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Exc. 2. The dative of Greek nouns of the third declension which increase, is common; as, Palladi, Minoīdi.
Mihi, tibi, sibi, are also common : so likewise are ibi, nisi, ubi, quasi ; and cui, when a dissyllable, which in poetry is seldom the case. Sicubi and necubi are always short.
0. XIV. O final is common; as, Virgo, Amo, quando.
Exc. 1. Monosyllables in o are long; as, o, do, sto, pro. The dative and ablative sing. of the second declension, are long; as, libro, domino: also Greek nouns, as, Dido, and Atho the genitive of Athos, and adverbs derived from nouns; as, certo, falső, paulo. To these add quo, eo, and their compounds, quovis, quocunque, adeo, ideo; likewise, illo, idcirco, citro, intro, retro, ultro.
Exc. 2. The following words are short ; Ego, scio, cedo a defective verb, homo, citó, illžco, imó, duó, ambo, modò, with its compounds, quomodă, dummodó, postmodo : but some of these are also found long.
Exc. 3. The gerund in DO in Virgil is long; in other poets it is short. Ergó, on account of, is long; ergo, therefore is doubtful.
U and Y.
B, D, L, M, R, T.
Ab, apůd, seměl, precór, capăt.
M final anciently made the foregoing vowel short; as, Militum octo, Ennius. But by later poets, m in the end of a word is always cut off, when the next word begins with a vowel; thus, Milit, octo ; except in compound words; as, circămăgo, circümeo.
XVII. C and N, in the end of a word, are long; as,
Ac, sic, non. So Greek nouns in n; as, Titan, Sirēn, Salamin, Ænean, Anchisen, Circen, Lacedæmon, &c.
The following words are short, něc and doněc ; forsităn, in, forsăn, taměn, ăn, viděn’; likewise nouns in en which have žnis in the genitive; as, carměn, criměn ; together with several Greek nouns; as, Ilion, Pylón, Alexăn. The pronoun hic, and the verb fac, are common.
AS, ES, OS. XVIII. AS, ES, and OS, in the end of a word, are long; as, Mās, quiēs, bonos.
The following words are short, anăs, ěs from sum, and peněs ; ös, having ossis in the genitive, compos, and impos ; also a great many Greek nouns of all these three terminations ; as, Arcăs and Arcădăs, herõšs ; Phrygěs ; Arcados, Tenědos, Mělós, &c. and Latin nouns in es, having the penult of the genitive increasing short; as, Alěs, heběr, obsčs. But Cerēs, pariēs, ariēs, abies, and pēs with its compounds, are long.
IS, US, YS.
Turris, legis, legimŭs, annus, Capis.
omnes, fructûs, manús : also the genitive singular of the fourth declension; as, portús. But bus in the dative and ablative plural is short; as, floribús, fructibús, rebús.
Exc. 2. Nouns in is are long, which have the genitive in itis, īnis, or entis ; as, līs, Samnīs, Salamīs, Simoīs. To these add the adverbs gratis and forīs; the noun glis, and vis, whether it be a noun or a verb; also is in the second person singular, when the plural has itis ; as, audis, abis, possis. Ris in the future of the subjunctive is common.
Exc. 3. Monosyllables in us are long; as, grūs, sūs : also nouns which in the genitive have üris, ūdis, utis, untis, or odis; as, tellus, incūs, virtūs, amăthus, tripus. To these add the genitive of Greek nouns of the third declension; as, Cliús, Sapphûs, Mantús; also nouns which have u in the vocative; as, Panthūs. Exc. 4. Tethys is sometimes-long, and nouns in ys, which have likewise уп
in the nominative; as, Phorcys, Trachīs.
T The last syllable of every verse is common Or, as some think, necessarily long on account of the pause or suspension of the voice, which usually follows it in pronunciation. THE QUANTITY OF DERIVATIVE AND COMPOUND WORDS.
1. DERIVATIVES. XX. Derivatives follow the quantity of their primitives ; as, Amicus, from ămo.
Decoro, from decus, -öris. Auctionor, auctio, -ōnis.
exul, -ălis. Auctoro, auctor, -oris.
păveo. Auditor, auditum.
