« ΠροηγούμενηΣυνέχεια »
DEPONENT VERBS. PROFITERI philosophiam, to profess, to teach PROSEQUI aliquem amore, laudibus, &c. to love, publicly; se candidatum, to declare himself a
praise, &c. candidate for an office ; pecunias, agros, nomina, NITI hasta ; in cubitum, to lean; ejus consilio, &c. apud censorem, to give an account of, to de eo, to depend on; ad gloriam, ad v. in summa, clare how much one has ; indicium, to promise to to aim at ; in vetitum, in adversum, contra make a discovery.
aliquem, pro aliquo, to strive ; gradibus, to LOQUI cum aliquo, inter se, sometimes alicui, ascend. ad v. apud aliquem ; aliquid, de aliqua re.
UTI eo familiariter, to be familiar with SEQUI feras; sectam Cæsaris, to be of his one ; ventis adversis, to have have cross winds ; parly, Cic. Assequi, consequi, to overtake ; glo. honore usus, one who has enjoyed a post of riam, to attain. Consequi hæreditatem, to get, Cic. honour.
IRREGULAR VERBS. ESSE magni roboris, v. -no -re; ejus opini- minum, to be in every body's mouth; ab emptione, onis, v. ea opinione; in maxima spe: in timore, to relract his bargain; decem menses abierunt, luctu, opinione, itinere, &c. cum telo, in vel cum have past, Ter. Non hoc tibi sic abibit, i. e. non imperio; magno periculo, v. in periculo; in tuto; feres hoc impune, Ter. Abi in malam rem, a apud se, in his senses ; sui juris, v. mancipii, sui form of imprecation. potens,
v. in sua potestate, to be at his own dis ADIRE periculum capitis, to run the hazard of posal : Res est in vado, is safe, Ter. Est animus, one's life. sc. mihi, I have a mind, Virg. Est ut, cur, quamo EXIRE vitâ, e, v. de vita, to die; ære alieno, brom, quod, quin, &c. There is cause; bene, male Cic. Verbum exit ex ore, Id. tela, lo avoid, Virg. est mihi, with me; nihil est mihi tecum, I have Tempus induciarum cum Vejenti populo exierat, nothing to do with you: Quid est tibi, sc. rei, had expired, Liv. What is the matter with you ? Ter. Cernere INIRE magistratum; suffragium, rationem, erat, one might see; religio est mihi id facere, I consilium, pugnam, viam, &c. to enter upon, to scruple to do it; si est, ut facere velit, ut facturus begin ; gratiam ejus, apud eum, cum vel ab eo, sit, ut admiserit, &c. for si velit, &c. Ter. Est to gain his favour : Ineunte æstate, vere, appo, ut viro vir latius ordinet arbusta sulcis, it hap &c. in the beginning of ; but we seldom say, Inpens, Hor. Certum est facere, sc. mihi, I am eunte die, nocte, &c. Ab ineunte ætate, from resolved, Ter. Non certum est, quid faciam, I our early years. am uncertain, Id. Cassius quærere solebat, Cui OBIRE diem edicti, vel auctionis; judicium, vaBONO FUERIT : Omnib bono fuit, it was of ad- dimonium, to be present at; provinciam, domos vantage, Cic.
nostras, to visit, to go through, Cic. negotia, res, ADESSE pugnæ, in pugna, ad exercitum, ad munus, officium, legationem, sacra, to perform ; tempus, in tempore, cum aliquo, to be present ; pugnas, Virg. mortem, vel morte; diem suprealicui, to favour, to assist; scribendo, v. esse ad mum v. diem, to die. soribendum, to subscribe one's name to a decree PRÆIRE alicui, to go before ; verba, carmen, of the senate, Cic. consilio utrique, to be a coun vel sacramentum alicui, to repeat or read over sellor to, Nep.
