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FIRST CONJUGATION, ACTIVE VOICE.

PRINCIPAL PARTS.
Pres. Indic. Perf. Indic.

Supine. Pres. Infin.
Amo.
ămāvi, ămătum,

ămäre, To love.

INDICATIVE MOOD.
Present Tense, love, do love, or am loving.
Singular.

Plural.
1. Amo, I love,

Amāmus, we love, 2. Amas, thou lovest,

Amatis, ye love, 3. Amat, he loves;

Amant, they love. Imperfect, loved, did love, or was loving. 1. Amábam, I loved,

Amabamus, we loved, 2. Amabas, thou lovedst,

Amabatis, ye loved,
3. Amabat, he loves ;

Amabant, they loved.
Perfect, loved, have loved, or did love.
1. Amavi, I have loved,

Amāvīmus, we have loved,
2. Amavisti, thou hast loved, Amavistis, ye have loved,
3. Amavit, he has loved;

Amavērunt,v.—ēre, they have loved.

Pluperfect, had loved.
1. Amávěram, I had loved,

Amaveramus, we had loved,
2 Amaveras, thou hadst loved, Amaveratis, ye had loved,
3. Amaverat, he had loved ; Amaverant, they had loved.

Future, shall, or will love.
1. Amabo, I shall love,

Amabimus, we shall love, 2. Amabis, thou shalt love,

Amabitis, ye shall love, 3. Amabit, he shall love;

Amabunt, they shall love.

EXERCISES.
Accuso, to accuse.
Adumbro, to shade.
Ædifico, to build.
Æstimo, lo value.
Animo, to encourage.
Appello, to call.
Apto, to fit.
Assevero, to affirm.
Bello, to war.
Beo, to bless.
Calco, to tread.
Castigo, lo chastise.
Celo, to conceal.
Clamo, to cry.
Cogito, to think.
Coinparo, to compare.
Considero, to consider
Contamino, to pollute
Creo, to create.
Curo, to care.
Damno, to condemn.
Declaro, to declare.
Decoro, to adorn.
Dedico, to dedicate.
Desolo, to lay waste.
Dono, to present.
Educo, to bring up.
Emendo, to amend.
Erro, to wander.
Exploro, to search.
Extrico, to disentangle.
Fabrico, to frame.
Fascino, to bewitch.
Fatigo, to weary.
Festino, to hasten.
Flagito, to dun.
Flo, to blow.
Frio, lo crumble.
Fugo, to put to flight.
Guberno, lo govern.
Gusto, to taste.
Honoro, to honour.
Jacto, to boast.
Iminolo, to sacrifice.
Impero, to command.
Inchoo, to begin.
Indico, to show.
Instigo, to push on.
Intro, to enter.
Invito, to invite.
Jubilo, to shout for joy.
Juro, to swear.
Laboro, to labour.
Lacero, to tear.
Latro, lo bark.
Lego, to send an embassy
Libo, to taste.
Libero, to free.
Ligo, to bind.
Mando, to command.
Meneoro, to tell.
Migro, to remove.
Muto, to change.
Narro, to relale.
Navigo, to sail.
Nego, to deny.
Nomino, to name.
Nudo, to make bare.
Numero, to count.
Obsecro, to beseech.
Odore, to perfume.
Onero, to load.
Opto, to wish.

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.

Present Tense, may, or can love. 1 Amem, I may love,

Amēmus, we

ay love, 2. Ames, thou mayest love,

Ametis, ye may love, 3. Amet, he may love ;

Ament, they may love.
Imperfect, might, would, could, or should love.
1. Amārem, I might love,

Amarēmus, we might love,
2. Amaros, thou mightest love; Amaretis, ye might love,
3. Amaret, he might love ;

Amarent, they might love.

Perfect, may have loved. 1. Amaverim, I may have loved, Amaverimus, we may have loved, 2. Amavcris, thou mayest have loved, Amaveritis, ye may have loved, 3. Amaverit, he may have loved ; Amaverint, they may have loved.

