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and Confutation or refuting the objections and arguments of an adversary. The sources from which arguments are drawn, are called Loci, topics; and are either intrinsic or extrinsic ; common or peculiar. 4. The Peroration, Epilogue or Conclusion.
THE QUANTITY OF SYLLABLES.
That part of grammar which treats of the quantity and accent of Syllables, and of the measures of verse, is called PROSODY.
Syllables, with respect to their quantity, are either long or short.
Some syllables are common ; that is, sometimes long, and sometimes short; as the second syllable in volucris.
A vowel is said to be long or short by nature, which is always so by custom, or by the use of the poets.
In polysyllables or long words, the last syllable except one is called the Penultima, or, by contraction, the Penult; and the last syllable except two, the Antepenultima.
When the quantity of a syllable is not fixed by some particular rule, it is said to be long or short by authority; that is, according to the usage of the poets. Thus le in lẽgo is said to be short by authority, because it is always made short by the Latin poets.
In most Latin words of one or two syllables, according to our manner of pronouncing, we can hardly distinguish by the ear a long syllable from a short. Thus le in lēgo and lēgi seem to be sounded equally long; but when we pronounce them in composition, the difference is obvious; thus, perlēgo, perlēgi; relēgo, -ěre; relēgo, -āre, &c.
The rules of quantity are either General or Special. The former apply to all syllables, the latter only to some certain syllables.
GENERAL RULES. I. A vowel before another vowel is short; as, Měus alius : so nihil; h in verse being considered only as a breathing. In like manner in English, create, běhave.
Exc. 1. I is long in fio, fiebam, &c. unless when followed by r; as, fieri, fíěrem ; thus,
Omnia jam fient, fiěri quæ posse negabam. Ovid. Exc. 2. E having an i before and after it, in the fifth declension, is long; as, speciei. So is the first syllable in aer, dius, ēheu, and the penultima in aulāi, terräi, &c. in Pompēi, Cāiz and such like words; but we sometimes find Pompei in two syllables, Horat. Od. II. 7.
Exç. 3. The first syllable in ohe and Diana is common; so likewise is the penult of genitives in ius; as, illius, unius, &c. to be read long in prose. Alius, in the genitive is always long, as being contracted for aliius; alterius, short.
In Greek words, when a vowel comes before another, no certain rule concerning its quantity can be given.
Sometimes it is short : as, Danăe, Iděa, Sophia, Symphonia, Simõis, Hjades, Phăon, Deucalion, Pygmalion, Thcbăis, &c.
Often it is long: as, Lyckon, Machãon, Didymnaon; Amphion, Arion, Ixion, Pandion ; Näis, Láis, Achára ; Briseis, Cadmeis ; Latõus; & Latõis, Myrtous, Nerērus, Priamērus ; Achelorus, Minorus; Archelāus, Menelāus, Amphiaraus, Æneas, Penéus, Epēus, Acrisioneus, Adamantéus, Phæbēus, Gi. gantēus; Darius, Basirius, Eugenius, Bacchius; Cassiopea, Cæsarea, Chæronea, Cytherea, Galētea, Landicēa, Medea, Panthea, Penelopēa; Clio, Engo, Elegia, Iphigenia, Alexandria, Thalia, Antiochia, idololatria, litania, politia, &c. Lāertes, Dērphobus, Dērjanira, Troes, heroes, &c.
Sometimes it is common : as, Chorea, platea, Malea, Nereydes, canopeum, Orion, Geryon, Eos, Eõus, &c. So in foreign words, Michael, Israel, Raphael, Abraham, &c. The accusative of nouns in eus is usually short;
as, Orphěa, Salmonéa, Capharča, &c. but sometimes long; as, Idomenea, Ilionea, Virg. Instead of Elegia, Cytherea, we find Elegara, Cythérēža, Ovid. But the quantity of Greek words cannot be properly understood without the knowledge of Greek.
In English, a vowel before another is also sometimes lengthened ; as, science, idea.
II. A vowel before two consonants, or before a double consonant, is long; (by position, as it is called ;) as, arma, fallo, axis, gāza, mājor: the compounds of jugum excepted; as, bijŭgus, quadrijŭgus, &c.
When the foregoing word ends in a short vowel, and the following begins with two consonants or a double one, that vowel is sometimes lengthened by the position; as,
Ferle cili flammas, date velà, scandite muros. Virg. But this rarely occurs.
TA vowel before a mute and a liquid is common; as in the middle syllable in volucris, tenebræ, thus,
Et primo similis volúcri, mox vera volucris. Ovid.
