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Adjectives in Latin are varied by gender, number, and case, to agree with substantives in all these accidents.

An adjective properly hath neither genders, numbers, nor cases ; but certain terminations answering to the gender, number, and any of the substantive with which it is joined.

Adjectives are varied like three substantives of the same termination and declension. All adjectives are either of the first and second declension, or of the third only.

Adjectives of three terminations are of the first and second declension; but adjectives of one or two terminations are of the third.

Exc. The following adjectives, though they have three terminations, are of the third declension: Acer, sharp. Cěler, swift.

Sălüber, wholesome. Alăcer, cheerful.

Equester, belonging to a horse. Sylvester, woody. Campester, belonging to a plain. Păluster, marshy.

Võlăcer, swift. Cělěber, famous.

Pědester, on foot. ADJECTIVES OF THE FIRST AND SECOND DECLENSION. Adjectives of the first and second declension have their masculine in us or er, their feminine always in a, and their neuter always in um ; as, bonus, for the masculine; bona, for the feminine; bonum, for the neuter, good. See declension of bonus, page 11 Těner, teněra, teněrum, tender. See declension of tener, page 11.

Like tener, decline,
Asper, rough.
Lăcer, torn.

Miser, wretched,
Cæter, (hardly used,) the rest. Liber, free.

Prosper, prosperous. Gibber, crook-backed.

Also the compounds of gero and fero; as, laniger, bearing wool; opifer, bringing help, &c. Likewise sătur, satūra, saturum, full. But most adjectives in er drop the e; as, äter, alra, atruni, black; genitive atri, atræ, atri ; dative atro, atræ, atro, &c.

See declension of pulcher, page 11. So,
Æger, sick.
Măcer, lean.

Săcer, sacred.
Crēber, frequent.
Niger, black.

Scăber, rough.
Glăber, smooth.
Piger, slow.

Tēter, "gly.
Intěger, entire.
Rüber, red.

Văfer, crafty.
Lūdicer, ludicrous.

Dexter, right, has -tra, -trum, or -těra, •těrum.

Obs. 1. The following adjectives have their genitive singular in ius, and the dative in i, through all their genders : in the other cases like bonus and tener. ūnus, -a, -uin, genitive unius, dative uni, one. Alter, altěrius, one of two, the other. Alius, -ius, one of many, another.

Neuter, -trius, neilher. Nullus, nullius, none.

Üter, utrius, whether of the two. Sölus, -ius, alone.

Uterque, utriusque, both. Tötus, -jus, whole.

Uterlibet, -triuslibet, Ullus, -ius, any.


please. Alterúter, the one or the other, alterutrius, alterutri, and sometimes alterius utrius, alteri utri, &c.

These adjectives, except tetus, are called Partitives ; and seem to resemble, in their signification as well as declension, what are called pronominal adjectives. In ancient writers we find them declined like bonus, page 11,

Obs. 2. To decline an adjective properly, it should always be joined with a substantive in the different genders; as, bonus liber, a good book ; bona penna, a good pen; bonum sedile, a good seat. But as the adjective in Latin is often found without its substantive joined with it, we therefore, in declining bonus, for instance, commonly say bonus, a good man, understanding vir or homo ; bona, a good woman, understanding fæmina ; and bonum, a good thing, understanding negotium.

ADJECTIVES OF THE THIRD DECLENSION. 1. Adjectives of one termination; as, felix, for the masculine, felix for the fe minine, felix for the neuter, happy. See declension of felix, page 11.

In likc manner decline,
Āmens, -tis, mad.
Contůmax, stubborn.

Frequens, frequent.
Atrox, - cis, cruel.
Dėmens, mad.

Ingens, huge.
Audax, -acis, and -ens, -tis, bold. Edax, gluttonous.

Iners, -tis, sluggish. Bilix, -icis, woven with a double Efficax, effectual.

Insons, guiltless.
Elēgans, handsome.

Mendax, lying.
Căpax, capacious.
Fallas, deceitful.

Mordax, biting, satyrical.
Cicur, -ŭris, tame.
Ferax, fertile.

Pernix, -icis, swift.-
Clemens, -tis, merciful. Fěrox, fierce.

Pervicas, wilful.

{ while cose the two you

Pětúlans, forward, saucy Sălax, -acis, lustful.

Trux, -úcis, cruel.
Prægnans, with child.
Săpiens, wise.

Über, -ěris, fertile.
Prüdens, prudent.
Sõlers, shrewd.

Vehemens, vehement.
Rěcens, fresh,
Sons, guilty.

Vēlox, - cis, swift.
Rěpens, sudden,
Těnax, tenacious.

Vòrax, devouring.
Săgax, •ācis, sagacious.

2. Adjectives of two terminations; as, lenis, for the masculine and feminine; lene, for the neuter, mild; so, lenior, lenior, lenius, milder. See declension of lenis, pageli

In like manner decline,
Āgilis, active.
Hilăris, cheerful.