Pluperfect, might, would, could, or should have loved. 1. Amāvissem, I might have loved, Amavissemus, we might have loved, 2. Amavisses, thou mightest have loved, Amavissetis, ye might have loved, 3. Amavisset, he might have loved; Amavissent, they might have loved.

Future, shall have loved.
1. Amávěro, I shall have loved, Amaverimus, we shall have loved,
2. Amaveris, thou shalt have loved, Amaveritis, ye shall have loved,
3. Amaverit, he shall have loved ; Amaverint, they shall have loved.

IMPERATIVE MOOD.
2. Ama, v. amāto, love thou, Amāte v. amatote, love ye,
3. Amăto, let him love;

Amanto, let them love.

INFINITIVE MOOD.
Pres. Amāre, to love. Perf. Amavisse, to have loved.
Fut. Esse amaturus, to be about to love, Fuisse amaturus, to have been
about to love.

PARTICIPLES.
Pres. Amans, loving. Fut. Amaturus, about to love.

GERUNDS.
Aman-dum-di-do-dum-do, loving, of loving, &c.

SUPINES.
Former, Amātum, to love. Latter, Amatu, to love, or to be loved

QUESTIONS

ON

ADAM'S LATIN GRAMMAR;

SIMPLIFIED BY ALLEN FISK.

INTRODUCTION. (Page 67.)

The classes of words are called what?
What is grammar? Latin grammar?
What are the rudiments of grammar ?

PARTS OF SPEECH.
Of what does grammar treat?

How many and what are the parts of speech? Of what do sentences, words and syllables consist ? Which declined? and undeclined ? What four things make up the whole subject of When is a word said to be declined ? grammar?

What is termination? What are accidents ?

To what is declension applied ? and conjugation? LETTERS.

Which part of speech has the English more than What is a letter? What is orthography?

the Latin ? How many letters in Latin?

What is said of the want of the article? Which English letter is wanting in Latin?

NOUN. Into what are letters divided? How many vowels? How many consonants? What is a noun ? Is the adjective properly called a What is a vowel? What a consonant?

noun? or a different part of speech? What is a simple sound? What is an articulate Why have the adjective and noun been compre sound?

hended under the same general name?
Into what are consonants divided?
Why is a mute so called? Which are the mutes ?

SUBSTANTIVE.
And the semi-mutes? What is a semi-vowel ? What is a substantive or noun ?
Repeat them; and the liquids. Why so called ? The division of names? Explain each?
How are the mutes and semi-vowels distinguished? What is a genus or kind?
Which are the double consonants ?

May a proper name be used for a common?
Of what is x made up? What is said of z? What third class of nouns may be added ?
What letters are found only in Greek words? What is number? The singular ? plural ?
What is h?

Explain the masculine, feminine, neuter and comDIPTHONGS.

mon gender.

How are relations expressed in English? What is a dipthong? a proper dipthong and an im

How in Latin ? proper?

How is a Latin noun declined ?
Repeat the proper; and the improper.

How many genders? Name them
In the improper which vowel is heard ?
How did the ancients write these vowels?

cases? What are cases? Why so called?

numbers ? SYLLABLES.

declensions? How distinguished ? What is a syllable? How many syllables in a word ?

What is the termination of the genitive singular in What is the exception? Why?

the first declension? In the second ? In the third? What is a monosyllable? a dissyllable.? a polysyl

The fourth ? And the fifth ? lable?

GENERAL RULES OF DECLENSION.
How are we directed in dividing words?
How are compound words divided ?

Repeat the first general rule.
How is a long syllable marked ? how a short ?

What is the second? The third ? The fourth? N. B. A circumflex accent marks a contraction.

What cases are alike? In neuters? In all nouns? See page 175 for the definition of penult, and ante

What is the remark on Greek nouns? penult; and page 182 for the accents, and learn the

How are the cases of Latin nouns expressed in Emfollowing

glish?

