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in the sentence.

RULES. Nempè arida sarmenta boum cornibus alligavit, eaque princi1. The adjective agrees pio noctis incendit : metus flammæ relucentis ex capite boves with its substantive, in velut stimulatos furore agebat. Hi ergo accensis cornibus per

2. The verb agrees with montes, per silvas lùc illùc discurrebant. Romani, qui ad its nominative case, in speculandum concurrerant, miraculo attoniti constiterunt: ipse number and person.

Fabius insidias esse ratus, militem extra vallum egredi vetuit. 3. The relative, qui, Intereà Annibal ex angustiis evasit. Dein Annibal, ut Fabio quæ, quod, agrees with its apud suos crearet invidiam, agrum ejus, omuibus circà vastatis, antecedent in gender, number, and person.

intactum reliquit; at Fabius omnem ab se suspicionem propul4. If no nominative savit: nam eumdem agrum vendidit, ejusque pretio captivos come between the relative Romanos redemit. and the verb, the relative

Quintus Fabius jam senex filio suo consuli legatus fuit; is the nominative to the verb ; but when a nomi- quumque in ejus castra veniret, filius obviàm patri progressus native intervenes, the est; duodecim lictores pro more anteibant. Equo vehebatur relative is governed by the senex, nec appropinquante consule descendit

. Jam ex lictori verb, or some other word bus undecim verecundiâ paternæ majestatis taciti præterierant.

6. Any verb may have Quod quum consul animadvertisset, proximum lictorem jussit the same case after as be- inclamare Fabio patri ut ex equo descenderet. Pater tùm defore it, when both words siliens : “ Non ego, fili, inquit, tuum imperium contempsi, sed refer to the same person experiri volui an scires consulem agere.” Ad summam senecor thing. 6. Substantives signify

tutem vixit Fabius Maximus, dignus tanto cognomine. Cautior ing the same person or quàm promptior habitus est, sed insita ejus ingenio prudentia thing, agree in case. bello, quod tùm gerebatur, aptissima erat. Nemini dubium

7. One substantive go- est quin rem Romanam cunctando restituerit. verns another signifying a different person or thing,

SCIPIO AFRICANUS. in the genitive.

8. If the latter of two Publius Cornelius Scipio nondùm annos pueritiæ egressus substantives have an ad. jective of praise or dis. patrem singulari virtute servavit: nam quum is in pugnâ apud praise, joined with it, it Ticinum contra Annibalem commissâ graviter vulneratus esset, may be put either in the et in hostium manus jamjam venturus esset, filius, interjecto genitive or ablative.

corpore, Penis irruentibus se opposuit, et patrem periculo li9. An adjective in the beravit. Quæ pietas Scipioni posteà Ædilitatem petenti favoneuter gender without a substantive, governs the

rem populi conciliavit; quum obsisterent tribuni plebis negenitive.

gantes rationem ejus esse habendam, quòd nondùm ad peten10. Opus and Usus, dum legitima ætas esset : “ Si me, inquit Scipio, omnes quisignifying need, require rites ædilem facere volunt, satis annorum habeo." Tanto indè the ablative.

11. Verbal adjectives, favore ad suffragia itum est, ut tribuni incepto destiterint. and such as signify an af.

Quum Romani duas clades in Hispaniâ accepissent, duoque fection of the mind, go- ibi summi imperatores cecidissent, placuit exercitum augeri, vern the genitive.

eòque proconsulem mitti ; nec tamen quem mitterent satis 12. Partitives, and words placed partitively, constabat. Eâ de re indicta sunt comitia. Primò populus comparatives, superla- exspectabat, ut qui se tanto dignos imperio crederent, nomina tives, interrogatives, and profiterentur; sed nemo audebat illud imperium suscipere. some numerals, govern Mosta itaque civitas erat, et propè consilii ipops. Subitò Corthe genitive plural. 13. Adjectives signify

nelius Scipio quatuor et viginti fermè annos natus, professus est ing profit, or disprofil, like- se petere, et in superiore, undè conspici posset, loco constitit: ness or unlikeness, &c. go- in quem omnium ora conversa sunt. Deindè ad unum omnes vern the dative. 14. These adjectives,

