« ΠροηγούμενηΣυνέχεια »
super, concerning ; alii super alios trucidantur, tur laude laborem, for, Virg.
Such are Ante, circu, clam, coram, contra, infra, intra, juxta, palam, pone, post, propter, secus, subter, super, stipra, ultra. But in most of these the case seems to be implied in the sense; as, Longo post tempore venit, sc. post id tempus. Adversus, juxta, propter, secus, secundum, and clam, are by some thought to be always adverbs, having a preposition understood when they govern a
So other adverbs also are construed with the accusative or ablative; as, Intus cellam, for intra, Liv. Intus templo divum, se. in, Virg. Simul his, sc. cum, Hor:
Obs. 2. A and E are only put before consonants; AB and Ex, usually before vowels, and some. times also before consonants; as,
A palre, a regione ; ab initio, ab rege ; ex urbe, ex parle; abs before q and t; as, abs te, abs quovis homine, Ter. Some phrases are used only with e; as, e loginquo, e regione, e vestigio, e re mea est, &c. Some only with ex; as, Ex compacto, ex tempore, magna ex parte, &c.
Obs. 3. Prepositions are often understood; as, Devenere locos, scil. ad; It portis, sc. ex Virg. Nunc id prodeo, scil. ob vel propter, Ter. Maria aspera juro, scil. per, Virg. Ut se loco movere non possent, scil. e vel de, Cæs. Vina promens dolio, scil
. ex, Hor. Quid illo facias ? Quid me fiet, sc. de, Ter. We sometimes find the word to which the preposition refers, suppressed; as, Circum Concordiæ, sc. ædem, Sall. Campum Stellatim divisit extra sortem ad viginti millibus civium, i, e civium millibus ad viginti millia, Suet. But this is most frequently the case after prepositions in composition ; thus, Emittere servum, scil. manu, Plaut. Evomere virus, scil. ore, Cic. Educere copias, scil. castris, Cæs.
3. THE CONSTRUCTION OF INTERJECTIONS. XXVI. The interjections O, heu, proh, and some others, govern the nominative, accusative, or vocative; as,
O vir bonus or bone! O good man! Heu me miserum ! Ah wretched me! So O vir fortis atque amicus ! Ter. Heu vanitas humana! Plin. Heu miserande puer! Virg. O præclarum custodem ovium (ut aiunt) lupum! Cic. XXVII. The interjections hei, and væ, govern the dative; as,
Hei mihi! Ah me! Væ vobis ! Wo to you! Obs. 1. Heus and ohe are joined only with the vocative; as, Heus Syre, Ter. Ohe libelle! Martial. Proh or pro, ah, vah, hem, have generally either the accusative or vocative; as, Pro hominum fidem! Ter. Proh Sancte Jupiter! Cic. Hem astutias ! Ter.
Obs. 2. Interjections cannot properly have either concord or government. They are only mere sounds excited by passion, and have no just connexion with any other part of a sentence. Whatever case, therefore, is joined with them, must depend on some other word understood, except the vocative which is always placed absolutely; thus, Heu me miserum ! stands for Heu! quam me miserum sentio ; Hei mihi for Hei! malum est mihi! Proh dolor! for Proh! quantus est dolor! and so in other examples.
4. THE CONSTRUCTION OF CONJUNCTIONS. XXVIII. The conjunctions et, ac, atque, nec, aut, neque, and some others, connect like cases and modes; as,
Honora patrem et matrem, Honour father and mother.
Nec legit nec scribit, He neither reads nor writes. Obs. 1. To this rule belong particularly the copulative and disjunctive conjunctions; as likewise, quam, nisi, pralergilum, an ; and also adverbs of likeness ; as, ceu, tanquam, quasi, ut, &c. as,
Nullum præmium a vobis postulo, prælerquam hujus die memoriam, Cic. Gloria virtutem tanquam umbra sequitur, Id.
Obs. 2. These conjunctions properly connect the different members of a sentence together, and are hardly ever applied to single words, unless when some other word is understood. Hence if the construction of the sentence be varied, different cases and modes may be coupled together; as,
Interest mea et reipublicæ ; Constilit asse et pluris ; Sive es Romæ, sive in Epiro; Decius cum se devoveret, et in mediam aciem irruebat, Cic. Vir magni ingenii summâque industrià ; Neque per vim, neque insidiis, Sall. Tecum habita, et nôris, quam sit tibi curla supellex, Pers.