What is the sign of the nominative? genitive ? daTHREE RULES FOR ACCENTS.

tive? accusative ? vocative? ablative? 1. All dissyllables have the accents on the first. Of what case is of, the sign? to? for? with ? in or 2. Long penultimates always have the accent on

by? 0? them.

GENDER. 3. Short penultimates throw the accent on the antepenultimate.

Explain what is meant by gender.

How do grammarians distinguish genders?
WORDS.

What is the first general rule for gender?
What are words? What is etymology? or analogy? What is the second ? and the third ?
What are the divisions of words?

Repeat the list of nouns of the common gender. What is the figure of words? What the species? Which of these change their termination? What is a simple word ?

Which nouns that are applied to both sexes are all What is a compound word?

ways inasculine ? and which neuter? and which What is a primitive word? and a derivative? ' feminine ?

song's.?

What is the first observation? Give examples. Greek? What gender? Decline JEneas. Has it What are these called ?

any plural? Why not? (4th General rule. How What is the second observation?

does the accusative vary? Decline Ossa. Where What gender are the names of months, winds, rivers is Ossa ? How is Anchises declined? Why does and mountains? Why? The exception?

it want the plural?. Decline Penclope. How What gender are the names of countries, towns, many syllables has Pe-nel'o-pe? Why? (Ans. 2d

trees and ships? Why? The first exception ? the question under syllables.)

second exception ? the third ? the fourth? How are Greek nouns in eś and e changed? Give , What is the third observation ?

examples. How is the genitive plural contracted? What is meant by doubtful gender?

What marks a contraction? What is meant by common gender?

N. B. A Geographical Exercise, on the names Does cominon gender apply to any nouns except the mentioned in the Grammar may be introduced names of males and females ?

with advantage. FIRST DECLENSION. (See page 10.)

SECOND DECLENSION. (Page 10.) Ilow do nouns of this declension end?

How do nouns of this declension end ? How many terminations ? What are they?

How many terminations ? Repeat them. How do Latin nouns end? What are the termina How many of these are Latin terminations? tions of the different cases?

How many Greek? Write an example of each. Decline musa, without the English.

What is the rule for gender? Decline musa, a song, with the English.

What is the termination of the genitive? dat. and Decline bona, good, in the same manner.

abl.? acc. ? vocative? How many simple nouns Decline bona musa, a good song, with the English, in ir? and ur? What nouns lose e in the geni

singular and plural. Write it on the slate. tive? What is the example? Distinguish líber, bark, How do you say a good song in Latin ? nominative from liber, free, by the declension ; by the quanand accusative?

tity. How is liber, a book, pronounced? Ans. of a good song?

songs?

short i. How is liber, free, pronounced? Ans. to or for a good song? songs? long i. What examples in us and un are given? O good song?

How are they declined ? Write them. Write bo. with a good song?

songs?

nus puer, with the English in full. What case is of a good song? to a good song? with, What is the nominative case ? the genitive ? and the in, or by, a good song?

other cases? Write on the slate the declension of the following What is the English of bonus puer? words:

What is the Latin of a good boy? and so on through atra cura, black care. (See page 11.)

the cases in Latin and English. magna stella, a great star.

Decline and write bonum donum, pulcher liber, bepretiosa gemma, a precious jewel.

nignus gener, doctus vir, a learned man. with the English. How do you say, with black cares? great stars?

EXCEPTIONS IN GENDER. of precious jewels?

What nounsare feminine? To these wbat is added ? EXCEPTIONS.