Rūdis, raw.
Amabilis, lovely,

Ignobilis, of mean parentage. Segnis, slow.
Biennis, of two years,
Immānis, huge, cruel.

Solennis, annual, solemn.
Brevis, short.
Ínānis, empty.

Stěrīlis, barren.
Civilis, courteous.
Incolėmis, safe.

Suavis, sweet.
Cælestis, heavenly.
Infāmis, infamous.

Sublimis, lofty.
Comis, mild, affable.
Insignis, remarkable.

Subtilis, subtle, fine.
Crūdēlis, cruel.
Jūgis, perpetual

Tālis, such.
Debilis, weak.
Lævis, smooth.

Těnuis, small.
Dēformis, ugly.
Lěvis, light.

Terrestris, earthly.
Docìlis, teachable.
Mědiocris, middling.

Terribilis, dreadful.
Dulcis, sweet in taste,
Mirabilis, wonderful,

Tristis, sad.
Exilis, slender.
Mitis, meek.

Turpis, base.
Exsanguis, bloodless.
Mollis, soft.

Utilis, useful.
Fortis, brave.
Omnis, ali.

Vilis, worthless.
Frăgilis, brittle.
Putris, rotten.

Viridis, green.
Grandis, great.
- Pinguis, fat.

Vitilis, pliant. Grăvis, heavy.

Quālis, of what kind. See declension of lenior, page 11. In like manner all comparatives are declined.

3. Adjectives of three terminations; as, ācer or acris, for the masculine; acris, for the feminine; acre, for the neuter, sharp; thus, Sing.

Plur. N. ā-cer or ācris, acris, acre,


-cria, G. a-cris, -cris, -cris, G. a-crium, -crium,

-crium, D. a-cri, -cri, -cri, D. a-crìbus,

-cribus, -cribus, A. a-crem, -crem, -cre,


-cria, V. a-cer or acris, -cris, -cre,


a-cres, -cres, A. a-cri,


A. a-cribus, -cribus, -cribus. In like manner ålăcer or alacris, cěler or celěris, cělěber or celebris, salūber or salubris, volūcer or volucris, &c.

RULES. 1. Adjectives of the third declension have e or i in the ablative singular; but if the neuter be in e, the ablative has i only.

2. The genitive plural ends in ium, and the neuter of the nominative, accusative, and vocative in ia: except comparatives, which have um and a.

N. a-cres, :

A. a-cres,




Exc. 1. Dives, hospes, sospes, süperstes, juvenis, sēnex, and pauper, have e only in the ablative singular, and consequently um in the genitive plural.

Exc. 2. The following have also e in the ablative singular, and um, not ium, in the gen. plural : Compos, -õtis, master of, that hath obtained his desire ; impos, -otis, unable; inops, opis, poor ; supplex, -žcis, suppliant, humble ; uber, sèris, fertile; consors, -tis, sharing, a partner; degěnér, -ěris,

degenerate, or degenerating ; vigil, watchful; pūber, -ěris, of age, marriageable; and celer. Also com- pounds in ceps, sex, pes, and corpor; as, particeps, partaking of; artifex, -icis, cunning, an artist ;

bipes, -pědis, two-footed; bicorpor, -öris, two-bodied, &c. All these have seldom the neuter singular, and almost never the neuter plural in the nominative and accusative. To which add měmor, mindful, which has memóri, memòrum: also, dėses, rèses, hēbes, perpes, præpes, téres, concolor, versãcolor, which likewise for the most part want the genitive plural. : Exc. 3. Par, equal, has only pări : but its compounds have either e or i; as, compăre, or -ri. Vetus, old, has vetera, and vetěrum : plus, more, which is only used in the neuter singular, has plure: and in the plural, plüres, plura or pluria, plurium.

Exc. 4. Exspes, hopeless; and potis, -e, able, are only used in the nominative. Potis has also sometimes potis in the neuter.


1. Comparatives and adjectives in us, have e more frequently than i; and participles in the ablative called absolute have generally e; as, Tiberio regnante, not regnanti, in the reign of Tiberius.

2. Adjectives joined with substantives neuter for the most part have i ; as, victrici ferro, not victrice,

3. Different words are sometimes used to express the different genders; as, victor, victorious, for the masculine ; victrix, for the feminine. Victrix, in the plural, has likewise the neuter gender; thus, victrices, victricia'; so ultor, and ultrix, revengeful. Victrix is also neuter in the singular.