before; alicui voce, quid judicet, to prescribe or ABESSE domo, urbe, a domo, ab signis, to be direct by crying, Cic. absent; alicui, v. deesse, to be wanting, not to PRODIRE in publicum, to go abroad ; non præassist ; a sole, lo stand out of the sun; sumptus terit te, you are not ignorant, Cic. Dies inducifuneri defuit, he had not money to bury him, Liv. arum præteriit, is past, Nep. Abesse a persona principis, to be inconsistent with REDIRE in gratiam cum aliquo, to become the character, Nep. Paulum v. parum abfuit quin friends again ; ad se, to come to himself, to reurbem caperent, quin occideretur, &c. they were cover his senses. near taking, &c. Tantum abest ne enervetur SUBIRE murum, vel -o, ad montes, to come up oratio, ut, &c. is so far from being, &c. Cic. Tan to; laborem vel-i, onus, pænam, periculum, tum abfuit a cupiditate pecuniæ, a societate crimen, to undergo ; spes, timor subiit animum, sceleris, &c. Nep.
came into. INTERESSE convivio, v. in convivio, to be at a VELLE aliquem, sc. alloqui vel conventum, to feast ; anni decem interfuerent, intervened; stulto desire to speak with ; alicui, ejus causa, to wish intelligens quid interest, Ter. Hoc dominus, & one's good ; tibi consultum volo; nihil tibi ne. pater interest id. Inter hominem & belluam hoc gatum volo, I wish to deny, Liv. Quid sibi vult ; interest, Cic. differ in this, this is the difference; What does he mean? Volo te hoc facere, hoc a multum interest, utrum, it is of great importance. te fieri: si quid recte curatum velis ; illos moni. Pons inter eos interest, is between, Cic
tos etiam atque etiam volo, sc. esse, I will adPRÆESSE exercitui, to command; comitiis, monish them again and again, Cic. nollen facjudicio, quæstioni, to preside in or at.
tum, I am sorry was done ; nollem huc exitum, OBESSE ei, to hurt, to hinder.
sc esse a me, I wish I had not come out here, SUPERESSE, lo be over and above ; alicui, to Ter. survive ; modd vita supersit, sc. mihi, if I live ; FERRE legem, to propose or make ; privilegisuper est, ut, it remains, that.
um de aliquo, to propose or pass an act of im. IRE ad arma, ad saga, to go to war; in jus, to peachment against one, Cic. rogationem ad popugo to law; pedibus in sententiam alicujus, to agree lum, to bring in a bill ; conditiones ei, to offer with ; viam v. viâ ; res bene eunt, Cic. Tempus, terms; suffragium, to vote; sententiam, to give dies, mensis it, passes.
an opinion; centuriam, tribum, to gain the vote ABIRE magistratu, to lay down an office, a of; perdere, to lose it ; victoriam ex eo; omne conspectu, to retire from company, la ora ho ponctum, omnia suffragia, to gain all the votes ;
repulsam, to be rejected : fructum hoc fructi, to cum funere, to bury; ad honorem, ad coelum reap, Ter. lætitiam de re, to rejoice ; præ se, to laudibus, to raise, to extol ; foras peccatum, to pretend or declare openly; alienam personam, to divulge. disguise one's self; in oculis, to be fond of, Ter. INFERRE bellum patriæ; vim, manus, necem manus, in prælia, to engage, Virg. acceptum et alicui, to bring upon ; signa, se, pedem, to adexpensum, to mark down as received and spent rance ; litem vel periculum capitis alicui, vel in or lent, as Dr. and Cr. Cic. animus, opinio fert, aliquem, to bring one to a trial for his life. inclines; tempus, res, causa fert, allows, requires. OFFERRE se morti, ad mortem, in discrimen,
CONFERRE benevolentiam alicui, in vel erga to expose, to present. aliquem, to shew; beneficia, culpam in eim, to PERFERRE legem, to carry through, to pass it. confer, to lay; operam, tempus, studiusi, ad vel PRÆFERRE facem ei, to carry before ; salutem in rem, & impendere, lo apply; capi'a inter se, ei reipublicæ suis commodis, & anteferre, anteconsilia sua, to lay their heads together, to con ponere, to prefer. Prælatus equo, riding before. sull; signa, arma, manus, to engage ; omne bel PROFERRE imperium, pomerium, terminos, to lum circa Ćorinthum, Nep. pedem, to set foot to enlarge; in medium, in apertum, in lucem, to foot ; rationes, to cast up accounts; castra castris, publish ; nuptias diem, to delay; diem Ilio, to to encamp over against one another; se in, vel defer the destruction of, Hor. ad urbem, to go to; tributa, to pay; se alicui, REFERRE alicui, to answer ; se, gradum v. vel cum aliquo, to compare ; neminem cum illo pedem, to retreal ; gratiam alicui, to make a re. conferendum pietate puto, Cic. Hæc conferunt quital ; par pari, Ter. victoriam ab, vel ex aliad aliquid ; oratori futuro, serve, are useful to, quo, et reportare, to gain; institutum, lo renew; Quinct.