Why? Other names of jewels and plants are what 1. What nouns are masculine? Which neuter ?

gender? What nouns are either masculine or fe

minine? What nouns are neuter? Which one 2. What are the forms of the old genitive?

masculine or neuter? The obsolete declension of these nouns was probably in this form:

EXCEPTIONS IN DECLENSION. Ancient form. Modern form, contracted. What is the rule for the vocative of proper names Nom. Aula, Aula,

in ius, with filius and genius? Decline Deus. Gen. Aulais, Aulâs, Aulai, Aulæ,

What is the vocative of Deus? and of meus?
Dat. Aulai,
Aulai or Aulæ,

How do other nouns in ius make the vocative?
Aulaem,
Aulam,

How do the poets make the vocative of nouns in us?
Aula,
Aula,

Does this occur in prose? Explain the contraction
Aulae,
Aulâ,

of nouns in the genitive singular? and plural?
Plural.
Nom. Aulaes,
Aulae, Aulæ,

GREEK NOUNS. Gen. Aulaeum, for euphony, Aularum,

What terminations of the second declension are Dat. Aulaibus, Aulabus or Aulis,

Greek, and how are they changed? What termiAcc. Aulaes, contracted Aulas, &c.

nations are contracted ? What does a circumflex accent mark ? (Line 11, How are nouns in os declined? page 191.)

How do some neuters inake the genitive plural? What illustration is here found ? Ans. Gen. Aulas,

THIRD DECLENSION. like familiâs, and aulâ. For what is aulâ contracted. Ans. For aulae. What other proof of How many final letters in the termination of nouns this old form remains? Ans. The dative and of this declension? How many peculiar to this ablative plural of the nouns mentioned in the declension ? Name them. Which are common to third exception? What are those nouns? How other declensions ? Which are Greek ? declined? Why so declined ? How many nouns What are the terminations of the cases ? are mentioned in the third exception? What How are nouns of this declension known? others may be added ? Ans. Socia and Do. Decline the examples given on the 10th page. mina. Write the declension of filia, daughter, in What case is sermonis? Why? What case is ser. full.

moni ? Can you write this declension with the Decline formosa, beautiful, like musa. Decline for. English? How do you say with speeches in Latin ? mosa filia, with the English.

of heads ? to journeys? in seats? on rocks ? with How do you say in Latin, a beautiful daughter? of stones? Why does iter make itineris

the genia beautiful daughter? to a beautiful daughter? tive ? Ans. Because contracted from itiner. How do you say, with or to beautiful daughters? Decline lenis sermo, a mild speech. Write it.

Which terminations of the first declension are Decline felix iter, a happy joumey. Write it.

?

ways.

RULES FOR THE GENDER AND THE GENITIVE. when um? Monosyllables in as ? Polysyllables
What is the first rule for the gender? for the geni-

Nouns in es and is, not increasing the genitive? tive?

Nouns ending in two consonants? which five exWhat is the second rule? First exception of nouns

cepted! in io? Without a body? With a body?

What is the third exception? Write the declension

of bos, and contract it. Greek nouns? Which Second exception of nouns in do and go? Which are feminine? Which masculine ? What gender is Nouns which want the singular? Names of feasts?

have the genitive in on?
cupido?
What is the third exception ? Decline the irregular How do the poets contract this case ? How length-

nouns mentioned. What are the obsolete nomi-
natives? Write the declension of turbo, a whirl

DATIVE PLURAL.
wind, and Turbo, the name of a man.

How do Greek nouns in a form the dative plural? What is the fourth exception? Write the declension from what nominative? of Dido, both

How do the poets form the dative plural ?
N. B. All nouns should be declined backward as
well as forward.

ACCUSATIVE PLURAL.
What is the third rule? Write the eight exceptions.
What is said of D?

How do nouns which have ium in the genitive form The fourth rule? Recite the four exceptions.

the accusative plural? The fifth rule? How many nouns excepted ?

If the accusative singular ends in a, how is the plu The sixth rule ? The first exception? What gender Decline and write Greek nouns through all cases.

ral?
is arbor? What is the distinction between tu.
ber, a tree and a fruit? decline both.

FOURTH DECLENSION:
What is the second exception?
What is said of nouns in ter? Decline Jupiter.

How do nouns of the fourth declension end ?
What is the gender of linter, a boat?

Which are masculine? Which neuter, and which What is the seventh rule? The first exception?

indeclinable? What are the terminations of the Recite the note. What is the second exception?

different cases ? What is the eighth rule? The first exception ? The

How do you say of a chariot ? to a chariot? with second exception? The third exception?

a horn? to horns? with chariots? of a horn? Decline Dares and Achilles, names of men.