OBs. 3. When et, aul, vel, sive, or nec, are joined to different members of the same sentence, without connecting it particularly to any former sentence, the first et is rendered in English by both or likewise ; aut or vel, by eilher; the first sive, by whelher; and the first nec, by neither; as,
Et legit, et scribit ; so tum legit, tum scribit; or cum legit, tum scribit, He both reads and writes; Sive legit, sive scribit, Whether he reads or writes ; facere quâ vera, quâ falsa ; Increpare quâ consules ipsos, quâ exercitum, to upbraid both the consuls and the army, Liv.
XXIX. Two, or more substantives singular, connected by a conjunction, may have a verb, adjective, or relative plural to agree with them; as,
Petrus et Joannes, qui sunt docti, Peter and John, who are learned. Obs. 1. If the substantives be of different persons, the verb plural must agree with the first person rather than the second, and with the second rather than the third ; as, Si tu et Tullia
valetis, ego et Cicero valemus, If you and Tullia are well, I and Cicero are well, Cic. In English, the person speaking usually puts himself last; thus, You and I read ; Cicero and I are well : but in Latin, the person who speaks is generally put first; thus, Ego et tu legimus.
Obs. 2. If the substantives are of different genders, the adjective or relative plural must agree with the masculine rather than the feminine or neuter; as, Pater et mater, qui sunt mortui ; but this is only applicable to beings which may have life. The person is sometimes implied; as, Athenarum et Cratippi, ad quos, &c. Propter summam dootoris auctoritatem et urbis, quorum alter, &c. Cic. Where Athene el urbs are put for the learned men of Athens. So in substantives; as, Ad Ptolemæum Cleopatramque reges lcgali missi, i. e. the king and queen, Liv.
Obs. 3. If the substantive signify things without life, the adjective or relative plural must be put in the neuter gender; as, Divitiæ, decus, gloria, in oculis sita sunt, Sall.
The same holds, if any of the substantives signify a thing without life: because when we apply a quality or join an adjective to several substantives of different genders, we must reduce the substantive to some certain class, under which they may all be comprehended, that is, to what is called their Genus. Now the Genus or class which comprehends under it both persons and things, is that of substances or beings in general, which are neither masculine nor feminine. · To express this, the Latin Grammarians use the word Negotia.
Obs. 4. The adjective or verb frequently agrees with the nearest substantive or nominative, and is understood to the rest; as,
Et ego et Cicero meus flagitabit, Cic. Sociis et rege recepto, Virg. Et ego in culpa sum, et tu, Both I am in the fault, and you ; or, Et ego et tu es in culpa, Both ! and you are in the fault Nihil hic nisi carmina, desunt ; or nihil hic deest nisi carmina. Omnia, quibus turbari solita erat civitas, domi discordia, foris bellum exortum ; Duo millia et quadringenti cæsi, Liv. This construction is most usual, when the different substantives resenible one another in sense ; as, Mens, ratio, et consilium, in senibus est, Understanding, reason, and prudence is in old men. Quibus ipse meique ante Larem proprium vescor, for vescimur, Horat.
Obs. 5. The plural is sometimes used after the preposition cum put for et ; as,
Remo cum fratre Quirinus jura dabunt, Virg. The conjunction is frequently understood; as, Dum ætas, metus, magister prohibebant, Ter. Frons, oculi, vultus sæpe mentiuntur, Cic.
The different examples comprehended under this rule are commonly referred to the figure Syllepsis. XXX. The conjunctions ut, quo, licet, &c. govern the subjunctive mood; as,
Lego ut discain, I read that I may learn.
I wish you were wise. Obs. 1. All interrogatives when placed indefinitely, have after them the subjunctive mode.