judicia ad equestrem ordinem, to restore to the DEFERRE situlam vel sitellam, to bring the Equites the right of judging ; aliquid, de aliqua ballot box ; aliquid ad aliquem, to carry word, to re, ad senatum, ad consilium, ad sapientes, ad tell; rarely alicui; causam ad patronos; honores populum, to lay before; aliquid in tabulam, codiei; gubernacula rei publicæ in eum; summam cem, album, commentarium, &c. to murk down; rerum ad eum, to confer; in beneficiis ad æra aliquid acceptum alicui, & in acceptum, to acrium, to recommend for a public service, Cic. knowledge one's self indebted; pecunias acceptas aliquem ambitûs, de ambitu, nomen alicujus ad & expensas ; nomina vel summas in codicem acprætorem, apud magistratum, to accuse of bribery; cepti et expensi, to mark down accounts; alienos primas, 86. partes ei, to give him the preference, mores ad suos, to judge of by; in v. inter æraCic.
rarios, to reduce to the lowest class; in numerum DIFFERRE vel transferre rem in annum; post deorum, in vel inter deos, & reponere, to rank bellum, diem solutionis, to put off ; 'rumores, to among ; pugnas, res gestas, to relate ; patrem spread ; ab aliquo, alicui, inter se, moribus, lo ore, to resemble ; amissos colores, to regain, differ in character; amore, cupiditate, doloribus, Horat. differri, to be distracted or torn asunder, Cic. & TRANSFERRE rationes in tabulas, lo post one's Ter.
books, state accounts; in Latinam linguam, to EFFERRE fruges, to produce ; verba, to utter; translate; verba, to use metaphorically ; culpam verbum de verbo expressum, to translate, Ter. in eum & rejicere, to lay the blame on him. pedem domo, to go out; corpus amplo funere, &
II. FIGURES OF SYNTAX, A Figure is a manner of speaking different from the ordinary and plain way, used for the sake of beauty or force,
The figures of Syntax or Construction may be reduced to these three, Ellipsis, Pleonasm, and Hyperbăton.
The two first respect the constituent parts of a sentence; the last respects only the arrangement of the words.
1. ELLIPSIS. ELLIPSIS is when one or more words are wanting to complete the sense; as, Aiunt, ferunt, dicunt, perhibent, scil. homines: Dic mihi, Damæta, cujum pecus ; that is, Dic (tu) mihi, Damæta, (eum hominem) cujum pecus ; (est hoc pecus.) Aberant bidui, sc. iter vel itinere. Decies sestertiúm, sc. centena millia. Quid multa ? sc. dicam. Antiquum obtines, sc. morem, v. institutum, Plaut. Hodie in ludum occepi ire literarium, ternas jam scio, sc. literas, i. e. AÑO, Id. Triduo abs te nullas acceperam, sc. literas, i. e. epistolam, Cic. Brevi dicam sc. sermone : So Complecti, respondere, &c. breve. Die meliora, sc. faciant: Rhodum volo, inde Athenas, sc. ire, Id. Bellicum, v. classicum canere, sc. signum, Liv. Civicâ donatus, sc. coronâ ; So obsidionalem, muralem adeptus, &c. Id. Epistola librarü manu est, sc. scripta, Cic.
When a conjunction is to be supplied, it is called AsynděTon; as, Deus optimus maximus, sc. et'; Sartum tectum, conservare, i. e. sartum et tectum ; So Abiit, excessit, evasit, erupit, Cic. Ferte cíti flammas, date vela, impellite remos, Virg. Velis zolis, sc. seu.