Scipionem in Hispaniâ proconsulem esse jusserunt. At postdignus, indignus, prædi: quàm animorum impetus resedit, populum Romanum cæpit tus, and contentus ; also, facti pænitere. Ætati Scipionis maximè diffidebant. Quod natus, satus, ortus, editus, ubi animadvertit Scipio, advocatâ concione, ita magno elatoque and the like, govern the animo disseruit de bello quod gerendum erat, ut homines curâ ablative. 16. Adjectives, signify

liberaverit, speque certâ impleverit. ing plenty, or want,

govern

Profectus igitur in Hispaniam Scipio Carthaginem novam, the genitive, or ablative. quâ die venit, expugnavit

. Eò congestæ erant omnes pene 18. Sum, when it signi- Africæ et Hispaniæ opes, quibus potitus est. Inter captivos ad fies possession, property, or duty, governs the geni.

eum adducta est eximiæ formæ adulta virgo. Postquàm comperit eam illustri loco inter Celtiberos natam, principique ejus

tive.

45.

a

17.
31.

44.

taking away, govern the Sum, taken for habeo, Verbs, signifying ac The gerund in dum, accusative and dative. (to have,) governs the da- tively, govern the accu- of the nominative, with

68. tive of a person. sative.

the verb est, governs the Verbs of asking, and 18.

32.
dative.

teaching, govern two acSum, taken for affero, Misereor, miseresco,

cusatives; the one of a (to bring,) governs two and satago, govern the The gerund in di, of person, and the other of datives; the one of a per- genitive.

the genitive, is govern- a thing. son, and the other of a

33.
ed by nouns, or adjec-

59.
thing
Any verb may govern tives.

Verbs of loading, bind 19. the dative in Latin, which

46.

ling, clothing, depriving, The compounds of has to, or for, after it in The gerund in do, of and some others, govern Sum, except Possum, go- English.

the dative, is governed the accusative and the vern the dative,

34.

by adjectives signifying ablative.
20.
Verbs compounded usefulness, or fitness, &c.

60. Words of the compa- with satis, bene, and male,

47.

When a verb in the rative degree govern the govern the dative. The gerund in dum, active voice governs two ablative when quam is

35.

of the accusative, is go-cases, in the passive it omitted in Latin. Many verbs compound- verned by the preposi- retains the latter case. 21. ed with these ten pre- tions ad; ob, inter, ante,

61. Adverbs qualify verbs, positions, præ, ad, con, propter.

Impersonal verbs go participles, adjectives, sub, ante, post, ob, in,

48.

vern the dative. and other adverbs. inter, super, govern the The gerund in do, of

62.
22.
dative.

the ablative, is governed Interest and refert reSome adverbs of time,

36.

by the prepositions a, ab, quire the genitive. place, and quantity, go Verbs, signifying to de, e, ex, in ; or with

63. vern the genitive. profit, hurt, favour, assist, out a preposition, as the Miseret, pænitet, pudet, 23.

command, obey, serve, re-ablative of cause, means, tædet, and piget, govern The prepositions ad, sist, trust, threaten, and or manner.

the accusative of a perapud, ante, &c. govern be angry with, govern

49.

son, with the genitive of the accusative. the dative.

The supine in um, is a thing.
24.

37.
put after a verb of mo-

64. The prepositions a, ab, Recordor, memini, re- tion.

Decet, delectat, juvat, abs, &c. govern the abla-miniscor, and obliviscor,

50.

and oportet, govern the tive.

govern the accusative or The supine in U, is accusative of per25. genitive.

put after an adjective. son, with the infinitive The prepositions in,

38.

51.

mood. sub, super,- and subter, Verbs of abounding Nouns, signifying the

65. govern the accusative, and wanting, govern the price of a thing, are put The name of a town, when motion to a place ablative, and sometimes in the ablative. signifying the place is signified; but when the genitive.

52.

where, or in which, if it motion or rest in a place

39.

Nouns, signifying the be of the first or second is signified, in and sub Utor, abutor, fungor, instrument, causc, means, declension and singular govern the ablative; su- fruor, potior, vescor, and/or manner, are put in number, is put in the geper and subler either the some others, govern the the ablative.

nitive; but if it be of the accusative or ablative. ablative.

53.

third declension, or plu. 40.