Whether they be adjectives; as, Quantus, qualis, quotus, quotuplex, uter ; pronouns, as, quis & cujus; adverbs, as, Ubi, quo, unde, quà, quorsum, quamdiu, quamdudum, quampridem, quoties, cur, quare, quamobrem, num, utrum, quomodo, quî, ut, quam, quantopěre; or conjunctions, as, ne, an, anne, annon : Thus, Quis est? Who is it? Nescio quis sit, I do not know who it is. · An venturus est ? Nescio, dubito, an venturus sit ; Viden' ut alta flet nive candidum Soracte? Hor. But these words are sometimes joined with the indicative; as, Scio quid ago, Plaut. Haud scio, an amat, Ter. Vide avaritia quid facit, Id. Vides quam turpe est, Cic.
T In like manner the relative QUI in a continued discourse; as, Nihil est quod Deus eficere non possit. Quis est, qui utilia fugiat ? Cic. Or when joined with QUIPPE or UTPOTE; Neque Antonius procul aberat, utpote qui sequeretur, &c. Sall. But these are sometimes, although more rarely, joined with the indicative. So Est qui, sunt qui, est quando v. ubi, &c. are joined with the indicative or substantive.
Note. Haud scio an recte dixerim, is the same with dico, affirmo, Cic.
Obs. 2. ETSI, TAMETSI, and TAMENETSI, QUAMQUAM, in the beginning of a sentence, have the indicative; but elsewhere, they also take the subjunctive ; ETIAMSI and QUAMVIS commonly have the subjunctive, and UT, although, always has it; as, Ut quæras, non reperies, Cic. QUONIAM, QUANDO, QUANDOQUIDEM, are usually construed with the indicative; SI, SIN, NE, NISI, SIQUIDEM, QUOD, and QUIA, sometimes with the indicative, and sometimes with the subjunctive. DUM, for dummodo, provided, has always the subjunctive; as, Oderint dum metuant, Cic. And QUIPPE, for nam, always the indicative; as, Quippe vetor fatis.
Obs. 3. Some conjunctions have their correspondent conjunctions belonging to them ; so that, in the following member of the sentence, the latter answers to the former ; thus, when etsi, tametsi, or quamvis, although, are used in the former member of a sentence, tamen, yet or nevertheless, generally answers to them in the latter. In like manner, Tam-quam; Adeo or itaz_ut: in English, As,-äs, or so; as, Etsi sit liberalis, tamen non est profusus, Although he be liberal, yet he is not profuse. 'So prius or ante,-quam. In some of these, however, we find the latter conjunction sometimes omitted, particularly in English.
Obs. 4. The conjunction ut is elegantly omitted after these verbs, Volo, nolo, malo, rogo, precor censeo, suadeo, licet, oportet, necesse est, and the like; and likewise after these imperatives, Sine, fac or facito; as, Dúcas volo hodie uxorem ; Nolo mentiare ; Fac cogites, Ter. In like manner ne is commonly omitted after cave ; as, Cave facias, Cic. Post is also sometimes understood ; thus, Die octavo, quain creatus erat, Liv. iv. 47. scil. post.
OBs. 5. Ui and Quod are thus distinguished: ut denotes the final cause, and is commonly used with regard to something future; quod marks the efficient or impulsive cause, and is generally used concerning the event or thing done; as, Lego ut discam, I read that I may learn ; Gaudeo qudd legi, I am glad that or because I have read. Ut is likewise used after these intensive words, as they are called, Adeo, ita, sic, tam, talis, tantus, tot, &c.
OBs. 6. After the verbs timeo, vereor, and the like, ut is taken in a negative sense for ne non, and ne in an affirmative sense; as,
Timeo ne facial, I fear he will do it; Timeo ut faciat, I fear he will not do it. Id paves ne ducas tu illam, tu autem ut ducas, Ter. Ut sis vitalis, metuo, Hor. Timeo ut frater vivat, will not ;-ne fraler morialur, will. But in some few examples they seem to have a contrary meaning.
