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Nauta, tenens gubernaculum, regit navim. Exercitus, se RULES. quens hostem, pugnat sagittis. Mors est anteponenda dedecori.

43. Participles, gePii sunt fruituri æterna vita in cælis. Occulta, et maribus non

runds, supines, and adinvisa solùm, sed etiam inaudita sacra. Tu es invisus mihi.

verbs, govern the same Plebs consulum nomen haud secus quàm regum perosa erat. case, as the words from Vivendum est mihi illic. Scio vivendum esse mihi illic. Mori- which they are derived. endum est omnibus. Scio moriendum esse omnibus. Orandum 44. The gerund in est, ut sit mens sana in corpore sano. Deliberandum est diu, dum, of the nominative,

with the verb est, goquod statuendum est semel. Cicero dixit optimè omnium. Po

verns the dative. eta agit utiliter urbi. Poeta agit inutiliter sibi. Hector exivit 45. The gerund in obviàm hosti. Hic laudat mercedes plenius æquo. Nemo dicitur di, of the genitive, is locutus fuisse distinctiùs Demosthene. Nullos his mallem ludos governed by nouns, or spectatâsse. Mallem granum hordei omnibus gemmis. Con- adjectives.

46. The gerund in suetudo disputandi est impia. Omnes sunt cupidi vivendi beatè.

do, of the dative, is goTempus abeundi est. Ille est peritus cantandi. Charta est uti- verned by adjectives lis scribendo. Non est solvendo. Epidicum quærendo operam signifying usefulness, dabo. Aptat habendo ensem. Tu es promptus ad audiendum. or fitness, &c. Ille est attentus inter docendum. Pæna absterret a peccando.

47. The gerund in Memoria augetur excolendo. Defessus sum ambulando. Igna- dum, of the accusative,

is governed by the previ a discendo cito deterrentur. Non ibo servitum Graiis matri

positions ad, ob, inter bus. Venientes spectatum, cupiunt spectari. Cur is te perdi- ante, propter. tum ? It venatum. Hoc est mirabile dictu. Nihil dictu fædum 48. The gerund in visuque hæc limina tanget, intra quæ puer est. Difficilis est do, of the ablative, is inventu verus amicus. Palleo metu. Fecit hoc suo more. governed by the preJuvenes saltabant gaudio. Ille est pallidus metu. Homo

capi- positions a, ab, de, e,

ex, in; or without a tur voluptate. Georgius scribit pennâ. Laus paranda virtute.

preposition, as the ablaMons est candidus nive. Clypeus fabricatus ære. Est æger pe- tive of cause, means, or dibus. Murus est decem pedes altus. Urbs distat triginta mil- manner, ibus passuum. Philadelphia ferè distat centum milliaribus a 49. The supine in Novo Eboraco. Non discedam pedem a te. Sol est multis

um, is put after a verb par

of motion. tibus major terrâ. Quanto diutius Simonides Dei naturam con 50. The supine in sideravit, tanto obscurior res visa est ei. Toto vertice supra est. u, is put after an adjecHoc lignum excedit illud digito. Venit horâ tertiâ. Mansit pau tive. cos dies. Sex mensibus abfuit. Convenimus secundâ horâ. Sa 51. Nouns, signifyturnus regnavit aureâ ætate. Mansisti mecum unam noctem. ing the price of a thing,

are put in the ablative. Emi librum tribus solidis. Demosthenes docuit talento. Perfi

52. Nouns, signifydus vendit patriam auro. Illa juvant quæ pluris emuntur. Nulla ing 'the instrument, res constat patri minoris. Vendam librum tanti quanti valet. cause, means, or manVendidit librum tanti quantum valebat. Librum emam tanto ner, are put in the abla

tive. pretio quanto valet. Quanti constitit ? Asse et pluris. Per

53. Nouns, signifymagno constitit. Dum pro argenteis decem aureus unus valeret.

ing measure, or disVenit pridie illius diei. Deus laudatur ubique gentium. Cati- tance, are put in the ina habuit satis eloquentiæ. Meus pater venit ad templum. accusative—sometimes Meus pater venit ex templo. Puer ambulat in templum. Ser. in the ablative. vus ambulavit sub scalas. Turris incedit super agmina. · Puer

