner, some substantive must be supplied in such expressions as these ; Ea sunt modo gloriosa, neque patrandi belli, scil. causâ or facta, Sall. Nihil tan æquandæ libertatis est, for ad æquandam libertatem pertinet, Liv.

OBs. 3. We say, Hoc est tuum munus, or tui muneris : So mos est vel fuit, or moris, or in

as,

more, Cic.

XVII. Sum, taken for habeo, (to have,) governs the dative of a person; as,
Est mihi liber,

A book is to me, that is, I have a book.
Sunt mihi libri,

Books are to me, i. e. I have books.
Dico libros esse mihi, I say that I have books.
This is more frequently used than habeo librum; habeo libros. In like manner DEEST instead of
careo; as, Liber deest mihi, I want a book; Libri desunt mihi; Scio libros deesse mihi, &c.

XVIII. Sum, taken for affero, (to bring,) governs two datives; the one of a person, and the other of a thing; as,

Est mihi voluptati. It is, or brings, a pleasure to me. Two datives are also put after habeo, do, verto, relinquo, tribuo, fore, duco, and some others; as,

Ducitur honori tibi, It is reckoned an honour to you. Id vertitur mihi vitio, I am blamed for that. So Misit mihi muneri ; Dedit mihi dono; Habet sibi laudi; Venire occurrere auxilio alicui, Liv.

Obs. 1. Instead of the dative, we often use the nominative, or the accusative; as, Est exitium pecori, for exitio ; Dare aliquid alicui donum, or dono ; Dare filiam ei nuptam, or nuptui. When dare, and other active verbs have two datives after them, they likewise govern an accusative either expressed or understood; as, Dare crimini ei, sc. id.

OBS. 2. The dative of the person is often to be supplied; as, Esl exemplo, indicio, præsidio, usui, &c. scil. mihi, alicui, hominibus, or some such word. So, ponere, opponere, pignori, sc. alicui, to pledge. Canere receptui, sc. suis militibus, to sound a retreat; Habere curæ, quæstui, odio, voluptati, religioni, studio, ludibrio, despicatui, &c. sc. sibi.

Obs. 3. To this rule belong forms of naming; as, Est mihi nomen Alexandro, my name is
Alexander; or with the nominative, Est mihi nomen Alexander; or more rarely with the genitive,
Est mihi nomen Alexandri.
XIX. The compounds of Sum, except Possum, govern the dative; as,

Præfuit exercitui, He commanded the army.
Adfuit precibus,

He was present at prayers.

THE CONSTRUCTION OF COMPARATIVES XX. Words of the comparative degree govern the ablative when quam is omitted in Latin; as,

Dulcior melle, Sweeter than honey. Præstantior auro, Better than gold. Obs. 1. The sign of the ablative in English is than. The positive with the adverb magis, likewise governs the ablative; as, Magis dilecta luce, Virg.

The ablative is here governed by the preposition pre understood, which is sometimes expressed ; as, Fortior præ cæteris. We find the comparative also construed with other prepositions ; as, innmanior ante omnes, Virg.

OBS. 2. The comparative degree may likewise be construed with the conjunction qudm ; and then, instead of the ablative, the noun is to be put in whatever case the sense requires ; as, Dulcior quàm mel, scil

. est. Amo te magis quam illum, I love you more than him, that is, quàm amo illum, than I love him. Amo te magis quàm ille, I love you more than he, i. e. quam ille amat, than he loves. Plus datur a me quàm illo, sc. ab.

OBs. 3. The conjunction quàm is often elegantly suppressed after amplius and plus; as,

Vulnerantur amplius sexcenti, Cæs. scil. quàm. Plus quingentos colaphos infregit mihi, He has Jaid on me more than five hundred blows, Ter. Castra ab urbe haud plus quinque millia passuum locant, sc. quàm, Liv,

Quàm is sometimes elegantly placed between two comparatives; as,

Triumphus clarior quàm gratior, Liv. Or the preposition pro is added; as, Prælium atrocius, quam pro numero pugnanlium editur, Liv.