1. Verbs governing the Accusative. XXXI. Verbs, signifying actively, govern the accusative; as,
Ama Deum, Love God. Reverere parentes, Reverence your parents. Obs. 1. Neuter verbs also govern the accusative, when the noun after them has a signification similar to their own; as,
Ire iter or viam ; Pugnare pugnam or prælium ; Currere cursum ; Canere cantilenam ; Vivere vitam ; Ludere ludum; Sequi sectam ; Somniare somnium, &c. or when they are taken in a inetaphorical sense ; as, Corydon ardebat Alexin, scil. propter, i. e. vehementer amabat, Virg. Currimus æquor, scil. per, Id. So comptos arsit adulteri crines, Hor. Saltare Cyclopa; olet hircum ; Sulcos et vineta crepai mera, Hor. * Vox hominem sonat ; Sudare mella, Virg. Śi Xerxes Hellesponto juncto, et Alhone perfosso, maria ambulavisset, terramque navigasset, sc. per Cic. Or when they have a kind of active sense; as, Clamare aliquem nomine, Virg. Callere jura ; Mærere mortem ; Horret iratum mare, Hor.
Sometimes instead of the accusative, neuter verbs have an ablative; as, Ire itinere ; dolere dolore, vicem ejus; gaudere gaudio; mori v. obire morte ; vivere vitâ; ardet virgine, Horat. Ludere aleam v. -a; manare, pluere, roråre, stillare, sudare, aliquid vel aliquo. Erubescere jura, Virg. origine, Tacit. equo vehi, Curt.
OBS. 2. Several verbs are used both in an active and neuter sense; as, Abhorrere famam, to dread infamy, Liv. a litibus; luclinare culpam in aliquem, to lay; Hos ut se•
ab uxore ducenda, to be averse from, Id. a meis quar inclinat animus, inclines; acies inclinat,
moribus abhorret, is inconsistent with, Cic. vel inclinatur, gives away. Abolere monumenta viri, to abolish, Virg. illis Laborare arma, to forge; morbo, a dolore, e
Cladis Caudinæ nondum memoria aboleverat, renibus, to be ill; de re aliqua, to be conwas not effaced from, they had not forgotten,
Morari iter, to stop ; in urbe, to stay ; Hoc nihil Adolere penates, to burn, to sacrifice to, Virg. moror, I do not mind. Ætas adolevit; adolevit ad ætatem, Plaut. Properare pecuniam hæredi, Hor. in orbem; ad Declinare ictum, to avoid ; loco; agmen aliquo, unam sedem, Ov. to remove.
Quadrare acervum, to square, Hor. aliquid ad Degenerare animos, to weaken ; patri, to de. normam; alicui, in aliquem, ad multa, to fit. generate from ; a virtute majorum.
Suppeditare copiam dicendi, to furnish; Sumptus Durare adolescentes labore, to harden; Res durat illi, vel in sumptibus, Ter: suppeditat oratio, is
ad breve tempus, endures ; In ædibus durare afforded ; Manubiæ in fundamenta vix suppepequeo, stay or remain, Plaut.
ditârunt, were sufficient, Liv. OBs. 3. These accusatives, hoc, id, quid, aliquid, quicquid, nihil, idem, illud, tantum, quantum, multa, pauca, &c. are often joined with neuter verbs, having the prepositions circa or propter understood ; as, Id lacrumat, Id succenset, Ter.
Obs. 4. The accusative is often understood. Tum pröra avertit, sc. se, Virg. Flumina præcipitant, sc. se, Id. Quocunque intenderat, sc. se, turned or directed himself, Sallust. Obiit sc. mortem, Ter Cum faciam vitulà, sc. sacra, Virg. Or its place supplied by an infinitive or part of a sentence ; as, Reddes dulce loqui, reddes ridere decorum ; for dulcem sermonem, decorum risum, Hor
2. Verbs governing the Genitive.
Miserere civium tuorum, Pity your countryinen.
He has his hands full at home, or has enough to do about
his own affairs. Obs. 1. Several other verbs among the poets govern the genitive by a Greek construction, particularly such as signify some affection of the mind; as, Ango, decipior, desipio, discrucior, excrucio, fallo & fallor, fæstideo, invideo, lætor, miror, pendeo, studeo, vereor; as, Ne angas te animi, Plaut. Laborum decipitur, Hor. Discrucior animi, Ter. Pendet mihi animus, pendeo animi vel animo; but we always say, Pendemus animis, not animorum, are in suspense, Cic. Justitiæ prius mirer, Virg: In like manner, Abstineo, desino, desisto, quiesco, regno; likewise, 'adipiscor, condico, credo, frustror, funo, laudo, libero, levo, participo, prohibeo ; as, Abstineto irarum ; Desine querelarum; Regnavit populorum, Hor. Desistere pugna, Virg. Quarum rerum condixit, Liv.