What is the English of cornuum ? curribus? cur. What is the ninth rule? The first exception?

rus? currus? cornua? cornibus? cornu ? Explain the difference between Latin and Greek What nouns in us are feminine? Which vary ili nouns in nis?

gender? and which in declension ? What is the second exception?

What declension is Capricornus? and the coinWhat gender is semis? (See also note under rule 7.) Decline domus, a house, with the English.

pounds of manus? How many doubtfuls under the third exception ? What is the fourth exception ? And the fifth?

What gender? decline pulchra, beautiful, with doWhat is the eleventh rule? The first exception?

How do you say, a beautiful house? of a The second exception. The third exception?

beautiful house to a beautiful house? with beauDecline glomus, Venus, vetus, Edipus, I'rupezus,

tiful houses? of beautiful houses? What is the tripus.

English of pulchras domus ? pulchris domibus ? What is the twelfth rule ?

What is the distinction between domus and doini Thirteenth rule? Repeat all the nouns in aes and

What nouns make ubus in the dative, and ablative

plural ? and what ibus? What are nouns in aus? How declined ?

How is Jesus déclined ? write it. What is the fourteenth rule ? and the five excep

To which declension did the nouns of this declentions?

sion anciently belong ? Write the old form. What is the fifteenth rule?

What cases are contracted ? How is the genitive in What is the sixteenth rule ?

some writers ? and the dative? and the genitive What gender are polysyllables in ex and ax?

plural ? What nouns are added? What excepted?

FIFTH DECLENSION. What is the second exception? The third ? How do nouns of the fifth declension end? What Repeat the fourth exception, and decline and write

gender? Decline res, a thing. And bona, good the words.

And bona res, a good thing. How do you say with DATIVE SINGULAR.

good things? How did the dative singular formerly end?

What nouns are excepted in the gender? How d. Examples.

the poets make the genitive ? and the dative?

How many nouns of the fifth declension ?
ACCUSATIVE SINGULAR.

To which declension did they formerly belong ?
What nouns have im? What proper names of ci-

What cases are often wanting? How do these nout. ties? of rivers? of Gods? How do these some

end? How many in es? Which are they? How times make the accusative?

many in ies, not of this declension ? Name them. What nouns have em or im?

Write the declension of quies and requies.
How do Greek nouns form the accusative?
Repeat and write the five specifications.

IRREGULAR NOUNS.

How many classes of irregular nouns?
ABLATIVE SINGULAR.

VARIABLE NOUNS.
What nouns have i in the ablative? What y or ye?

How do nouns vary? What are heterogeneous
NOMINATIVE PLURAL.
When does the nominative plural end in es? in is? Repeat those which are masculine in the singular,
in a.?

and neuter in the plural. What are these sup

posed to be? What is understood ? GENITIVE PLURAL.

What is the second division of the heterogeneous When do nouns make ium in the genitive plural, and

mus.

aus.

nouns?

nouns?

ant nouns.

senex.

What is the third ? and the fourth ? and the fifth ?

COMPARISON. and the sixth ?

What does comparison of adjectives express . Repeat the nouns under each division. What are What adjectives are compared ? How many deheteroclites ? Repeat them.

grees of comparison? Explain each.

How is the comparative formed? The superlative? DEFECTIVE NOUNS.

If the positive ends in er? Of what declension is How many ways are nouns defective ?

the comparative ? and the superlative? Repeat the six ways, with examples, of nouns defective in cases.

IRREGULAR AND DEFECTIVE COMPARISON. Repeat the eight ways, with examples, of nouns de. Compare bonus, malus, magnus, parvus, multus. fective in number. What means castrum.? Of

For what is major contracted? Ans. Ma(gn)ior. what noun is it the singular? and literæ ?

And maximus? Ans. Magnissimus.

Repeat and
REDUNDANT NOUNS.

those that have limus.

compare

Compare those that have the superlative irregular. Repeat the eight ways, with examples, of redund. Compare the compounds in dicus, &c.