Nouns, signifying mea- ral number, it is put in The interjections 0, A vorb compounded sure, or distance, are put the ablative. heu, proh, and some with a preposition, often in the accusative-some

66. others, govern the nomi-governs the case of that times in the ablative. The name of a town, native, accusative, or vo- preposition.

54.

signifying the place whic cative.

41.

Nouns, signifying the ther, is put in the accu27.

The infinitive mood time when, are put in the sative. The interjections hei, may be governed by a ablative; those, how long,

67. and væ, govern the da- verb, participle, adjec- in the accusative-some The name of a town, tive. tive, or noun.

times in the ablative. signifying the place 28. 42.

55.

whence, or through what The conjunctions et, When quod, quin, ut,, Verbs of accusing, con- place, is put in the ablaac, atque, nec, aut, neque, or ne, is omitted in Latin, demning, admonishing, tive. and some others, connect the word, which would and accquitting, govern

68. like cases and modes. otherwise be in the the acusative of a per Domus and rus, signi29.

nominative, is put in son with the genitive of fying the place where are Two, or more substan- the accusative, and the a thing.

construed like the names tives singular, connected verb in the' infinitive

56.

of towns. by a conjunction, may mood.

Verbs of esteeming, go

69. have a verb, adjective,

vern the accusative of the A noun, or pronoun, or relative plural to agreet Participles, gerunds, person, or thing esteem- joined with a participle with them.

supines, and adverbs, ed, and the genitive, of expressed or understood, 30. govern the same case as the value.

when its case depends The conjunctions ut, the words from which

57.

no other word, is quo, licet, &c. govern the they are derived.

Verbs of comparing, put in the ablative absosubjunctive mood.

Igiving, declaring, andliute.

26.

43.

on

SCIPIO NASICA.

RULES.

gentis adolescenti desponsam fuisse, arcessitis parentibus et 1. The adjective agrees sponso eam reddidit. Parentes virginis, qui ad eam redimendam with its substantive, in satis magnum auri pondus attulerant, Scipionem orabant at id number, case, and gender ab se donum reciperet. Scipio aurum poni ante pedes jussit, its nominative case, in vocatoque ad se virginis sponso: Super dotem, inquit, quam number and person.

accepturus à socero es, hæc tibi à me dotalia dona accedent;" 3. The relative, qui, aurumque tollere ac sibi habere jussit. Ille domum reversus, ad que, quod, agroes with its referendam Scipioni gratiam, Celtiberos Romanis conciliavit. antecedent in gender, number, and person.

4. If no nominative come between the relative

Scipio Nasica censor factus, gravem se ac severum præbuit. and the verb, the relative is the nominative to the Quum equitum censum ageret, equitem quemdam vidit obeso verb; but when a nomi- et pingui corpore, equum verò ejus strigosum et macilentum. native intervenes, the “ Quidnam causæ est, inquit censor, cur sis tu, quàm equus relative is governed by the pinguior ? Quoniam, respondit eques, ego me ipse curo, equum verb, or some other word

verò servus." Minùs verecundum visum est responsum; itaque in the sentence.

6. Any verb may have graviter objurgatus eques, et mulctâ damnatus. Idem Scipio the same case after as be. Nasica cum Ennio poëtå vivebat conjunctissimè. Quum ad fore it, when both words eum venisset, eique ab ostio quærenti ancilla dixisset Ennium refer to the same person domi non esse, Nasica sensit illam domini jussu dixisse, et illum or thing. 6. Substantives signify

intùs esse. Paucis pòst diebus quum ad Nasicam venisset Ening the same person or nius, et eum à januâ quæreret, exclamavit ipse Nasica se domi thing, agree in case. non esse. Tùm Ennius : « Quid'. ego non cognosco, inquit,

7. One substantive go- vocem tuam ? Hîc Nasica: Homo es impudens : ego quum te verns another signifying a different person or thing, quærerem, ancillæ tuæ credidi te domi non esse; tu non mihi in the genitive.

credis ipsi.” 8. If the latter of two substantives have an ad.

PAULUS EMILIUS. jective of praise or dispraise, joined with it, it

Confecto bello, Paulus Æmilius regiâ nave ad urbem est submay be put either in the vectus. Completæ erant omnes Tiberis ripæ obviàm effusâ genitive or ablative. multitudine. Fuit ejus triumphus omnium longè magnificentis.