Nox teněbras, profert, Phæbus fugat inde tenebras. Id. But in prose these words are pronounced short. So peragro, pharetra, podagra, chiragra, celebris, latebræ, &c.
To make this rule hold, three things are requisite. The vowel must be naturally short, the mute must go before the liquid, and be in the same syllable with it. Thus a in patris is made common in verse, because a in pater is naturally short, or always so by custom; but a in matris acris is always long, because long by nature or custom in mater and acer. In like manner the penult in salūbris
, ambulacrum, is always long, because they are derived from salus, salūtis, and ambulätum. So a in arte, abluo, &c. is long by position, because the mute and the liquid are in different syllables.
L and r only are considered as liquids in Latin words; m and n do not take place except in Greek words.
III. A contracted syllable is long; as, Nil, for nihil; mi, for mihi ; côgo, for coăgo; alius, for aliius ; tibicen, for tibiicen; it, for iit; sõdes, for si audes; nolo, for non volo; bige, for bijūge; scilicet, for scire licet, &c.
IV. A diphthong is always long; as, Aurum, Cæsar, Eubæ, &c. Only præ in composition before a vowel is commonly short; as, præire, præustus ; thus,
Nec totâ tamen ille prior præcunte carinâ. Virg.
Stipitibus durus agitur sudibusque præustis. Id. But it is sometimes lengthened ; as,
-cum vacuus domino præiret Arion. Statius. In English we pronounce several of the diphthongs short, by sinking the sound of one vowel; but then there is properly no diphthong.
Preterites and Supines of Two Syllables. V. Preterites of two syllables lengthen the former syllable; as, Vēni, vědi, vici.
Except bibi, scădi from scindo, fidi from findo, túli, dědi, and stěti, which are shortened.
VI. Supines of two syllables lengthen the former syllable; as, Visum, casum, mötum.
Except sătum, from sěro; citum, from cieo; litum, from lino; situm, from sino; stătum, from sisto; itum, from eo; dátum, fsom do; rútum, from the compounds of ruo; quitum, from queo; rătus, from reor.
Preterites which double the first syllable. . VII. Preterites which double the first syllable have both the first syllables short; as, Cěcidi, tětigi, pěpůli, pěpěri, didici, tŭtúdi : except cěcidi, from ccdo ; pěpēdi, from pēdo ; and when two consonants intervene; as, fefelli, tětendi, &c.
INCREASE OF NOUNS. A noun is said to increase when it has more syllables in any of the oblique cases than in the nominative; as, rex, rēgis. Here re is called the encrease or crement, and so through all the other cases. The last syllable is never esteemed a crement.
Some nouns have a double increase, that is, increase by more syllables than one ; as, iter, itineris.
A noun in the plural is said to increase, when in any case it has more syllables than the genitive singular ; as, gener, generi, generõrum.
Nouns of the first, fourth, and fifth declensions, do not increase in the singular number, unless where one vowel comes before another; as, fructus, fructúi ; res, réi ; which fall under Rule I.
Third Declension. VIII. Nouns of the third declension which increase, make a and o long; e, i, and u short; as,
Pietātis, honoris ; muliěris, lapidis, murmŭris. The chief exceptions from this rule are marked under the formation of the genitive in the third declension. But here perhaps it may be proper to be more particular.
0. O shortens inis, but lengthens ēnis and õnis; as, Cardo, -inis ; Virgo, -inis; Anio, énis; Cicero, onis. Gentile or patrial nouns vary their quantity. Most of them shorten the genitive; as, Macédo, •õnis ; Saxo, -ōnis. Some are long; as, Suessiones, Vettones. Brittones is common.
I, C, D.
L. Masculines in AL shorten ális ; as, Sal, sălis ; Hannibal, -ălis ; Hasdrubal, -ălis ; but neuters lengthen it; as, animal, -ālis.
Sölis from sol is long; also Hebrew words in el; as, Michael, -ėlis. Other nouns in L shorten the crement; as, Vigil, -žlis ; consul, -ulis.
N. Nouns in ON vary their crement. Some lengthen it; as, Helicon, -ōnis ; Chiron, -ōnis. Some shorten it; as, Memnon, onis ; Acteon, -ōnis.
EN shortens inis ; as, flumen, -žnis: tibicen, -inis. Other nouns in N lengthen the penult. AN ånis; as, Titan, -ānis: En ēnis; as, Siren, -ēnis : In inis ; as, delphin, -inis. YN ynis ; as, Phorcyn, -ýnis.