To this figure may be reduced most of those irregularities in Syntax, as they are
called, which are variously classed by grammarians, under the names of ENALLGE, i. e. the changing of words and their accidents, or the putting of one word for another; Antiprosis, i. e. the putting of one case for another; HELLENISM or GRÆCISM, i. e. imitating the construction of the Greeks ; Syněsıś, i. e. referring the construction, not to the gender or number of the word, but to the sense, &c. thus, Samnitium duo millia cæsi, is, Duo millia (hominum) Samnitium (fuerunt homines) cæsi, Liv. So Servitia immemores, Liv. Monstrum quce, scil. mulier, Hor. Scelus qui, sc. homo, Ter. Omnia Mercurio similis, scil. secundum, Virg. Missi magnis de rebus uterque, legati ; i. e. Missi legati (et) uterque (legatus missus) de magnis rebus, Horat. Servitia repudiabat cujus, scil. servitii, Sall. Cat. 51. Familia nostra, quorum, &c. sc. hominum, Sall. Concursus populi, mirantium, Liv. Illum ut vivat optant, for ut ille vivat, Ter. Populum late regem, for regnantem, Virg. Expediti militum, for milites ; Classis stabat Rhegii, for ad Rhegium, Liv. Latium Capuaque agro multati, sc. homines, Id. Utraque formose, sc. mulieres, Ovid. Aperite aliquis ostium, Ter. Sensit delapsus, for delapsum, sc. se esse, Virg.
When a writer frequently uses the Ellipsis, his style is said to be elliptical or concise.
2. PLEONASM. PLEONASM is when a word more is added than is absolutely necessary to express the sense; as, Video oculis, I see with my eyes; Sic ore locuta est ; adest præsens : Nusquam gentium ; vivere vitam; servire servitutem ; Quid mihi Celsus agit? Fac me ut sciam, &c. Suo sibi gladio hunc jugulo, Ter. Suo sibi succo vivant, Plaut.
When a conjunction is used apparently redundant, it is called POLYSYNDěTON; as, Una Eurusque Notusque ruunt, Virg.
When that which is in reality one, is so expressed as if there were two, it is called HENDIADYS; as, Pateris libamus et auro, for aureis pateris, Virg.
When several words are used to express one thing, it is called PERIPHRASIS; as, Urbs Troja, for Troja, Virg. Res voluptatem, for voluptates, Plaut. Usus purpurarum,
Hor. 3. HYPERBATON. HYPERBATON is the transgression of that order or arrangement of words which is commonly used in any language. It is chiefly to be met with among the poets. The various sorts into which it is divided, are, Anastrophe, Hysteron protěron, Hypallăge, Synchěsis, Tmesis, and Parenthèsis.
1. ANASTRÕPHE is the inversion of words, or the placing of that word last which should be first; as, Italiam contra ; His accensa super ; Spemque metumque inter dubii ; for contra Italiam, super his, inter spem, &c. Virg. Terram sol facit are, for arefacit, Lucret.
2. HystěRON PROTÈRon is when that is put in the former part of the sentence, which, according to the sense, should be in the latter; as, Valet atque vivit, for vivit atque valet, Ter.
3. HypallăGE is the exchanging of cases; as, Dare classibus austros, for dare classes austris, Virg.
4. Synchěsis is a confused and intricate arrangement of words; as, Saxa vocant Itali mediis quæ in fluctibus aras; for Quæ sasca in mediis fluctibus Itali vocant aras, Virg. This occurs particularly in violent passion; as, Per tibi ego hunc juro fortem castumque cruorem, Ovid. Fast. ii. 841. Per vos liberos atque parentes, sc. oro vos per liberos, &c. Sallust. Jug. 14.
5. TMesis is the division of a compound word and the interposing of other words betwixt its parts; as, Septem subjecta trioni gens, for Septentrioni, Virg. Quæ meo cunque animo libitum est facere, for quæcunqué, Ter. Quem sors dierum cunque dabit, lucro Appone, Horat.
6. PARENTHěsis is the inserting of a member into the body of a sentence, which is neither necessary to the sense, nor at all affects the construction; as, Tityre, dum redeo, (brevis est via,) pasce capellas, Virg.
III. ANALYSIS AND TRANSLATION. The difficulty of translating either from English into Latin, or from Latin into English, arises in a great measure from the different arrangement of words which takes place in the two languages.