Quiris, -itis. Auspicor, auspex, -icis.
radix, -icis. Cauponor,
sospes, -itis. Compětitor, compětītum.
Natura, Cornicor, cornix, -icis.
Maternus, Custodio, custos, -odis.
lēgo. Decorus, decor, -oris.
1. Long from Short. Dēni,
from décem. Suspicio, from suspicor. Mobilis, from moveo Fomes,
Jûmentum. jůvo. Régula,
2. Short from Long. Ărena and ărista, from
Lůcerna, from lūceo.
dis, ditis. Sopor,
qualus, &c. 2. COMPOUNDS. XXI. Compounds follow the quantity of the simple words which compose them; as,
Dēduco, of dē, and duco. So profěro, antěfěro, consolor, dēnoto, dēpeculor, deprāvo, despēro, despūmo, desquamo, enôdo, ērádio, exūdo, exăro, expăveo, incēro, inhumo, investigo, prægrăvo, prænăto, règělo, appăro, appareo, concăvus, prægrăvis, dēsólo, suffoco & suffoco, diffidit from diffindo, and diffidit from diffido, indico, and indicó, permănet from permăneo, and permānet from permāno, effodit
, in the present, and effodit in the perfect; so, exědit and exēdit; devěnit and devēnit ; devěnimus and devēnimus ; reperimus and reperimus ; effugit and effugit, &c.
The change of a vowel or diphthong in the compound does not alter the quantity; as, incido from in and cădo ; incīdo from in and cædo ; suffoca from sub and faux, faucis : unless the letter following make it fall under some general rule; as, admitto, pērcello, děosculor, prohibeo.
Exc. 1. Agnitum, cognitum, dējěro, pejěro, innŭba, pronŭba, maledicus, veridicus, nihilum, semisõpītus; from nótus, jūro, nūbo, dico, hilum, and sopio: 'ambitus, a
participle from ambio, is long; but the substantives ambitus and ambitio are short. Connubium has the second syllable common.
Exc. 2. The preposition PRO is short in the following words: profundus, prófugio, profugus, proněpos, proneptis, profestus, profari, profiteor, prófānus, profecto, procelia, prótervus, and propāgo, a lineage; pro in prõpāgo, a vine stock or shoot, is long. Pro in the following words is doubtful : propago, to propagate; propino, profundo, propello, propulso, procuro, and Proserpina.
Exc. 3. The inseparable prepositions SE and DI are long; as, sēpăro, dīvello : except diržmo, disertus. Re is short; as, rěmitto, rěféro : except in the impersonal verb rēfert, compounded of res and fero.
Exc. 4. E, I, O, in the end of the former compounding word are usually shortened ; as, trécenti, něfas, něque, patēfacio, &c. Capricornus, omnípotens, agricola, signfíco, biformis, aliger, Trivia, tubicen, &c. Duodécim, hodie, sacrosanctus, &c. But from each of these there are many exceptions. Thus i is long when it is varied by cases; as, quidam, quivis, tantidem, eidem, &c. And when the compounding words may be taken separately ; as, ludīmagister, lucrifacio, sīquis, &c. Idem in the masculine, is long; in the neuter, short: also, ubique, ibidem. But in ubivis and ubicunque, the. ¿ is doubtful.
In every word of two or more syllables, one syllable is sounded higher than the rest, to prevent monotony, or an uniformity of sound, which is disagreeable to the ear.
When accent is considered with respect to the sense, or when a particular stress is laid upon any word, on account of the meaning, it is called Emphasis.
There are three accents, distinguished by their different sounds; acute, gruve, and circumflex,
1. The acute or sharp accent raises the voice in pronunciation, and is thus marked [']; as, prófero, próffer.
2. The grave or base accent depresses the voice, or keeps it in its natural tone; and is thus marked [']; as, doctè. This accent properly belongs to all syllables which have no other.
The circumflex accent first raises and then sinks the voice in some degree on the same syllable; and is therefore placed only upon long syllables. When written, it has this mark, made up of the two former [^]; as, amâre.
The accents are hardly ever marked in English books, except in dictionaries, grammars, spellingbooks, or the like, where the acute accent only is used.