R. 1. Neuters in AR lengthen aris ; as, calcar, -āris. Except the following, bacchar, -ăris ; jubar, -ŭris ; nectar, -ăris : Also the adjective par, păris, and its compounds, impar, -ăris; dispar, -ăris, &c.
2. The following nouns in R lengthen the genitive : Nar, Näris, the name of a river ; fur, füris ; ver, vēris : Also Recimer, -ēris ; Byzer, -ēris ; Ser, Sēris ; Iber, -ēris ; proper names.
3. Greek nouns in TER lengthen teris ; as, crater, -ēris ; character, -ēris. Except æther, -ěris.
4. OR lengthens oris ; as, amor, -öris. Except neuter nouns ; as, marmor, -ěřis; æquor, -oris : Greek nouns in tor; as, Hector, -oris ; Actor, -öris; rhetor, -dris : Also, arbor, -õris, and memor, -öris.
5. Other nouns in R shorten the genitive; AR aris, masculine ; as, Cæsar, -ăris; Hamilcar, aris; lar, lăris. ER eris of any gender; as, der, děris ; mulier, -ěris ; cadāver, -ěris ; iter, anciently itiner, itineris ; verběrts, from the obsolete verber. ÚR uris ; as, vultur, -ŭris ; murmur, -ŭris. YŘ yris ; as, Martyr, yris.
AS. 1. Nouns in AS, which have atis, lengthen the crement; as, pietas, -atis ; Macênas, -älis. Except anas, -ătis.
2. Other nouns in AS shorten the crement; as Greek noups having the genitive în ădis, àtis, and ănis ; thus, Pallas, -ădis ; artocreas, -eális ; Melas, -ănis, the name of a river. So vas, vadis ; mas, măris : But vas, väsis, is long.
Except Glis, gliris ; and Latin nouns which have itis ; as, lis, lītis; dis, ditis ; Quiris, -itis ; Samnis, -ītis : But Charis, a Greek noun, has Charitis.
The following also lengthen the crement: Crenis, -idis ; Psophis, -idis; Nesis, -idis; proper names : And Greek nouns in is, which have also in; as, Salămis, or in, Salamīnis.
Except nouns which have ūdis, ùris, and ülis; as, incus, --ūdis; jus, jūris ; salus, -ūlis. But Ligus has Ligūris; the obsolete pecus, pecŭdis ; and intercus, -ŭtis. The neuter of the comparative has öris; as, melius, -öris.
YS. YS shortens ydis or ydos ; as, chlamys, įdis or çdos ; and lengthens ynis ; as, Trachys, -ynis.
BS, PS, MS. Nouns in S, with a consonant going before, shorten the penult of the genitive; as, cælebs, -ibis ; inops, -õpis ; hiems, hiėmis. Except Cyclops, -õpis ; seps, sēpis : gryps, gryphis ; Cecrops, -õpis ; plebs, plebis ; hydrops, -opis.
T. T shortens the crement; as, caput, -itis.
X. 1. Nouns in X, which have the genitive in gis, shorten the crement; as, conjux, -ügis ; remem, -igis ; Allobrox, -ögis ; Phryx, Phrygis. But lex, légis, and ex, régis, are long; and likewise frügis. 2. EX shortens icis ; as, vertex, -icis : except vibex, -icis. 3. Other nouns in X lengthen the crement; as, pax, 'pācis ; radix, -icis ; vox, vocis ; lux, lūcis ; Pollux, -ūcis, &c.
Except făcis, něcis, vicis, précis, calicis, cilicis, păcis, fornicis, nivis, Cappadocis, dúcis, nücis, crucis, trúcis, onýchis, Erğcis, mastyx, -ýchis, the rosin of the lentiscus, or mastich-tree, and many others whose quantity can only be ascertained by authority.
4. Some nouns vary the crement; as, Syphax, -ācis, or -ăcis ; Sandyx, -icis, or -icis ; Bebrył, -žcis, or •ycis.
Increase of the Plural Number. IX. Nouns of the plural number which increase, make A, E, and long; but shorten I and U; as, musarum, rērum, dominorum; rēgibus, portúbus : except bõbus or būbus, contracted for bõvíbus.