In Latin the various terminations of nouns, and the inflection of adjectives and verbs, point out the relation of one word to another, in whatever order they are placed. But in English the agreement and government of words can only be determined from the particular part of the sentence in which they stand. Thus in Latin, we can either say, Alexander vicit Darium, or Darium vicit Alexander, or Alexander Darium vicit, or Darium Alexander vicit; and in each of these the sense is equally obvious: but in English, we can only say, Alexander conquered Darius. This variety of arrangement in Latin, gives it a great advantage over the English; not only in point of energy and vivacity of expression, but also in point of harmony. We sometimes, indeed, for the sake of variety and force, imitate in English the inversion of words which takes place in Latin; as, Him the Eternal hurld, Milton. Whom ye ignorantly worship, him declare I unto you. But this is chiefly to be used in poetry.
With regard to the proper order of words to be observed in translating from English into Latin, the only certain rule which can be given, is to imitate the Classics.
The order of words in sentences is said to be either simple or artificial ; or, as it is otherwise expressed, either natural or oratorial.
The Simple or Natural order is, when the words of a sentence are placed one after another, according to the natural order of syntax.
Artificial or Oratorial order is, when words are so arranged, as to render them most striking, or most agreeable to the ear.
All Latin writers use an arrangement of words, which appears to us more or less artificial, because different from our own, although to them it was as natural as ours is to us. In order, therefore, to render any Latin author into English, we must first reduce the words in Latin to the order of English, which is called the Analysis or Resolution of sentences. It is practice only that c
can teach one to do this with readiness. However, to a beginner, the observation of the following rule may be of advantage.
Take first the words which serve to introduce the sentence, or show its dependence on what went before ; next the nominative, together with the words which it agrees with or governs; then, the verb and adverbs joined with it; and lastly, the cases which the verb governs, together with the circumstances subjoined, to the end of the sentence; supplying through the whole the words which are understood.
If the sentence is compound, it must be resolved into the several sentences of which it is made up; as,
Vale igitur, mi Cicero, tibique persuade esse te quidem mihi carissimum ; sed multo fore carioren, si talibus monumentis præceptisque lætaběre, Cic. Off. lib. 3. fin.
Farewell then, my Cicero, and assure yourself that you are indeed very dear to me; but will be much dearer, if you shall take delight in such writings and instructions.
This compound sentence may be resolved into these five simple sentences ; 1. Igitur, mi (fili) Cicero, (tu) vale, 2 et (tu) persuade tibi (ipsi) te esse quidem (filium) carissimum mihi : 3. sed (tu persuade tibi ipsi te) fore (filium) cariorem (mihi in) multo (negotio, 4. si (tu) lætabere talibus monumentis, 5. et (si tu lætabere talibus) præceptis.
1. Fare (you) well then, my (son) Cicero, 2. and assure (you) yourself that you are indeed (a son) very dear to me; 3. but (assure you yourself that you) will be (a son) much dearer (to me) 4. if you shall take delight in such writings, 5. and (if you shall take delight in such) instructions.
It may not be improper here to exemplify Analogical Analysis, as it is called, or the analysis of words, from the foregoing sentence, Vale igitur, &c. thus,
Vale, scil. tu; Fare (lhou) well, Second person singular of the imperative mood, active voice, from the neuter verb, Valeo, valui, valitum, valere, to be in health ; of the second conjugation, not used in the passive. Vale agrees in the second person singular with the nominative tu, by the second rule of syntax.
Igitur, then, therefore, a conjunction, importing some inference drawn from what went before.
Mi, Voc, sing. masc, of the adjective pronoun, meus, -a, -um, my; derived from the substantive pronoun Ego, agreeing with Cicero, by Rule 1. Cicero, voc. sing. from the nominative Cicero, -ōnis, a proper noun of the third declension.
Et, and, a copulative conjunction, which connects the verb persuade with the verb vale, by Rule 28. We turn que into et because que never stands by itself.
Persuade scil. tu, persuade thouy second person singular of the imperative active, from the verb persuadeo, si, sum, dêre, to persuade ; compounded of the preposition per, and suadeo, -si, -sum, to
advise, used impersonally in the passive; thus, Persuadetur mihi, I am persuaded ; seldom or never Eyo persuadeor. We say, however, in the third person, Hoc persuadetur mihi, I am persuaded of this.
Tibi, dat. sing. of the personal pronoun tu, thou; governed by persuade, according to Rule 33.
Carissimum, accusative sing. masc. from carissimus, -a, -um, very dear, dearest, superlative degree of the adjective carus, -a, -um, dear; Comparative degree, carior, carior, carius, dearer, more dear : agreeing with te or filium understood, by Rule 1. and put in the accusative by Rule 5.