The comparative is sometimes joined with these ablatives, opinione, spe, æquo, justo, dicto ; as,

Credibili opinione major, Cic. Credibili fortior, Ovid. Fast. iii. 618. " Gravius æquo, Sall. Dicto citius, Virg. Majora credibili tulimus, Liv. They are often understood; as, Liberius vivebat, sc justo, too freely, Nepos.

Nihil is sometimes elegantly used for nemo or nulli ; as,

Nihil vidi quidquam lælius, for neminem, Ter. Crasso nihil perfectius, Cic. Asperius nihil est humili, cùm surgit in altum. So quid nobis laboriosius, for quis, &c. Cic. We say, inferior patre nulla re, or quàm pater. The comparative is sometimes repeated or joined with an adverb; as, Magis magisque, plus plusque, minus minusque, carior cariorque ; Quotidie plus, indies magis, semper candidior candidiorque, &c.

Obs. 4. The relation of equality or sameness is likewise expressed in English by conjunctions ; as, Est tam doctus quàm ego, He is as learned as I. Animus erga te idem esl ac fuit. Ac and atque are sometimes, though more rarely, used after comparatives ; as, Nihil est magis verum atque hoc, Ter.

Obs. 5. The excess or defect of measure is put in the ablative after comparatives; and the sign in English is by, expressed or understood; (or more shortly, the difference of measure is put in the ablative ;) as,

Est decem digilis altior quàm frater, He is ten inches taller than his brother, or by ten inches. Altero tanto major est fratre, i. e. duplo major, he is as big again as his brother, or twice as big. Sesquipede minor, a foot and a half less; Altero tanlo, aut sesquimajor, as big again, or a half bigger, Cic. Ter tanto pejor est; Bis tanto amici sunt inter se, quàm prius, Plaut. Quinquies tanto amplius, quàm quantum licitum sit civitatibus imperavit, five times more, Cic. To this may be added many other ablatives, which are joined with the comparative to increase its force; as, Tanto, quanto, quo, eo, hoc, mulio, paulo, nimio, &c. thus, Quo plus habent, eo plus cupiunt, The more they have, the more they desire. Quanto melior, tanto felicior, The better, the happier. Quoque mninor spes est; hoc magis ille cupit, Ovid. Fast. ii. 766. We frequently find multo, tanto, quanto, also joined with superlatives; Multo pulcherrimam eam haberemus, Sal. Mulloque id maximum fuit, Liv.

THE CONSTRUCTION OF INDECLINABLE WORDS.

1. THE CONSTRUCTION OF ADVERBS. XXI, Adverbs qualify verbs, participles, adjectives, and other adverbs; as, Bene scribit, He writes well.

Fortiter pugnans, Fighting bravely. Servus egregiè fidelis, A slave remarkably faithful. Satis bene, Well enough. Obs. 1. Adverbs are sometimes likewise joined to substantives ; as,

Homerus planè orator ; planè noster, verè Metellus, Cic. So Hodie mane ; oras mane, heri mane, hodie vesperi, &c. tam mane, tam vespere.

Obs. 2. The adverb for the most part is placed near to the word which it modifies or affects. Obs. 3. Two negatives are equivalent to an affirmative; as,

Vec non senserunt, Nor did they not perceive, i. e. Et senserunt, And they did perceive; Non poteram non exanimari metu, Cic. Examples, however, of the contrary of this sometimes occur in good authors, both in English and Latin. Thus two or three negative participles are placed before the subjunctive mode, to express a stronger negation. Neque tu haud dicas libi non prædictum, And do not say that you were not forewarned, Ter.

But what chiefly deserves attention in adverbs, is the degree of comparison and the mode with which they are joined :

1. Apprimè, admódum, vehementer, maximè, perquam, valdè, oppidò, &c. and per in composition, are usually joined to the positive; as, Utrique nostrum gratum admodum feceris, You will do what is very agreeable to both of us, Cic. perquam puerile, very childish ; oppidò pauci, very few; per facile est, &c. In like manner, Parum, multum, nimium, tantum, quantum, aliquantum ; as, In rebus apertissimis nimium longi sumus ; parum firmus, multum bonus, Cic. Adverbs in um are sometimes also joined to comparatives ; as, Forma viri aliquantùm amplior humanâ, Liv.