The accents are likewise seldom marked in Latin books, unless for the sake of distinction; as, in these adverbs, aliquò, continud, doctè, und, &c. to distinguish them from certain cases of adjectives, which are spelt in the same way. So poēta, gloriâ, in the ablative : fructus, tumultus, in the genitive : nostrûm, vestrûm, the genitive of nos and vos : ergô, on account of; occidit, he slew; Pompili, for Pompilii ; amâris, for amaveris, &c.
It is so called, because when the number of syllables requisite is completed, we always turn back to the beginning of a new line.
The parts into which we divide a verse, to see if it have its just number of syllables, are called Feet.
A verse is divided into different feet, rather to ascertain its measure or number of syllables, than to regulate its pronunciation.
FEET. Poetic feet are either of two, three, or four syllables. When a single syllable is taken by itself, it is called a Cæsūra, which is commonly a long syllable..
1. Feet of two syllables. Spondeus, consists of two long; as, omnes. Pyrrhichius,
two short; as, děŭs. Jambus,
a short and a long; as, ămâns. Trochæus,
a long and a short; as, sērvūs.
2. Feet of three syllables. Dactýlus,
a long and two short; as, scriběrě. Anapastus,
two short and a long; as, pvětås. Amphimăcer, a long, a short, and a long, as, charitas Tribrăchys,
three short; as, dominès.
"The following are not so much used:
Ionicus major, călcărăbūs.
Pæon secundus, põlēntiă. 3. Feet of four syllables.
ànimālūs. Proceleusmaticus, hominibus.
Epitritus primus, võluptātes.
Epitritus secundus, pænitentes.
Epitritus tertius, discórdias.
Epitritus quartus, förtūnalūs.
SCANNING. The measuring of verse, or the resolving of it into the several feet of which it is composed, is called Scanning
When a verse has just the number of feet requisite, it is called Versus Acatalectus, or Acatalecticus, an Acatalectic verse : if a syllable be wanting, it is called Cataleclicus : if there be a syllable too much, Hypercatalecticus, or Hyperměter.
The ascertaining whether the verse be complete, defective, or redundant, is called Depositio, or Clausula.
DIFFERENT KINDS OF VERSE.
1. HEXAMETER. The Hexameter or Heroic verse consists of six feet. Of these the fifth is a dactyle, and the sixth a spondee ; all the rest may be either dactyles or spondees; as,
Lūděrě | quâ vėl- | lēm călă- | mo pēr- | misīt å- | grēsti. Virg.
Infān- 1 dūm Re- 1 gină, jŭ- | bēs rěnð vārě do- lorem. Id. A regular Hexameter line cannot have more than seventeen syllables, or fewer than thirteen. Sometimes a spondee is found in the fifth place, whence the verse is called Spondaic: as,
Cáră Dě- | um sõbð- | lēs mā- | gnum Jovis | incre- | mēntům. Virg. This verse is used when any thing grave, slow, large, sad, or the like, is expressed. It commonly has a dactyle in the fourth place, and a word of four syllables in the end.
Sometimes there remains a superfluous syllable at the end. But this syllable must either terminate in a vowel, or in the consonant m, with a vowel before it: so as to be joined with the following verse, which in the present case must always begin with a vowel; as,
Omnță | Mērcări- | o simi- í lis vo- | cēmquě cò- | loremque
Ludere quæ vellem calamo permisit agresti. Virg.
Pinguis et ingratæ premeretur caseus urbi. Id. Or which have more dactyles than spondees; as,
Tityre tu patulæ recubans sub tegmine fagi. Id. It is esteemed a great beauty in a Hexameter verse, when by the use of dactyles and spondees, the sound is adapted to the sense ; as,
Quadrupedante putrem sonitu quatit ungula campum. Virg.
Accipiunt inimicum imbrem, rimisquc fatiscunt. IJ.