9. An adjective in the simus. Populus, exstructis per forum tabulatis in modum neuter gender without a substantive, governs

theatrorum, spectavit in candidis togis. Aperta templa omnia genitive.

et sertis coronata thure fumabant. In tres dies distribúta est 10. Opus and Usus, pompa spectaculi. Primus dies vix suffecit transvehendis signis signifying need, require tabulisque; sequenti die translata sunt arma, galeæ, scuta, lo

11. Verbal adjectives, ricæ, pharetræ, argentum aurumque. Tertio die, primo statim and such as signify an af mane ducere agmen cæpêre tibicines, non festos solemnium fection of the mind, go-. pomparum modos, sed bellicum sonantes, quasi in aciem provern the genitive. cedendum foret. Deindè agebantur pingues cornibus auratis

12. Partitives, and words placed partitively,

et vittis redimiti boves centum et viginti. comparatives, superla. Sequebantur Persei liberi, comitante educatorum et magistives, interrogatives, and trorum turbâ, qui manus ad spectatores cum lacrymis miserasome numerals, govern biliter tendebant, et pueros docebant implorandam suppliciter the genitive plural. 13. Adjectives signify.

victoris populi misericordiam. Ponè filios incedebat cum uxore ing profit or disprofil, like. Perseus stupenti et attonito similis. Indè quadringentæ coroness or unlikeness, &c. go- næ aureæ portabantur, ab omnibus ferè Græciæ civitatibus vern the dative.

dono missæ. Postremò ipse in curru Paulus auro purpurâ que 14. These adjectives, dignus, indignus, prædi- fulgens eminebat, qui magnam quum dignitate aliâ corporis, tus, and contentus , also, tùm senectâ ipsâ majestatem præ se ferebat. Post currum natus, satus, ortus, editus, inter alios illustres viros filii duo Æmilii; deindè equites tur. and the like, govern the matim, et cohortes peditum suis quæque ordinibus. Paulo an ablative. 15. Adjectives, signify

senatu et à plebe concessum est ut in ludis Circensibus veste ing plenty, or want, govern triumphali uteretur, eique cognomen Macedonici inditum. the genitive, or ablative. 16. Sum, when it signi.

TIBERIUS GRACCHUS ET CAIUS GRACCHUS. fies possession, property, or duty, governs the geni

Tiberius Gracchus et Caius Gracchus Scipiunis Africani ex tive.

filiâ nepotes erant. Horum adolescentia bonis artibus et magna

the

.

34.

36.

a

17.
31.

44.

staking away, govern the Sum, taken for habeo, Verbs, signifying ac The gerund in dum, accusative and dative. (lo have,) governs the da- tively, govern the accu- of the nominative, with

58. tive of a person. sative.

the verb est, governs the Verbs of asking, and 18.

32.
dative.

teaching, govern two acSum, taken for affero, Misereor, miseresco,

45.

cusatives; the one of a (to bring,) governs two and satago, govern the The gerund in di, of person, and the other of datives; the one of a per- genitive.

the genitive, is govern- a thing. son, and the other of a

33.
cd by nouns, or adjec-

59.
thing.
Any verb may govern|tives.

Verbs of loading, bind 19. the dative in Latin, which

46.

ling, clothing, depriving, The compounds of has to, or for, after it in The gerund in do, of and some others, govern Sum, except Possum, go- English.

the dative, is governed the accusative and the vern the dative.

by adjectives signifying ablative.
20.
Verbs compounded usefulness, or fitness, &c.

60. Words of the compa- with satis, bene, and male,

47.

When a verb in the rative degree govern the govern the dative. The gerund in dum, active voice governs two ablative when quam is

35.

of the accusative, is go-cases, in the passive it omitted in Latin.

Many verbs compound- verned by the preposi- retains the latter case. 21. ed with these ten pre- tions ad, ob, inter, ante,

61. Adverbs qualify verbs, positions, pre, ad, con, propter.

Impersonal verbs go participles, adjectives, sub, ante, post, ob, in,

48.

vern the dative. and other adverbs. inter, super, govern the The gerund in do, of

62.
22.
dative.

the ablative, is governed Interest and refert reSome adverbs of time,

by the prepositions a, ab, quire the genitive. place, and quantity, go Verbs, signifying to de, e, ex, in ; or with

63. vern the genitive. profit, hurt, favour, assist, out a preposition, as the Miseret, pænitet, pudet, 23.

command, obey, serve, re-ablative of cause, means, tædet, and piget, govern The prepositions ad, sist, trust, threaten, and or manner.

the accusative of a perapud, ante, &c. govern be angry with, govern

49.

son, with the genitive of the accusative. the datiye.