54. Nouns, signifyambulat in templo. Daphnis consedit sub ilice. Ferus leo ing the time when, are cucurrit in sylvis. Aves super arbore sidunt. Alii super alios those, how long, in the

put in the ablative; trucidantur. Nos autem, viri fortes, satisfacere reipublicæ vide accusative-sometimes mur, si istius furorem ac tela vitemus.

in the ablative.

RULES.

Cicero accusavit Verrem furti. Postulavit Milonem majes55. Verbs of accu- tatis. Damnavit illum sceleris. Absolvit vos criminis. Morsing, condemning, ad- bus monet nos mortis. Arguit me furti. Me ipsum inertiæ monishing, and acquit- condemno. Illum homicidii absolvunt. Monet me officii. ting, govern the accusa- De vi condemnati sunt. Erroris te moneo.

Absolvo me tive of a person with peccato. Punit illum capite. Æstimo te magni. Sapiens the genitive of a thing. æstimat voluptatem parvi. Facio te æqui. Consulo tuum

56. Verbs of esteem- monitum boni. Æstimo te pro nihilo. Comparo Virgilium ing, govern the accu- Homero. Dedit homini sublime os. Dicam tibi totam sative of the person, or

rem. Eripuit me morti. Ignosce mihi hanc culpam. Minathing esteemed, and tus est mihi mortem. Suum cuique tribuito. Narras fabulam the genitive of the va- surdo. Educa hunc puerum mihi. Recita mihi sententiam lue.

Doce puellam mihi. Emam tibi libros. Praefecit Sextum 57. Verbs of com- classi. Præfero vim opibus. Gloriosum est iram mutare amiparing, giving, declar- citiâ. Legam lectionem tibi. Paupertas sæpe suadet mala hoing, and taking away, minibus. Interdixit Galliam Romanis. Ad prætorem homigovern the accusative nem traxit. Pacem te poscimus omnes. Egestas docet nos and dative.

temperantiam. Cela hanc rem servos. Moneo te officium. In58. Verbs of asking, stitue hunc puerum Græcis litteris. Omnes poscimus pacem à and teaching, govern te. Docuit me grammaticam. Celavit me hanc rem. Celavit two accusatives ; the hanc rem mihi. Onerat naves auro. Induit se calceos. Induit one of a person, and se calceis. Deum posce veniam. Ea me ne celet. Verres acthe other of a thing. cusabatur furti. Virgilius comparatur Homero. Ego eripior

59. Verbs of load morti. Deus rogatur salutem. Nos docemur temperantiam. ing, binding, clothing, Hæc res celatur servos. Sæpe monemur mortis. Doceor depriving, and some grammaticam. Navis oneratur auro. Scio homines accusatum others, govern the ac- iri furti. Habetur ludibrio iis. Tu laudaris à me. Virtus dilicusative and the abla- gitur à nobis. Mare à sole collucet. Phalaris non à paucis tive.

interiit. Per me defensa est respublica. Neque cernitur ulli. 60. When a verb in Vix audior ulli. Honesta bonis viris quæruntur. Nulla tuarum the active voice go- audita mihi neque visa sororum. Provisum est nobis optimè verns two cases, in the à Deo. Reclamatum est ab omnibus. Contigit mihi esse illîc. passive it retains the Expedit reipublicæ. Licet nemini peccare. Libet mihi expalatter case.

tiari. Pertinet ad te tacere. Favetur mihi. Mihi non potest 61. Impersonal verbs noceri. Negat jucundè posse vivi sine virtute. Per virtutem govern the dative.

potest iri ad astra. Aliorum laudi et gloriæ invideri solet. Re62. Interest and re- fert patris. Interest omnium. Non mea refert. Refert milifert require the geni- tum. Cuja refert. Hoc parvi refert. Illud mea magni intetive.