INCREASE OF VERBS. A verb is said to increase, when any part has more syllables than the second person singular of the present of the indicative active; as, amas, amāmus, where the second syllable ma is the increase or crement; for the last syllable is never called by that
A verb often increases by several syllables; as, amas, amabāmīni ; in which case it is said to have a first, second, or third increase. X. In the increase of verbs, a, e, and o, are long; i and u, short; as,
Amāre, docēre, amatote ; legimus, sūmus, volumus. The poets sometimes shorten děděrunt and stětěrunt ; and lengthen rīmus and ritis, in the future of the subjunctive; as, transieritis aquas, Ovid. All the other exceptions from this rule are marked in the formation of the verb.
The first or middle syllables of words which do not come under any of the foregoing rules, are said to be long or short by authority; and their quantity can only be discovered from the usage of the poets, which is the most certain of all rules.
REMARKS ON THE QUANTITY OF THE PENULT OF WORDS. 1. Patronymies in IDES or ADES usually shorten the penult; as, Priamides, Atlantiădes, &c. Unless they come from nouns in eus ; as, Pelides, Tydides, &c.
2. Patronymics, and similar words, in AIS, EIS, ITIS, OIS, OTIS, INE, and ONE, commonly lengthen the penult; as, Achais, Ptolemais, Chrysēis, Ænēis, Memphilis, Latòis, Icariotis, Nerine, Arisióne. Except Thebăis, and Phocăis ; and Nereis, which is common.
3. Adjectives in ACUS, ICUS, IDUS, and IMUS, for the most part shorten the penult; as, Ægyptiăcus, academicus, lepidus, legitimus ; also sụperlatives ; as, fortissimus, &c. Except opåcus, amicus, apricus, pudicus, mendicus, posticus, fidus, infidus, (but perfidus of per and fides, is short,) bimus, quadrimus, patrimus, matrimus, opimus; and two superlatives, imus, primus.
4. Adjectives in ALIS, ANUS, ARUS, IVUS, ORUS, OSUS, lengthen the penult; as, dotális, urbānus, avārus, æstivus, decorus, arenosus. Except barbărus, opipărus.
5. Verbal adjectives in ILIS, shorten the penult; as, agilis, facilis, &c. But derivatives from nouns usually lengthen it; as, anilis, civilis, herilis, &c. To these add exilis, subtilis; and names of months, Aprilis, Quinctālis, Sextilis : Except humilis, parilis ; and also similis. But all adjectives in atilis, are short; as, versatilis, volatilis, umbratilis, &c.
6. Adjectives in INUS derived from inanimate things, as plants, stones, &c. also from adverbs of time, commonly shorten the penult; as, amaracinus, crocínus, cedrinus, faginus, oleaginus, àdamantinus, cristallinus, crastinus, pristinus, perendinus, &c.
Other adjectives in INÚS are long; as, agninus, austrinus, binus, clandestinus, Latinus, marinus, supinus, vespertinus, &c.
7. Diminutives in OLUS, OLA, OLUM; and ULUS, ULA, ULUM, always shorten the penult; as, urceõlus, filiðla, musæðlum ; lectŭlus, ratiuncula, corcủlum, &c.
8. Adverbs in TIM lengthen the penult; as, oppidātim, viritim,-tribūlim. Except affalim, perpětim, and stătim.
9. Desideratives in URIO shorten the antepenultima, which in the second or third person is the penult; as, esūrio, esūris, esărit. But other verbs in urio lengthen that syllable ; as, ligūrio, ligūris ; scatūrio, scatūris, &c.
PENULT OF PROPER NAMES. The following proper names lengthen the penult: Abdera, Abędus, Adonis, Æsõpus, Ætolus, Ahāla, Alaricus, Alcides, Amgclæ, Andronicus, Anubis, Archimedes, Ariarathes, Ariobarzanes, Aristides, Aristöbūlus, Aristogiton, Arpinum, Artabanus; Brachmānes, Busiris, Buthrotus; Cethēgus, Chalcedon, Cleobūlus, Cyrene, Cythēra, Curētes ; Darici, Demonicus, Dioinedes, Diores, Dioscuri; Ebūdes, Eriphyle, Eubulus, Euclides, Euphrātes, Eumēdes, Euripus, Euxinus, ; Gargānus, Gætulus, Granicus ; Heliogabālus, Henricus, Heraclides, Heraclitus, Hipponax, Hispānus ; Irēne ; Lacgas, Latona, Leucāta, Lugdunum, Lycoras ; Mandāne, Mausolus, Maximinus, Meleāger, Messala, Messāna, Milētus ; Nasica, Nicanor, Nicētas; Pachýnus, Pandora, Peloris & -us, Pharsālus, Phænice, Polites, Polyclétus, Polynīces, Priāpus ; Sarpedon, Serāpis, Sinope, Stratonice, Suffêtes; Tigránes, Thessalonica ; Verona, Veronica.