But all these verbs are for the most part differently construed; thus, Angor, desipio, discrucior, fallor animo. Hoc animum meum excruciat. Fastidio, miror, vereor aliquem, vel aliquid. Lator aliqua re. Some of them are joined with the infinitive; or with quòd, ut, ne, and the subjunctive.
In like manner we usually say, Desino aliquid, et ab aliquo, to give over; Desisto incepto, de negotio, ab illa mente; Quiesco a labore ; Regnare in equitibus, oppidis, sc. in, Cic. Per urbes, Virg. Adipisci id; Frustrari in re ; Furere de aliquo, Cic.
Obs. 2. The genitive after verbs, in the same manner as after adjectives, is governed by some substantive understood. This substantive is different according to the different meaning of the rerbs; thus, Misereor fratris, scil. causa, Angor animi, scil. dolore or anxietate.
3. Verbs governing the Dative. XXXIII. Any verb may govern the dative in Latin, which has to, or for, after it in English; as,
Finis vênit imperio, An end is come to the empire, Liv.
Tibi seris, tibi metis, You sow for yourself, you reap for yourself, Plaut.
XXXIV. Verbs compounded with satis, bene, and male, govern the dative; as,
Satisfacio, satisdo, benefacio, benedico, benerolo, malefacio, maledico tibi, &c. XXXV. Many verbs compounded with these nine prepositions, pre, ad, con, sub, ante, ob, in, inter, super, govern the dative; as,
1. Præcedo, præcurro, præco, præsideo, præluceo, prænileo, præsto, prævaleo, præverto. 2. Accedo, accresco, accumbo, acquiesco, adno, adnalo, adequito, adhæreo, adsto, adstipulor, advolvor, afulgeo, allabor, allaboro, annuo, appareo, applaudo, appropinquo, arrideo, aspiro, assentior, assideo assisto, assuesco, assurgo.
3. Colludo, concino, consono, convivo.
6. Obrepo, obluctor, obtrector, obstrepo, obmurmuro, occumbo, occurro, occurso, obsto, obsisto, obvenio.
7. Incumbo, indormio, indlubito, inhio, ingemisco, inhæreo, insideo, insidior, insto, insisto, insudo, insulto, invigilo, illacrymo, illudo, immineo, immorior, immoror, impendeo.
8. Intervenio, interinico, intercedo, intercido, interjaceo.
9. Supervenio, supercurro, supersto. But. most verbs compounded with SUPER govern the accusative.
XXXVI. Verbs, signifying to profit, hurt, favour, assist, command, obey, serve, resist, trust, threaten, and be angry with, govern the dative.
1. To profit or hurt; as, Proficio, prosum, placeo, commodo, prospicio, caveo, metuo, timeo, consulo, for prospicio. Likewise, Noceo, officio, incommodo, displiceo, insidior.
2. To favour or assist, and the contrary; as,
Faveo, gralulor, gratificor, gralor, ignosco, indulgeo, parco, adulor, plaudo, blandior, lenecinor, palpor, assentor, supparasitor. Likewise, Auxilios, adminiculor, subvenio, succurro, patrocinor, inedeor, medicor, opilulor. Likewise, Derogo, detraho, invideo, æmulor.
3. To command and obey, to serve and resist; as, Impero, præcipio, mando, moderor, for modum adhibeo. Likewise, Pareo, ausculto, obedio, obsequor, obtempero, morigero, morigeror, obsecundo. Likewise, Famulor, servio, inservio, ministro, ancillor. Likewise, Repugno, obsto, reluctor, renitor, resisto, refragor, adversor
4. To threaten and to be angry; as, Minor, comminor, interminor, irascor, succenseo. 5. To trust; as, Fido, confido, credo, diffido.
To these add, Nubo, excello, hæreo, supplico, cedo, despêro, operor, præstolor, prævaricor, recipio, to promise ; renuncio ; respondeo, to answer or satisfy; tempero, studeo, vaco, to apply; convicior.
Exc. Jubeo, juvo, lædo, and offendo, govern the accusative.