rest. Faciam quod maximè reipublicæ interesse judicabo. 63. Miseret, pæni- Adeone est fundata leviter fides, ut ubi sim, quàm qui sim, matet, pudet, tædet, and gis referat? Plurimum enim intererit, quibus artibus, aut quibus piget, govern the accu- hunc tu moribus instituas. Miseret me infelicium civium. Semsative of a person, with per pænitet bonos peccati. Non pudet malos superbiæ. Tædet the genitive of a thing. te citò tui officii. Piget infelices duræ sortis. Miseret me tui.

64. Decet, delectat, Pænitet me peccati. Tædet me vitæ. Pudet me culpæ. Peejuvat, and oportet, go- nitet me peccâsse. Miseritum est me tuarum fortunarum. vern the accusative of Neque me tui, neque tuorum liberorum misereri potest. Decet a person, with the in- te esse æquum. Delectat pueros ludere. Juvat te manere finitive mood.

domi. Oportet te studere diligenter.

or

names

Delectat me studere. Non decet te rixari. Parvum parva RULES. decent. Est aliquid, quod non oporteat, etiamsi liceat. Sibi 65. The name of a quisque consulet oportet. Vixit Romæ. Mortuus est Londini. town, signifying the Quid Romæ faciam? Habitat Carthagine. Studuit Parisiis. place where, or in Horatius vixit Tibure et Athenis. Venit Romam. Profectus which, if it be of the

first or second declenest Athenas. Regulus rediit Carthaginem. Carthagini nun- sion and singular numcios mittam. Regulus rediit Carthagine. Venit Aberdoniâ. ber, is put in the geniFecit iter Philadelphiâ. Discedit Corintho. Laodiceâ iter tive; but if it be of the faciebat. Per Thebas iter fecit. Quid faciam domi? Hora- third declension, or plutius vixit rure. Regulus non rediit domum. Petrus abiit rus

ral number, it is put in

the ablative. nuper. Non ibo domo. Manet domi. Domum revertitur.

66. The name of a Domo arcessitus sum. Vivit ruri. Jacet humi. Ubi vir na- town, signifying the tus fuit ? In Italia. Quo abivit? In Italiam. Unde redivit ? place whither, is put in Ab Italia. Quâ transivit ? Per Italiam. Deo volente, omnia the accusative. cedent benè. Opere peracto, ludemus. Soleoriente, fugiunt

67. The name of a tenebræ. Dominante libidine, temperantiæ nullus est locus. place whence,

town, signifying the Nihil amicitiâ præstabilius est, exceptâ virtute. Oppressâ li- through what place, is bertate patriæ, nihil est quod speremus amplius. Cicero, lo- put in the ablative. cutus hæc, consedit. Romani, libertate adeptâ, floruerunt.

68. Donus and rus, Nihil autem magis cavendum est senectuti, quàm ne languori signifying the place se desidiæque dedat.

where, are construed like the

of Deus, quem pii colunt, cujus munere vivunt, cujus sunt cu- towns. pidi, cui parent et placent, quo fruentur, est æternus. Specta 69. A noun, or protum admissi, risum teneatis, amici ? Pictoribus atque poëtis noun, joined with a quidlibet audendi semper fuit æqua potestas. Serpit humi, tu- participle expressed or tus nimium, timidusque procellæ. In vitium ducit culpæ fuga,

understood, when its

case , depends on si caret arte. Sumite materiam vestris, qui scribitis, æquam other word, is put in viribus. Si vis me flere, dolendum est primùm ipsi tibi. Ira- the ablative absolute. tum vultum plena minarum verba decent. Et sibi constet. Nec deus intersit, nisi dignus vindice nodus inciderit. Graiis ingenium, Graiis dedit ore rotundo, musa loqui, præter laudem nullius avaris. Omne tulit punctum, qui miscuit utile dulci, lectorem delectando, pariterque monendo. Nunc est bibendum, nunc pede libero pulsanda tellus. Quibus pepercit aris ? Quid intactum nefasti liquimus ? Serves iturum Cæsarem in ultimos orbis Britannos. Valet ima summis mutare Deus. Nec tibi somnos adimunt. Multis ille quidem flebilis occidit; nulli flebilior quàm tibi, Virgili. Integer vitæ, scelerisque purus, non eget Mauri jaculis neque arcu.