Cæsura is when, after a foot is completed, there remains a syllable at the end of a word to begin a new foot; as,
At-ré-gină gră-vi jām-dudum, &c. The Cæsura is variously named, according to the different parts of the nexameter verse in which it is found. When it comes after the first foot, or falls on the third half-foot, it is called by a Greek name, Triemiměris: when on the fifth half-foot or the syllable after the second foot, it is called Penthemimeris: when it happens on the first syllable of the fourth foot, or the seventh half-foot, it is called Hepthemiměris: and when on the ninth half-foot, or the first syllable of the fifth foot it is called Ennë emiměris. All these different species of the Cæsura sometimes occur in the same verse; as,
Illě lă-tus nivě-úm mol-li fül-tús hýă-cinthó. Virg. But the most common and beautiful Cæsura is the penthemim; on which some lay a particular accent or stress of the voice in reading a hexameter verse thus composed, whence they call it the Cæsural pause : as,
Tityre dum rede- 0, brevis est via, pasce capellas. Virg. When the Cæsura falls on a syllable naturally short, it renders it long; as, the last syllable of fullus in the foregoing example.
The chief melody of a hexameter verse in a great measure depends on the proper disposition
of the Cesura. Without this, a line consisting of the number of feet requisite will be little else than mere prose ; as,
Romæ mență tērrůst impigěr Hannībăl ārmis. Ennius. The ancient Romans, in pronouncing verse, paid a particular attention to its melody. They not only observed the quantity and accent of the several syllables, but also the different stops and pauses which the particular turn of the verse required. In modern times we do not fully perceive the melody of Latin verse, because we have now lost the just pronunciation of that language, the people of every country pronouncing it in a manner similar to their own. In reading Latin verse, therefore, we are directed the same rules which take place with respect to English verse.
The tone of the voice ought to be chiefly regulated by the sense. All the words should be pronounced fully; and the cadence of the verse ought only to be observed, so far as it corresponds with the natural expression of the words. At the end of each line there should be no fall of the voice, unless the sense requires it; but a small pause, half of that which we usually make at a comma.
2. PENTAMETER. The Pentaměter verse consists of five feet. Of these the two first are either dactyles or spondees; the third always a spondee; and the fourth and fifth an' anapæstus ; as,
Nätü- | ræ sěqui- | tür se- | mìnă quis- 1 quě sŭæ. Propert.
Cärmini- | būs vi- | vēs tēm- | půs în óm 2- | ně měis. Ovid. But this verse is more properly divided into two hemisticks or halves; the former of which consists of two feet, either dactyles or spondees, and a cæsura; the latter, always of two dactyles and another cæsura ; thus,
Nātü- | ræ sěqui- 1 tür | sēmînă | quisquě sů- 1 a.
Cârmănî- 1 būs vi- / vēs | tēmpủs in omně mě. | is.
Mæcē- | nás åtăvis | éditě re- | gibús. Hor.
Nāvis | quæ tibi cre- | dītům. Horat.
5. SAPPHIC and ADONIAN.
Intě- ' gēr vi- | tæ, scělě- | risquě | púrůs. Horat. An Adonian verse consists only of a dactyle and spondee ; as, Júpítěr | urgēt. Horat.
6. PHERECRATIAN. The Pherecratian verse consists of three feet, a spondee, dactyle, and spondee; thus, Nigris / æquoră / vēntis. Horat.
ny. PHALEUCIAN. The Phaleucian verse consists of five feet; namely, a spondee, a dactyle, and three trochees; as, Summām | nēc mětů- | as di- | ēm, něc | õptěs. Martial.
8. The GREATER ALCAIC, The Greater Alcaic, called likewise Dactylic, consists of four feet, a spondee or iambus, iambus and cæsura, then two dactyles; as, Virtus / répul- 1 sæ | nēscřă | sórdidæ. Horat.
9. ARCHILOCHIAN. The Archilochian lambic verse consists of four feet. In the first and third place, it has either a spondee or iambus; in the second and fourth, always an iambus ; and in the end, a cæsura; as,
Nēc sū- | mit, aūt | põnit | sěcū- | rēs. Horat.
10. The LESSER ALCAIC. The Lesser Dactylic Alcaic consists of four feet; namely, two dactyles and two trochees; as,
Arbitri- 1 popů- | láris | aŭræ. Horat. of the above kinds of verse, the first two take their
names from the number of feet of which they consist. All the rest derive their names from those by whom they were either first invented, or frequently used.
There are several other kinds of verse, which are named from the feet by which they are most