The supine in um, is a thing.
24.

37.
put after a verb of mo.

64. The prepositions a, ab, Recordor, memini, re- tion.

Decet, delectat, juvat, abs, &c. govern the abla-miniscor, and obliviscor,

50.

and oportet, govern the tive.

govern the accusative or The supine in U, is accusative of pergenitive.

put after an adjective. son, with the infinitive The prepositions in,

38.

51.

mood. sub, super, and subter, Verbs of abounding Nouns, signifying the govern the accusative, and wanting, govern the price of a thing, are put The name of a towat, when motion to a place ablative, and sometimes in the ablative. signifying the place is signified; but when the genitive.

52.

where, or in which, if it motion or rest in a place

39.

Nouns, signifying the be of the first or second is signified, in and sub Ulor, abutor, fungor, instrument, cause, means, declension and singular govern the ablative; su- fruor, potior, vescor, and or manner, are put in number, put in the geper and subter either the some others, govern the the ablative.

nitive; but if it be of the accusative or ablative. ablative.

53.

third declension, or plu26.

40.

Nouns, signifying mea- ral number, it is put in The interjections 0, A verb compounded sure, or distance, are put the ablative. heu, proh, aud some with a preposition, often in the accusative-some

66. others, govern the nomi-governs the case of that times in the ablative. The name of a town, native, accusative, or vo- preposition,

54.

signifying the place whicative.

41.

Nouns, signifying the ther, is put in the accu27.

The infinitive mood time when, are put in the sative. The interjections hei, may be governed by a ablative; those, how long,

67. and væ, govern the da- verb, participle, adjec- in the accusative--some The name of a town, tive. tive, or noun. times in the ablative. signifying the

place 28. 42.

55.

whence, or through what The conjunctions et, When quod, quin, ut, Verbs of accusing, con- place, is put in the ablaac, atque, nec, aut, neque, or ne, is omitted in Latin, demning, admonishing, tive. and some others, connect the word, which would and accquitling, govern

68. like cases and modes. otherwise be in the the acusative of a per Domus and rus, signi29.

nominative, is put in son with the genitive of fying the place where, are Two, or more substan- the accusative, and the a thing.

construed like the names tives singular, connected verb in the infinitive

56.

of towns. by a conjunction, may mood.

Verbs of esteeming; go

69. have a verb, adjective,

43.

vern the accusative of the A noun, or pronoun, or relative plural to agree Participles, gerunds, person, or thing esteem- joined with a participle with them.

supines, and adverbs, ed, and the genitive, of expressed or understood, 30. govern the same case as the value.

when its case depende The conjunctions ut, the words from which

57.

no other word, is quo, licet, &c. govern the they are derived. Verbs of comparing, put in the ablative abso subjunctive mood.

Igiving, declaring, andljute.

65.

on

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POMPEIUS MAGNUS.

RULES. omnium spe floruit. Ad egregiam quippè indolem accedebat 1. The adjective agrees optima educatio. Exstant Corneliæ matris epistolæ, quibus with its substantive, in apparet eos non solùm in gremio matris educatos fuisse, sed number, case, and gender: etiam ab eâ sermonis elegantiam hausisse. Maximum matro

2. The verb agrees with nis ornamentum esse liberos benè institutos meritò putabat
its piminative case,
number and person.

sapientissima illa mulier: quum Campana matrona, apud illam 3. The relative, qui, hospita, ornamenta sua, quæ erant illâ ætate pretiosissima, osque, quod, agrees with its tentaret ei muliebriter, Cornelia traxit eam sermone, quousquè antecodent

in gender, number, and person.