O mater, pulchrâ filiâ pulchrior. Nil pictis timidus navita puppibus fidit. Nunc vino pellite curas; cras ingens iterabimus æquor. Ac neque jam stabulis gaudet pecus, aut arator igni. Recepto dulce mihi furere est amico. Foliis viduantur orni. Desine mollium tandem querelarum. Post equitem sedet atra cura. Eheu ne rudis agminum sponsus lacessat regius asperum tactu leonem. Dulce et decorum est pro patria mori. Justum et tenacem propositi virum non vultus instantis tyranni mente quatit solidâ. Hac arte Pollux et vagus Hercules innixus, arces attiget igneas. Primâ nocte domum claude, neque in vias sub cantu querulæ despice tibiæ; et te sæpè vocanti duram, difficilis mane. Donec gratus eram tibi, Persarum vigui rege beatior. Tecum vivere amem, tecum obeam libens. Instar veris enim vultus ubi tuus affulsit, populo gratior it dies, et soles melius nitent. Dignum laude virum Musa vetat mori. Nunc juvat nos levare diris pectora solicitudinibus. Nil fuit unquam sic impar sibi. Namque neglectis urenda filix innascitur agris. Egressum poagnâ, me accepit Aricia, Româ.

no

no

RULES.

DE VIRIS ILLUSTRIBUS URBIS ROMÆ. The adjective agrees

REGULUS, with its substantive, in number, case, and gender.

Regulus deindè in Africam primus Romanorum ducum tra2. The verb agrees with jecit. Clypeam urbem et trecenta castella expugnavit: neque its nominative case, in cum hominibus tantùm, sed etiam cum monstris dimicavit.' number and person. Nam quum apud flumen Bagradam castra haberet, anguis mira

3. The relative, qui, quæ, quod, agrees with its magnitudinis exercitum Romanum vexabat: multos milites inantecedent in gender, genti ore corripuit; plures caudæ verbere elisit ; nonnullos number, and person. ipso pestilentis halitùs afflatu exanimavit. Neque is telorum 4. If

nominative ictu perforari poterat ; quippè qui durissimâ squamarum loricâ come between the relative and the verb, the relative omnia tela facilè repelleret. Confugiendum fuit ad machinas, is the nominative to the et advectis balistis, tanquam arx quædam munita dejiciendus verb; but when a nomi- hostis fuit. Tandem saxorum pondere oppressus jacuit; sed native intervenes, the

cruore suo flumen et vicinam regionem infecit, Romanosque relative is governed by the verb, or some other word castra movere coëgit. Corium belluæ centum et viginti pedes in the sentence.

longum Romam misit Regulus. 5. Any verb may have Lacedæmonii Xantippum virum belli peritissimum Carthathe same case after as be giniensibus miserunt, à quo Regulus victus est ultimâ pernicie : fore it, when both words duo tantùm millia hominum ex omni Romano exercitu remanrefer to the same person or thing.

serunt: Regulus ipse captus, et in carcerem conjectus est. 6. Substantives signify. Deindè Romam de permutandis captivis dato jurejurando mising the same person or sus est, ut, si non impetrâsset, rediret ipse Carthaginem: qui thing, agree in case. 7. One substantive go

quum Romam venisset, inductus in senatum mandata exposuit, verns another signifying et primùm ne sententiam diceret recusavit, causatus se, quoa different person or thing, niam in hostium potestatem venisset, jam non esse senatorem in the genitive.