QUAM is joined to the positive or superlative in different senses; as, Quam difficile est! How difficult it is ! Quam crudelis, or Ut crudelis est ! How cruel he is ! Flens quam fainiliariter, very familiarly, Ter. So quam severè, very severely; Cic. Quam latè, very widely, Čæs. Tum multa, quam, &c. as many things as, &c. Quam maximas potest copias armat, as great as possible, Sall. Quam maximas gratias agit, agam primum quam sæpissime, Cic. Quam quisque pessimè fecit, tam maximè tutus est, Sall.

FACILE, for haud dubiè, undoubtedly, clearly, is joined to the superlatives or words of a similar meaning; as, Facilè doctissimus, facilè princeps, v. præcipuus. LONGE to comparatives or superlatives, rarely to the positive; as, Longè eloquentissimus Plato, Cic. Pedibus longè melior Lycus, Virg.

2, CUM, when, is construed with the indicative or subjunctive, oftener with the latter; DUM, whilst, or how long, with the indicative; as, Dum hæc aguntur ; Agroto, dum anima est, spes esse,

dicitur, Cic. Donec eris felix, multos numerabis amicos, Ovid. DUM and DONEC, for usquedum, until, sometimes with the indicative and sometimes with the subjunctive; as, Operior, dum ista cognosco,

Cic. Haud desinam, donec perfecero, Ter. So QUOAD, for quamdiu, quantum, quatenus as long, as much, as far as ; thus, Quoad Catilina fuit in urbe. Quoad tibi æquum videbitur quoad possem et liceret ; quoad progredi potuerit amentia, Cic. But QUOAD, until, oftener with the subjunctive; as, Thessalonicæ esse statueram, quoad aliquid ad me scriberes, Cic. but not always; Non faciam finem regendi, quoad nunciatum erit te fecisse, Cic. The pronoun ejus, with facere or fieri, is elegantly added to quoad ; as, Quoad ejus facere poteris ; Quoad ejus fieri, possit, Cic. Ejus is thought to be here governed by aliquid or some such word understood. Quoad corpus, quoad animam, for secundum, or quoad attinet ad corpus vel animam, as to the body of soul, is esteemed by the best grammarians not to be good Latin.

3. POSTQUAM or POSTEAQUAM, after, is usually joined with the indicative. ANTEQUAM, PRIUSQUAM, before ; SIMUL, SIMUL AC, SIMUL ATQUE, SIMUL UT, as soon as ; UBI, when, sometimes with the indicative, and sometimes with the subjunctive; as, Antequam dico or dicam, Cic. . Simul ac persensit, Virg.. Simul ut viderò Curionem, Cic. Hæc ubi dicta dedit, Liv. Ubi semel quis perjeraverit, ei credi posted non oportet, Cic. So NÆ, truly; as, Ne ego homo sum infelix, Ter. tu, si id fecisses, melius fama consuluisses, Cic. But NĒ, not, with the imperative, or more elegantly with the subjunctive; as, Ne jura, Plaut. Ne post conferas culpam in me, Ter. Ne tot annorum felicitatem in unius horæ dederis discrimen, Liv.

4. QUASI, CEU, TANQUAM, PERINDE, when they denote resemblance, are joined with the indicative ; Fuit olim quasi ego sum, senex, Plaut. Adversi rupto ceu quondam turbine venti, confligunt, Virg. Hæc omnia perinde sunt, ut aguntur. But when used ironically, they have the subjunctive; as, Quasi de verbo, non de re laboretur, Cic.

5. UTINAM, O SI, UT for utinam, I wish, take the subjunctive; as, Utinam ea res ei voluptatı sil, Cic. O mihi præteritos referat si Jupiler annos, Virg. Ut illum dii deæque perdant, Ter.

6. UT, when, or after, takes the indicative; as, Vi discessit, venit, &c. | Also for quam or quomodo, how! as, Ut valet! Ut falsus animi est! Ut sæpe summa ingenia in occulto latent ! Plaut. 1 Or when it simply denotes resemblance; as, Ut tule es, ita omnes censes esse, Plaut. 1 In this sense it sometimes has the subjunctive; as, Ut sementem feceris, ita metes, Cic.