Obs. 1. Verbs governing the dative only, are either neuter verbs, or of a neuter signification. Active verbs governing the dative, have also an accusative expressed or understood.
Obs. 2. Most verbs governing the dative only, have been enumerated; because there are a great inany verbs compounded with prepositions, which do not govern the dative, but are otherwise construed : and still more signifying advantage or disadvantage, &c. which govern the accusative; as, Lero, erigo, alo, nutrio, amo, diligo, vexo, crucio, aversor, &c. aliquem, not alicui.
Obs. 3. Many of these verbs are variously construed, particularly such as are compounded with a preposition; as, Anteire, antecedere, antecellere, præcedere, præcurrere, præire, &c. alicui or aliquem, to go before,
naves, to swim to
Adulari ei, v. eum, to flaller. Allabi oris ; aures ejus, Virg. ad exta, Liv
curam, cogitationem, &c. to apply to.
To these may be added verbs, which, chiefly among the poets, govern the dative; but in prose are usually construed with a preposition ; as, 1. Contendo, certo, bello, pugno, concurro, coeo alicui, for cum aliquo; 2. Distare, dissentire, discrepare, dissidere, differre rei alicui, for à re aliqua. We also say, Contendunt, pugnant, distant, &c. inter se; and contendere, pugnare contra and adversus aliquem.
Obs. 4. Many verbs vary both their signification and construction; as, Timeo, metuo, formido, horreo tibi, de le, and pro te, I am afraid for you, or for your safety ; but timeo, horreo te, v. a te, I fear or dread you as an enemy; So Consulo, prospicio, caveo tibi, hoc, 1 foresee this ; Studere aliquid, to desire; alicui, to favour; alicui rei, rem, and in re, to apply to a thing. So Æmulor tibi, I envy; te, I imitate , Ausculto tibi, I obey or listen to; te, I hear; Cupio tibi, I favour; rem, I desire ; Fænero and -or tibi, I lend you on interest; abs te, I borrow; Metuisti, ne non tibi istuc fæneraret, should not return with interest, or bring usury, Ter. And thus many other verbs, which will be afterwards explained.
Obs. 5. Verbs signifying Motion or Tendency to a thing are construed with the preposition
Eo, vado, curro, propero, festino, pergo, fugio, tendo, vergo, inclino, &c. ad locum, rem, v. hominem. Sometimes, however, in the poets they are construed with the dative; as, It clamor cælo, for ad cælum, Virg.
X.XXVII. Recordor, memini, reminiscor, and obliviscor, govern the accusative or genitive; as,
Recordor lectionis or lectionem, I remeinber the lesson.
Obliviscor injuriæ or injuriam, I forget an injury. Obs. 1. These verbs are often construed with the infinitive, or some part of a sentence; as, Memint videre virginem, Ter. Oblitus est, quid paulo ante possuisset, Cic.
Ops. 2. Memini, when it signifies to make mention, is joined with the genitive, or the ablative with the preposition de; as, Memini alicujus, vel de aliquo. So recordor, when it signifies to socollect; as, Velim scire ecquid de te recordere, Cic.
4. Verbs governing the Ablative. XXXVIII. Verbs of abounding and wanting, govern the ablative, and sometimes the genitive; as,
Abundat divitiis, He abounds in riches.
Caret omni culpa, He has no fault. Verbs of plenty are, Abundo, afluo, exuběro, redundo, suppedito, scateo, &c.-of want, Careo, egeo, indigeo, vaco, deficior, destituor, &c.
Obs. 1. Egeo and indigeo frequently govern the genitive; as, Eget æris, He needs money, Hor Non tam artis indigent, quàm laboris, Cic.
OBs. 2. The ablative after these verbs is governed by some preposition understood; and sometimes we find it expressed; as, Vacat a oulpa, he is free from fault, Liv.
XXXIX. Utor, abutor, fungor, fruor, potior, vescor, and some others, govern the ablative; as,
Ulitur fraude, He uses deceit. Abutitur libris, He abuses books. To these add, gaudeo, creor, nascor, fido, vivo, victito, consto, laboro, for male me habeo, to be ill • pasoor, epūlor, nitor, &c.
ad ; as,