Jussus tamen sententiam aperire, negavit esse utile captivos 8. If the latter of two

. Panos reddi, quia adolescentes essent et boni duces, ipse verò jective of praise or dis- jam confectus senectute : cujus quum valuisset auctoritas, cappraise, joined with it, it tivi retenti sunt. inay be put either in the

Regulus deindè quum retineretur à propinquis et amicis, tagenitive or ablative.

men Carthaginem rediit : neque verò tunc ignorabat se ad cru9. An adjective in the neuter gender without a

delissimum hostem et ad exquisita supplicia proficisci, sed jussubstantive, governs the jurandum conservandum putavit. Reversum Carthaginienses genitive.

omni cruciatu necaverunt: palpebris enim resectis aliquandiù 10. Opus and Usus, in loco tenebricoso tenuerunt; deindè quum sol esset ardentissignifying need, require the ablative.

simus, repentè eductum intueri cælum coëgerunt; postremò in 11. Verbal adjectives, arcam ligneam incluserunt, in quâ undique clavi præacuti emiand such as signify an af- nebant. Ita dùm fessum corpus, quocumquè inclinaret, stifection of the mind, go mulis ferreis confoditur, vigiliis et dolore continuo extinctus est. vern the genitive. 12. Partitives, and Hic fuit Atilii Reguli exitus ipsâ quoque vitâ, licèt

per

maxiwords placed partitively, mam gloriam diù actâ, clarior et illustrior. comparatives, superlatives, interrogatives, and

FABIUS MAXIMUS. some numerals, govern the genitive plural.

Annibal, superatis Pyrenæi et Alpium jugis, in Italiam venit. 13. Adjectives signify

Publium Scipionem apud Ticinum amnem, Sempronium apud ing profit or disprofil, like. Trebiam, Flaminium apud Trasimenum profligavit. Adversùs ness or unlikeness, &c. go- hostem toties victorem missus Quintus Fabius dictator, Annivern the dative. 14. These adjectives,

balis impetum morâ fregit; namque pristinis edoctus cladibus dignus, indignus, prædi

belli rationem mutavit. Per loca alta exercitum ducebat, neque tus, and contentus; also, ullo loco fortunæ se committebat: castris nisi quantùm necesnatus, satus, ortus, editus, sitas cogeret tenebatur miles. Dux neque occasioni rei benè and the like, govern the gerendæ deerat, si qua ab hoste daretur, neque ullam ipse hosti ablative.

dabat. Frumentatum exeunti Annibali opportunus aderat, ag15. Adjectives, signifying plenty, or want, govern men carpens, palantes excipiens. Ita ex levibus præliis supethe genitive, or ablative. 18. Sum, when it signi- aut fortunæ pænitere.

rior discessit, militemque cæpit minùs jam aut virtutis suæ, fes possession, property, or duty, governs the geni

His artibus Annibalem Fabius in agro Falerno incluserat, tive,

sed ille callidus sine ullo exercitûs detrimento se expedivit.

47.

a

17.
31.

44.

taking away, govern the Sum, taken for habeo, Verbs, signifying ac The gerund in dum, accusative and dative. (to have,) governs the da- tively, govern the accu. of the nominative, with

68. tive of a person. sative.

the verb est, governs the Verbs of asking, and 18.

32.
dative.

leaching, govern two acSum, taken for affero, Misereor, miseresco,

45.

cusatives; the one of a (to bring,) governs two and salago, govern the The gerund in di, of person, and the other of datives; the one of a per-genitive.

the genitive, is govern- a thing: son, and the other of a

33.
cd by nouns, or adjec-

59.
thing
Any verb may govern tives.

Verbs of loading, bind. 19. the dative in Latin, which

46.

ling, clothing, depriving, The compounds of has to, or for, after it in The gerund in do, of and some others, govern Sum, except Possum, go- English.

the dative, is governed the accusative and the vern the dative.

34.

by adjectives signifying ablative.
20.
Verbs compounded usefulness, or fitness, &c.