7. QUIN for CUR NON, takes the indicative; as, Quin continetis vocem indicem stultitia vestre? Cic. 1 For IMO, nay or but, the indicative or imperative; as, Quin est paratum argentum ; quin tu hoc audi, Ter. 1 For UT, NON, QUI, QUÆ, QUOD NON, or QUO MINUS, the subjunctive; as, Nulla tam facilis res, quin difficilis fiet quum invitus facias, Ter. Nemo est, quin malet; Facere non possum, quin ad te mittam, I cannot help sending ; Nihil abest, quin sim miserrimus, Cic.

1. THE GOVERNMENT OF ADVERBS. XXII. Some adverbs of time, place, and quantity, govern the genitive; as,

Pridie ejus diei, The day before that day.
Ubique gentium, Every where.

Satis esi verborum, There is enough of words. 1. Adverbs of time, governing the genitive are, Interea, postea, inde, tunc; as Interea loci, in the meantime; postea loci, afterwards; inde loci, then; tunc temporis, at that time. 2. Of place, Ubi and quo, with their compounds ubique, ubicunque, ubivis, ubi-ubi, &c. Also Eo, huc, huccine, unde, usquam, nusquam, longe, ibidem; as, Ubi, quo, quovis, &c. also usquam, nusquam, unde terrarum, vel gentium; longè gentium ; ibidem loci, co audaciæ, vecordiæ, miseriarum, &c. to that pitch of boldness, madness, miscry, &c. 3. Of quantity, Abunde, offàtim, largiter, nimis, satis, parum, minimè ; as, Abundè gloriæ,affătim divitiarum, largiter auri, satis loquentia, sapientiæ parum est illi vel habet. He has enough of glory, riches, &c. Minimè gentium, by no means.

Some add ergo and instar ; as, Ergo virtulis, for the sake of virtue, Cic. Instar montis, like a mountain, Virg. But these are properly nouns.

Oes. 1. These adverbs are thought to govern the genitive, because they imply in themselves the force of a substantive; as, Potentiæ gloriæque abundè adeptus, the same with abundantiam gloriæ ; or res, locus, or negotium and a preposition, may be understood; as, Interea loci, i. e. inter ea negotia loci ; Ubi terrarum, for in quo loco terrarum.

Obs. 2. We usually say, pridie, postridie, ejus diei, seldom diem; but pridie, postridie Kalendas, Nonas, Idus, ludos Apollinares, natalem ejus, absolutionem ejus, &c. rarely Kalendarum, &c.

Obs. 3. En and ecce are construed either with the nominative or accusative; as,

En hos!is, or hoslem ; Ecce miserum hominem, Cic. Sometimes a dative is added ; as, Ecce tibi
Strato, Ter. Ecce duas (scil. aras) tibi, Daphni, Virg. In like manner is construed hem put for
ecce; as, Hem tibi Davum, Ter. But in all these examples some verb must be understood.
Obs. 4. Some derivative adverbs govern the case of their primitives; as,

Omnium optimè loquitur, He speaks the best of all.
Convenienter natura, Agreeably to nature.
Venit obviam ei,

He came to meet him.
Procimè castris or castra,

2. THE CONSTRUCTION OF PREPOSITIONS.

1. Prepositions governing the Accusative. XXIII. The prepositions ad, apud, ante, &c. govern the accusative. AD astra, to the stars ; religari ad asserem, to be &c. at or on; ad portam, ostium, fores, at,

bound to a plank ; ad diem veniam, solvam, before ; ad urbem Tiberim, near, at ; ad tem

Next the camp.