Mihi, to me, dat. sing. of the substantive pronoun Ego, I; governed by carissimum, by Rule 13. Sed, but, an adversative conjunction, joining esse and fore. Fore, the same with esse futurum, to be, or to be about to be, infinitive of the defective verb förem, -res, -ret, &c. governed in the same manner with the foregoing esse, thus, le fore, Rule 42. or ibus, esse sed fore. See Rule 28.
Multo, scil. negotio, ablat. sing. neut. of the adjective multus, -a, -um, much, put in the ablative, according to observation 5. Rule 20. But multo here may be taken adverbially in the same manner with much in English.
Cariorem, accus. sing. masc. from carior, -or, -us, the comparative of carus, as before, agreeing with te or filium understood. Rule 1. or Rule 5.
Si, if, a conditional conjunction, joined either with the indicative mode, or with the subjunctive, according to the sense, but oftener with the latter. See Rule 60.
Lætaběre, Thou shalt rejoice, second person singular of the future of the indicative, from the deponent verb lætor, lætalus, lætāri, to rejoice: Future, læt-abor, aběris or åběre, abitur, &c.
Talibus, ablat. plur. neut. of the adjective talis, talis, tali, such ; agreeing with monumentis, the ablat. plur. of the substantive noun monumentum, -ti, neut. a monument or writing, of the second declension; derived from moneo, -ui, -itum, -ēre, to admonish; here put in the ablative, according to Rule 52. El, a copulative conjunction, as before.
Præceptis, a substantive noun in the ablative plural, from the nominative præceptum, -ti, neut. a precept, an instruction; derived from præcipio, -cēpi, -ceptum, -cipère, to instruct, to order, compounded of the preposition præ, before, and the verb capio, cēpi, captum, capěre, to take. The à of the simple is changed into i short; thus, præcipio, præcipis, &c.
The learner may in like manger be taught to analyze the words in English, and in doing so, to mark the different idioms of the two languages.
To this may be subjoinod a Praxis, or Exercise on all the different parts of grammar, particularly with regard to the inflection of nouns and verbs in the form of questions, such as these, of Cicero? Ciceronis. With Cicero? Cicerone. A dear son? Carus filius. Of a dear son ? Cari filii. Ömy dear son ? Mi or meus care fili. Of dearer sons ? Cariorum filiorum, &c.
Of thee? or of you? Tui. With thee or you? te : Of you! Vestrûm or vestri. With you? Vobis
They shall persuade? Persuadebunt. I can persuade? Persuadeam, or much more frequently possum persuadere. They are persuaded? Persuadetur, or persuasum est illis, according to the time expressed. He is to persuade? Est persuasurus. He will be persuaded? Persuadebitur, or persuasum erit illi. He cannot be persuaded ? Non potest persuaderi illi. I know that he cannot be persuaded? Scio non posse persuaderi illi. That he will be persuaded ? Ei persuasum iri, &c.
When a learner first begins to translate from the Latin, he should keep as strictly to the literal meaning of the words as the different idioms of the two languages will permit. But after he has made further progress, something more will be requisite. He should then be accustomed, as much as possible, to transfuse the beauties of an author from the one language into the other. For this purpose it will be necessary that he be acquainted, not only with the idioms of the two languages, but also with the different kinds of style adapted to different sorts of composition, and to different subjects; together with the various turns of thought and expression which writers employ, or what are called the figures of words and of thought; or the Figures of Rhetoric.
IV. DIFFERENT KINDS OF STYLE. The kinds of Style (generæ dicendi) are commonly reckoned three; the low, (humile, submissum, tenue ;) the middle, (medium, temperatum, ornatum, floridum; and the sublime, (sublime, grande.)
But besides these, there are various other characters of style; as, the diffuse and concise ; the feeble and nervous ; the simple and affected, &c.
There are different kinds of style adapted to different subjects and to different kinds of composition; the style of the Pulpit, of the Bar, and of Popular Assemblies; the style of History, and of its various branches, Annals, Memoirs or Commentaries, and Lives; the style of Philosophy, of Dialogue or Colloquial discourse, of Epistles, and Romance, &c.
There is also a style peculiar to certain writers, called their Manner; as the style of Cicero, of Livy, of Sallust, &c.