Compare nequam.
DIVISION OF NOUNS, &c.

Are all adjectives compared that are capable of What is a collective noun? a patronymic ?

having their signification increased ?

Which want the positive? Which the comparative? How do names of inen end? and of women?

Which the superlative ?
What is a patrial or gentile noun ?
What are patrials to be considered ?

Supply the superlative of juvenis or adolescens. Of What is an abstract noun? What are concretes ?

What other adjectives want the superlative?
How do abstracts end? What is said of them ?
What is a diminutive? Are more than one derived

What are only comparative?

What adjectives not compared at all? from the same primitive? Examples.

How is the defect supplied ?
How do they end? Of what gender?

Is this form used for regular adjectives?
What is an amplificative? How do they end ?
What is a verbal noun ? What is said of them?

PRONOUN.
How do they end?

What is a pronoun?
ADJECTIVES.

What do they serve to point out? They serve what What is an adjective ? Ans. A word which quali

else ? Simple pronouns how many? Substantives

how many ? Adjectives how many? fies or specifies a noun. Can an adjectire make full sense by itself?

What part of ego is wanting? How is mihi con

tracted ? Write it. For what are nostrum and How are adjectives varied ?

vestrum contracted ? Of what declension are they? What exception?

What is the difference in the use of nostrum ves. What are the terminations of the genders? and

trum and nostri vestri? cases ? and numbers? Decline bonus and tener.

How are the English pronouns he, she, it, expressed What compounds have this form? What letter is

in Latin? Distinguish ille, iste, and hic, and is. often dropped ? Give the example. What has

What do ille and iste imply? dexter?

To what is ipse joined, and what force has it? DeWhat adjectives have the genitive in ius, and da

cline it. tive in ¿? What are these adjectives, except totus, called ? How anciently declined? How is How are nostras, vestras, and cujas, declined?

What are the other pronouns? How declined? an adjective properly declined? How do we say Distinguish cujus genitive, cujas, and cujus, nomia good man in Latin? a good woman? a good

native. thing?

What does meus make in the vocative? What words are here understood ?

What has qui in the ablative? What is remarkaOf how many terminations are adjectives of the

ble? third declension ?

Explain the six classes of pronouns. Decline an adjective of one termination ? of two terminations? of three terminations?

COMPOUND PRONOUNS Repeat the two rules.

In how many ways are pronouns compounded ? Exception 1. What adjectives have e in the abla

Of what is idem compounded? How declined? lative?

What pronouns are most frequently compounded ? Exception 2. What others and what parts wanting? How is quis placed in composition? What is the third exception ? and the fourth ?

How is qui ?' Decline the first class. Decline quisRemarks.What is the first? second third ?

quis. What part of it is wanting? What is said fourth? fifth? sixth ? seventh ? eighth ? ninth ? of quisquam? What is said of the compound of

quis in which quis is placed last? How do they NUMERAL ADJECTIVES.

make the feminine? Which are read separately? How many classes ? What are they called ?

Decline the second class.
Repeat the cardinal? Which want the singular ? What compounds have quis in the middle ?
When is unus used in the plural ?

What are the compounds of qui? Decline them. Decline duo and tres. Decline ambo.

What have these compounds in the dative plural? Which cardinal numbers are indeclinable?

What has quis in comic writers? How is quidam Which are declined? How is mille used ?

declined? Distinguish quod and quid. Which When used as a substantive, how declined ?

are reckoned substantives, and why? When used as an adjective how? to express more

VERB. than one thousand What are the ordinal numbers ? Repeat them. What is a verb? Why called the word by way of The distributive? and the numeral adverbs ?

eminence? How may a yerb be distinguished ? What are the multiplicative numbers ?

Do we find the same word used as different parts of What are the interrogative words? Which are in speech? How many classes of verbs with respect declinable?

to their signification? Why? To these numerals what may be added?

What is an active verb? A passive? A neuter?

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