The following are short : Amăthus, Amphipolis, Anabosis, Anticyra, Antigonus, & -ne, Antilöchus, Antiochus, Antiopa, Antipas, Antipăter, Antiphănes, Antiphătes, Antiphila, Antiphon, Anttus, Apūlus, Areopăgus, Ariminum, Arměnus, Athésis, Attălus, Attica; Bitūrix, Bructěri ; Calăber, Calicrătes, Callistrātus, Candăce, Cantăber, Carneădes, Cherilus, Chrysostomus, Cleombrotus Cleo. měnes, Corýcos, Constantinopolis, Cratěrus, Cratylus, Creměra, Crustuměri, Cyběle, Cyclădes, Cyzicus; Dalmătæ, Damocles, Dardănus, Dejòces, Dejotārus, Democritus, Demipho, Didymus, Diogènes, Drepănum, Dumnorix; Empedocles, Ephěsus, Evergětes, Euměnes, Eurymědon, Euripýlus ; Fucinus ; Geryones, Gyărus; Hecỹra, Heliopolis, Hermione, Herodotus, Hesiodus, Hesiðne, Hippocrătes, Hippotămos, Hypăta, Hypănis; Icărus, Icětas, Illyris, Iphỉtus, Ismårus, Ithăca; Laodịce, Laomědon, Lampsăcus, Lam&rus, Lapithæ, Leucretilis, Libănus, Lipăre, v. -a, Lysimăchus, Longimănus ; Marăthon, Mænălus, Marmarica, Massagětæ, Matrona, Megăra, Melitus, & -ta, Metropolis, Mutina, Myconus ; Neocles, Nerstos, Norýcum; Omphåle ; Patăra, Pegăsus, Pharnăces, Pisistrátus, Polydămas, Polyxěna, Porsěna, or Porsenna, Praxitěles, Puteoli, Pylădes, Pythagoras; Sarmătæ, Sarsina, Seměle, Semirămis, Sequăni, & -a, Serịphos, Sicoris, Socrătes, Sodoma, Sotades, Spartăcus, Sporădes, Strongyle, Stymphălus, Sybăris ; Taygetus, Telegðnus, Telemăchus, Tenědos, Tarrăco, Theophănes, Theophìlus, Tomýrus; Urbicus ; Veněti, Vologěsus, Volusus ; Xenocrătes, Zoxlus, Zopýrus.
The penult of several words is doubtful; thus, Batāvi, Lucan, Batăvi, Juv. & Mart. Fortuitus, Horat. Fortuitus, Mart. Some make fortuitus of three syllables; but it may be shortened like gratuitus, Stat. Patrimus, matrimus, præstolor, &c. are by some lengthened, and by some short ened; but for their quantity there is no certain authority.
FINAL SYLLABLES. XI. A, in the end of a word declined by cases, is short; as, Musă, templă, Tydeă, lampădă.
Exc. The ablative of the first declension is long; as, Muså, Ænēâ; and the voca tive of Greek nouns in as ; as, O Æncâ, O Pallà.
A in the end of a word not declined by cases is long; as, Amă, frustra, praterea, ergå, intrā.
Exc. Ită, quià, ejă, posteă, pută, (adv.) are short; and sometimes, though more rarely, the prepositions contră, ultră, and the compounds of ginta; as, trigintă, &c Contra, and ultra, when adverbs, are always long.
Natě, sedilē, patre, currě, nempě, antě. Exc. 1. Monosyllables are long; as, mē, tē, sē; except these enclitic conjunctions, quě, vě, ně ; and these syllabical adjections, ptě, cě, tě; as, suaptě, hujuscě, tutě, but these may be comprehended under the general rule, as they never stand by themselves.
Exc. 2. Nouns of the first and fifth declension are long; as, Calliopē, Anchise, fidē. So rē, and diē, with their compounds, quarē, hodiē, pridie, postridié, quotidie: Also Greek nouns which want the singular, Cetē, melē, Tempē; and the second person singular of the imperative of the second conjugation; as, Docē, manē; but cave, vale, and vide, are sometimes short.
Exc. 3. Adverbs derived from adjectives of the first and second declension are long; as, placidē, pulchrē, valdē, contracted for validē; to these add fermē, ferē, and ohë; also all adverbs of the superlative degree; as, doctissime, fortissime: but beně and malē are short.