pla supplicatio, in; ad summum, at most, or during, in the time of; inter hæc parata, during to the top; ad summam, on the whole; Cic. ad these preparations, Sall. Inter tot annos, in, ultimum, extremum, at last, finally; ad v. in Cic. Inter diem, whence ; interdiu, in the day speciem, to appearance; mentis ad omnia time; inter se amant, they love one another ; capacitas; annus fatalis ad interitum; lenius ad Quasi non nôrimus nos inter nos, Ter. severitatem, for, with respect to, Cic. ad vivum, INTRA privatos parietes, intra paucos annos, sc: corpus, to the quick; ad judicem agere, within; intra famam est, less than report, before ; nihil ad Cæsarem, in comparison of ; Quinct. numero ad duodecim, to the number of; omnes JUXTA macellum, near the shambles. ad unum, to a man ; ad hoc, besides ; ad vulgi OB lucrum, for gain; ob oculos, before; ob inopinionem, according to; homo ad unguem dustriam for de industria, on purpose, Plaut. fáctus, an accomplished man; herbæ ad lunam Penes quem, or quem penes, in the power of ; messæ, by the light of, Virg. ad tempus venit, Penes te es ? :-. you in your senses? Hor. at; ira brevis est & ad tempus, for, ad tem- Per agros, throunhe; per vim, per scelus, by; pus consilium capiam, according to, Cic. ad per anni tempus, per ætatem 'licet, for, by decem annos, after ; annos ad quinquaginta reason of natus, about, Cic. nebula erat ad multum diei, Pons caput, behind. for a great part of the day, Liv. ad pedes, Post hoc tempus, after ; post tergum, behind ; jacēre, provolvi, procumbere, & ad genua ; ad post homines natos, post hominum memoriam, manus esse, at ; ad manus venire, to come to a since the world began. close engagement ; ad libellam deberi, to a PRÆTER te nemo, nobody besides, or except ; farthing, no more and no less ; ad amussim, præter casam fugere, beyond ; præter legem, exactly; ad hæc visa auditaque, upon seeing morem æquum et bonum, spem, opinionem, and hearing these things, Liv.

&c. contrary to, against, beyond ; præter cæteros AD seems sometimes to be taken adverbially ; excellere, lamentari, above ; præter ripam ire,

as, Ad duo millia cæsa sunt; ad mille hominum along, near ; præter oculos, before, Cic.

amissum est; ad ducenti perierunt, about, Liv. PROPTER virtutem, for, on account of ; propter APUD forum, at ; apud me cænabis, at my house; aquæ rivum, near, hard by, Virg.

apud senatum, judices, v. aliquem dicere, be- SECUNDUM facta et virtutes tuas, according to, fore; apud majores nostros, among; apud Ter. secundum littus, secundum aurem vulXenophontem, in the book of; Est mihi fides, neratus est, near to ; in actione secundum vel valeo apud illum, I have credit with him ; vocem, vultus plurimum valet; secundum pafacio te apud illum deum, Ter.

trem tu es proximus, after, next to; Prætor ANTE diem, focum, &c. before.

secundum me decrevit, sententiam dedit, for, ADVERSUS, v. -um; Contra hostes, against ; in my farour, Cic.

adversus infimos justitia est servanda, toward; Secus viam, by, along. adversum hunc loqui, to, Ter. Lerina adver- SUPRA terram, above. sum Antipolim, over against, Plin.

Trans mare, over, beyond. Cis vel citra flumen, on this side ; citra neces ULTRA occanum, beyond.

sitatcm, without ; Ede citra cruditatem, bibe To prepositions governing the accusative are citra ebrietatem, Senec.

commonly added CIRCITER, PROPE, USQUE, CIRCUM & CIRCA regem, about; Varia circa hæc and VERSUS ; as, Circiter meridiem, about mid opinio, Plin.

day ; prope muros, near the walls; usque ERGA amicos, towards. EXTRA muros ; Extra Puteolos, Tharsum usque, as far as ; Orientem

jocum, periculum, noxiam, sortem, without ; versus, towards the east. But in these ad is nemo extra te; besides; extra conjurationem, understood, which we find sometimes ex not concerned in, Sall.

pressed; as, Prope ad annum, Nep. Ab ovo INFRA tectum, below the roof.

usque ad mala, Hor. Ad oceanum versus, INTER fratres, among; inter & super cænam,