à scholâ redirent liberi; quos reversos hospitæ exhibens: “ En 4. If no nominative hæc, inquit, mea ornamenta.” Nihil quidem istis adolescenticome between the relative bus neque à naturâ neque à doctrinâ defuit; sed ambo remand the verb, the relative publicam, quram tueri potuissent, impiè perturbare maluerunt. is the nominative to the verbı; but when a nomi

LUCIUS LUCULLUS. native intervenes, the relative is governed by the

Habebat Lucullus villam prospectu et ambulatione pulcherverb, or some other word rimam, quò quum venisset Pompeius, id unum reprehendit in the sentence.

quòd ea habitatio esset quidem æstate peramæna, sed hieme 5. Any verb may have minùs commoda videretur; cui Lucullus: “ Putasne, inquit, the same case after as before it, when both words

me minùs sapere quàm hirundines, quæ adveniente hieme serefer to the same person dem commutant?” Villarum magnificentiæ respondebat epuor thing.

larum sumptus : quum aliquandò modica ei, utpotè soli, coena 6. Substantives signify, esset posita, coquum graviter objurgavit, eique excusanti ac ing the same person or thing, agree in case.

dicenti se non debuisse lautum parare convivium, quòd nemo 7. One substantive go. esset ad cænam invitatus : “ Quid ais, inquit iratus Lucullus, verns another signifying an nesciebas Lucullum hodiè cænaturum esse apud Lucula different person or thing, lum ?” in the genitive.

8. If the latter of two substantives have an ad jective of praise or dis

Cnæus Pompeius stirpis senatoriæ adolescens, in bello civili praise, joined with it, it se et patrem consilio servavit. Pompeii pater suo exercitui ob may be put either in the avaritiam erat invisus; itaque facta est in eum conspiratio genitive or ablative.

Terentius quidam, Cnæi Pompeii contubernalis, eum occiden 9. An adjective in the neuter gender without a

dum susceperat, dùm alii tabernaculum patris incenderent. substantive, governs the Quæ res juveni Pompeio cænanti nunciata est. Ipse nihil pegenitive.

riculo motus, solito hilariùs bibit, et cum Terentio eâdem, quâ 10. Opus and Usus, anteà, comitate usus est. Deinde cubiculum ingressus, clàm signifying need, require subduxit se tentorio, et firmam patri circumposuit custodiam.

11. Verba! adjectives, Terentius tùm districto ense, ad lectum Pompeii accessit, mul-
and such as signify an af- tisque ictibus stragula percussit. Ortâ mox seditione, Pom-
fection of the mind, go- peius se in media conjecit agmina, militesque tumultuantes pre-
vern the genitive.
12. Partitives, and

cibus et lacrymis placavit, ac suo duci reconciliavit. words placed partitively,

Pompeius eodem bello civili partes Syllæ secutus, ita egit, comparatives, superla- ut ab eo maximè diligeretur. Annos tres et viginti natus, ut tives, interrogatives, and Syllæ auxilio veniret, paterni exercitûs reliquias collegit, stasome numerals, govern timque dux peritus exstitit. Illius magnus apud militem amor,

13. Adjectives signify. magna apud omnes admiratio fuit; nullus ei labor tædio, nulla ing profit or disprofit, like- defatigatio molestiæ erat. Cibi vinique temperans, somni parness or unlikeness, &c. go- cus, inter milites corpus exercebat. Cum alacribus saltu, cum vern the dative. 14. These adjectives,

velocibus cursu, cum validis luctâ certabat. Tùm ad Syllam dignus, indignus, prædi- iter intendit, non per loca devia, sed palàm incedens, tres hostus, and contentus ; also, tium exercitus aut fudit, aut sibi adjunxit. Quem ubi Sylla ad natus, satus, ortus, editus, se accedere audivit, egregiamque sub signis juventutem aspexit, and the like, govern the desiliit ex equo, Pompeiumque salutavit imperatorem : deinablative.

15. Adjectives signify. ceps ei venienti solebat assurgere de sellâ et caput aperire; ing plenty or want, govern quem honorem nemini nisi Pompeio tribuebat. the genitive or ablative. Transgressus indè in Africam Pompeius, Iarbam Numidiæ

18. Sum, when it signi-regem, qui Marii partibus favebat, bello persecutus est. Intra or duty, governs the geni. dies quadraginta hostem oppressit, et Africam subegit adoUve.

lescens quatuor et viginti annorum. Tùm ei litteræ à Syllä

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