60. Words of the compa- with satis, bene, and male,

When a verb in the rative degree govern the govern the dative. The gerund in dum, active voice governs two ablative when quam is

35.

of the accusative, is go-cases, in the passive it omitted in Latin.

Many verbs compound- verned by the preposi- retains the latter case. 21. ed with these ten pre- tions ad, ob, inter, ante,

61. Adverbs qualify verbs, positions, præ, ad, con, propter.

Impersonal verbs go. participles, adjectives, sub, ante, post, ob, in,

48.

vern the dative. and other adverbs. inter, super, govern the The gerund in do, of

62.
22.
dative.

the ablative, is governed Interest and refert reSome adverbs of time,

36.

by the prepositions a, ab, quire the genitive. place, and quantity, goVerbs, signifying to de, e, ex, in ; or with

63. vern the genitive. profit, hurt, făvour, assist, out a preposition, as the Miseret, pænitet, pudet, 23.

command, obey, serve, re- ablative of cause, means, tædet, and piget, govern The prepositions ad, sist, trust, threaten, and for manner.

the accusative of a perapud, ante, &c. govern be angry with, govern

49.

son, with the genitive of the accusative. the dative.

The supine in um, is a thing.
24.

37.
put after a verb of mo-

64. The prepositions a, ab, Recordor, memini, re- tion.

Decet, delectat, juval, abs, &c. govern the abla-miniscor, and obliviscor,

50.

and oportet, govern the tive.

govern the accusative or The supine in U, is accusative of per 25. genitive.

put after an ective. son, with the infinitive The prepositions in,

38.

51.

mood. sub, super, and subter, Verbs of abounding Nouns, signifying the

65. govern the accusative, and wanting, govern the price of a thing, are put The name of a town, when motion to a place ablative, and sometimes in the ablative. signifying the place is signified; but when the genitive.

where, or in which, if it motion or rest in a place

39.

Nouns, signifying the be of the first or second is signified, in and sub Ulor, abutor, fungor, instrument, cause, means, declension and singular govern the ablative; su- fruor, potior, vescor, and for manner, are put in number, is put in the ge. per and subter either the some others, govern the the ablative.

nitive; but if it be of the accusative or ablative. ablative.

53.

third declension, or plu.. 26.

Nouns, signifying mea- ral number, it is put in The interjections 0, A verb compounded sure, or distance, are put the ablative. heu, proh, and some with a preposition, often in the accusative-some

66. others, govern the nomi- governs the case of that times in the ablative. The name of a town, native, accusative, or vo- preposition.

54.

signifying the place whic cative.

41.

Nouns, signifying the ther, is put in the accu27.

The infinitive mood time when, are put in the sative. The interjections hei, may be governed by a ablative; those, how long,

67. and væ, govern the da-verb, participle, adjec. in the accusative-some The name of a town, tive. tive, or noun.

times in the ablative. signifying the place 28. 42.

whence, or through what The conjunctions et, When quod, quin, ut, Verbs of accusing, con- place, is put in the ablaac, atque, nec, aut, neque, or ne, is omitted in Latin, demning, admonishing, tive. and some others, connect the word, which would and accquitting, govern

68. Jike cases and modes. otherwise in the the acusative of a per

Domus and rus, signi. 29.

nominative, is put in son with the genitive offying the place where are Two, or more substan- the accusative, and the a thing.

construed like the names tives singular, connected verb in the infinitive

56.

of towns. by a conjunction, may mood.

Verbs of esteeming,gohave a verb, adjective,

43.

vern the accusative of the A noun, or pronoun or relative plural to agree Participles, gerunds, person, or thing esteem- joined with a participle with them.

supines, and adverbs, ed, and the genitive, of expressed or understood, govern the same case as the value.

when its case depends The conjunctions ut, the words from which

57.

on no other word, is quo, licet, &c. govern the they are derived. Verbs of comparing, put in the ablative abso. subjunctive mood.

Igivin , declaring, andliute.

52.

40.

55.

бе

30.

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