Cæs. In Italiam versus, Cic. 2. Prepositions governing the Ablative. XXIV. The prepositions a, ab, abs, &c. govern the ablative. A patre, ab omnibus, abs te, by or from; a esses, but for you, had it not been for you,

puero, vel pueris, a pueritia, in cunabulis, Ter. Absque is chiefly used by comic writers; I teneris unguibus, &c. from a child, ever since sine, by orators.

childhood ; ab ovo usque ad mala, from the Clam patre and patrem, without the knowledge beginning to the end of supper; a manu, sc. of fervus, an amanuensis or clerk; ad manum, a Coram omnibus, before, in presence of. waiting man; a pedibus, a footman ; a latere Cum exercitu, with; testis mecum est annulus, principis, an attendant. So a secretis, rationi in my possession, Ter. cum prima luce, at break bus, consiliis, cyathis, &c. a secretary, account of day; cum imperio esse, in; cum primis, ant, &c. fores a nobis, for nostræ. Injuria ab in primis, in the first place ; cum metu dicere, illo, for illius. Ter. a cena, after ; secundus, cum lætitia vivere, cum cura, &c. Cic. We tertius a Romulo; ictus ab latere, on or in; a say, mecum, tecum, secum, nobiscum, vobis senatu stare, for, in defence of; ab oculis cum; rarely cum me, cum te, &c. and quocum doleo, Plaut. ab ingenio improbus, a pecunia or cum quo, quibuscum or cum quibus. et militibus imparatus, as to, with respect to, De lana caprina rixantur, about, concerning ; Cic. Est calor a sole; omissiores ab re, too de tanto patrimonio nihil relictum est, of ; de careless about money; a villa mercenarium loco superiore, from ; de die, by day; de nocte, vidi, Ter.

by night; de integro, aneu, afresh; de, v. ex ABSQUE causa, without; absque te esset, recte improviso, unexpectedly; de, v. ex industria,

ego mihi vidissem i. e. si tu non esses, nisi ta on purpose; de meo, at my expense ; id de lucro

putato esse, clear gain, Ter. de, v. ex com molam, comes facundus pro vehiculo est, for, pacto agere, by agreement ; de transverso, instead of; pro viribus, pro parte virili, pro cross-wise, athwart; de, v. ex ejus sententia, con sua quisque parte, v. facultate, to one's ability silio, according to ; qua, v. hac de causa, for; or power ; Parum tibi pro eo, quod a te habeo, homo de plebe; templum de marmore, of; de reddidi, in comparison of, considering, Cic. pro scripto dicere, to read a specch; de filio emit, ut, pro eo ac, pro eo ut mereor, as I deserve ; from, Cic. De servis fidelissimus ; de ipsius pro se quisque, uterque, &c. for his own part ; exercitu non amplius hominum mille cecidit, pro rata parte, pro portione, in proportion ; Nep. Robur de exercitu, Liv. Adolescens de pro ciye se gerit; agere pro victoribus ; pro

summo loco, Plaut. De procul aspicere, Id. suo uti; pro rupto fædus habet, for, as, so ; E foro, ex ædibus, from, out of; e contrario, v. pro certo, infecto, comperto, nibilo, concesso,

contraria parte, on the contrary; e regione, &c. habeo, duco. Pro occiso, relictus est, over against ; e republica, e re alicujus, for the Cic. good of; statim e somno, ex fuga, ex tanta PRÆ se pugionem tulit, before; speciem præ se properantia, aliud ex alio malum, from, after; boni viri fert, pretends to be, Ter. præ lacrymis e vestigio, out of hand, immediately; poculum non possum scribere, for, because, of ; illum, ex auro ; ex equo pugnare, on horseback ; præ me contempsi, in comparison of: So the facere pugnam ex commodo, on advantageous adverb præut; as, præut hujus rabies quæ ground, Sall. diem ex die expectare, from day dabit, Ter. io day, day after day; ex ordine, in order; Palam populo, omnibus, before, with the knowmagna ex parte, for the most part; ex super ledge of vacuo, superfluously; ex tua dignitatc, v. virtute, Sine labore, without ; sine ulla causa, pompa, ex decreto senatûs, e natura, according to ; so molestia, querela, impensa, &c. homo sine re, vulgus ex veritate pauca, ex opinione multa fide, spe, fortunis, sedes, &c. Cic. æstimat; ex, v. de more, ad v. in morem alicu- Capulo TENUS, up to the hilt. T'enus is construed jus: Ex animo, from the heart ; Insolentia ex with the genitive plural, when the word wants prosperis rebus, é via languere, ex doctrina the singular; as, Cumarum tenus, as far as nobilis, on account of ; ex usu est tibi, of ad Cuma : or when we speak of things, of which vantage ; ex eo die, since ; ex amicis certis we have by nature only two; as, Oculorum, certissimus, of, or among; ex pedibus laborare, aurium, narium, labrorum, lumborum, crurum to be ill of the gout, Cic. E re nata, as the tenus, up to. We also find Corcyræ tenus, et matter slands, Ter. Commenta mater est, esse ostiis tenus, Liv. Colchis tenus, Flor. Pec

ex alio viro, nescio quo, puerum natum, by, Id. toribus tenus, Ovid. Pro gloria certare, for; Rati noctem pro se, To prepositions governing the ablative is com

favourable to them, Sall. Hoc est pro me, Cic. monly added Procul; as, Procul domo, far pro templo, tribunali, concione, rostris, castris, from home ; but here a is understood, which is foribus, before ; pro sua dignitate, sapientia, also often expressed.; as, Procul a patria, &c. pro potestate cogere, pro tempore, re, loco, Virg. Procul ab ostentatione, Quinct. Culpa est slio jure, according to ; est pro prætore, pro te procul a me, Ter.

3. Prepositions governing the Accusative or Ablative. XXV. The prepositions in, sub, super, and subter, govern the accusative, when motion to a place is signified; but when motion or rest in a place is signified, in and sub, govern the ablative; super and subter either the accusative or ablative.

IN when it signifies into, governs the accusative; when it signifies in or among, it governs the ablative; as, In urbem ire, into ; amor in patriam, in te be v. in potestatem, honore, v. honorem, mente, u

nignus, towards; in lucem, until day ; in eam mentem ; in manu, v. manibus esse, habere, sententiam, to that purpose, on that head ; in tenere, in one's power, on hand ; in amicis, rem tuam est, for your advantage; in utramque among; in oculis, before ; Occissus est in propartem disputare, on both sides, for and vinciam, far in provincia, Sall. In pueritia, against ; litura in nomen, on, Cic. potestas in adolescentia, senectute, absentia, for puer or filium, orer; in aliquem dicere, against ; mirum pueri, when a boy or boys, &c. Hoc in temin modum, after; in pedes stare, in aurem pore, Nep. In loco fratris diligere, for ut fradormire, on ; in os laudare, to, before; in, v. inter patres lectus, into the number of; in vul- Sub terras ibit imago, sub aspectum cadit, under; gus probari, spargere, &c. among ; crescit in sub ipsum funus, near, just before. Hor. sub dies, in singulos dies, omnes in dies, every lucem, ortum lucis, noctem, vesperam, bruday; in diem posterum, proximum, decimum,

mam,

i. e. incipiente luce, &c. at the dawn of against ; in diem vivere, to live from hand to day, &c. sub idem tempus, about ; sub eas mouth, not to think of to-morrow ; Est in diem, literas recitatæ sunt tuæ, sub festos dies, after, will happen sometime after, Ter. Induciæ in Cic. duos menses datæ, in hunc diem, annum, &c. Sub muro, rege, pedibus, &c. under ; sub urbe, for ; Ternis assibus in pedem, v. in singulos near, Ter. sub ea conditione, v. -em, on or pedes, transegit, He bargained for three shil with. lings a foot, or for every foot ; Šo in jugerum, SUPER Numidiam, above, beyond ; super ripas, militem, capita, naves, &c. In medimna sin

upon; super hæc; super morbum etiam fames gula, H. S. quinos denos' dedisti, Cic.

affixit, besides, Liv. super arbore, fronde super In portu navigo, in tempore, in; esse in potestate, viridi, won • super hac re scribere, his accensa

trem, Ter.

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