4. Several adjectives compounded of clivus, frenum, bacillum, arma, jógum, limus, somnus, and animus, end in is or us; and therefore are either of the first and second declension, or of the third; as, declivis, -is, -e; and declivus, -a, -um, steep; imbecillis, and imbecillus, weak; semisomnis, and semisom nus, half asleep; exanimis, and exanimus, lifeless. But several of them do not admit of this variation; thus we say, magnanimus, flezanimus, effrênus, lerisomnus ; pot magnanimis, &c. On the contrary, we say, pusillanimis, injugis, illimis, insomnis, exsomnis ; not pusillanimus, &c. So semianimis, in ermis, sublimis, acclivis, declivis, proclivis ; rarely semianimus, &c.

6. Adjectives derived from nouns are called Denominatives; as, cordatus, mörätus, cælestis, ădămantinus, corporeus, agrestis, æstivus, &c. from cor, mos, celum, adamas, &c. Those which diminish the signification of their primitives, are called Diminutives ; as, misellus, parvulus, ditriusculus, &c. Those which signify a great deal of a thing, are called Amplificatives, and end in osus, or entus ; as, vīnosus, vinõlentus, given to much wine ; õpěrösus, laborious ; plumbõsus, full of lead; nodosus, knotty, full of knots ; corpulentus, corpulent, &c. Some end in tus; as, auritus, having long or large ears; nasūtus, having a large nose ; literatus, learned, &c.

6. An adjective derived from a substantive, or from another adjective, signifying possession or property, is called a Possessive Adjective ; as, Scoticus, paternus, herilis, aliënus, of or belonging to Scotland, a father, a master, anothor ; from Scotia, pater, herus, and alius.

7. Adjectives derived from verbs are called Verbals; as, amabilis, amiable; capax, capable; docilis, teachable : from amo, capio, doceo.

8. When participles become adjectives, they are called Participials; as, sapiens, wise; acutus, sharp; disertus, eloquent. Of these many also become substantives; as, adolescens, animans, rudens, serpens, advocatus, sponsus, natus, legatus ; sponsa, nata, serta, sc. corona, a garland; praetexta, sc. vestis; debitum, decretum, præceptum,

satum, íectum, rotum, &c. 9. Adjectives derived from adverbs, are called Adverbials; as, hodiernus, from hodie ; crastinus, from cras ; binus, from bis; &c. There are also adjectives derived from prepositions ; as, contrarius, from contra ; anticus, from ante; posticus, from post.

NUMERAL ADJECTIVES. Adjectives which signify number, are divided into four classes, - Cardinal, Ordinal, Distributive, and Multiplicative.

1. The Cardinal or Principal numbers are: : ūnus,


Thirly. Duo, trco.


forly. Tres, three.

Quinquaginta, fifly. Quatuor, four.


sixty. Quinque, five.


seventy. Sex, siz.


eighty. Septem,


ninety. Octo, eight.


a hundred. Novem,


two hundred. Děcem ten.


three hundred. Unděcim, eleven.


four hundred. Dubdbcim, twelve.


five hundred. Trěděcim, thirteen.


six hundred. Quátuordecim, fourteen.


seren hundred. Quindecim, fifteen.


cight hundred. Sexdecim,


nine hundred. Septendecim, seventeen.


a thousand. Octòděcim, eighteen.

Duo millia,

two thousand. Novemdecim, nineteen.

bis mille. Viginti, twenty.

Decem millia, or

ten thousand. Viginti unus, or

děcies mille, Unus et viginti, twenty-one.

Viginti millia, or Viginti duo, or

vicies mille,

twenty thousand. Duo et viginti,

twenty-two. The cardinal numbers, except unus and mille, want the singular. Unus is not used in the plural, unless when joined with a substantive which wants the singular; as, in unis ædibus, in one house, Terent. Eun. ii. 3. 75. Una nuptiæ, Id. And. iv. 1. 61. In una mænia convenêre, Sallust. Cat. 6: or when several particulars are considered as one whole ; as, una vestimenta, ope suit of clothes, Cic. Flacc. 29.

Duo and tres are declined, page 11.
In the same manner with duo, decline ambo, both.

All the cardinal numbers from quatuor to centum, including them both, are indeclinable; and from centum to mille, are declined 'like the plural of bonus ; thus, ducenti, -tæ, -ta ; ducentorum, -tarum, -lorum, &c.





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Mille is used either as a substantive or adjective; when taken substantively, it is indeclinable in the singular number; and in the plural has millia, millium, millibus, &c.

Mille, an adjective, is commonly indeclinable, and to express more than one thousand, has the numeral adverbs joined with it; thus, mille homines, a thousand men; mille hominum, of a thousand men, &c. Bis mille homines, two thousand men; ter mille homines, &c. But with millé, a substantive, we say, mille hominum, a thousand men; duo millia hominum, tria millia, quatuor millia, centum, or centēna millia hominum ; decies centēna millia, a million; vicies centēna millia, two millions, &c.

2. The Ordinal numbers are, primus, first; sécundus, second, &c. declined like bonus.

3. The Distributive numbers are, singủli, one by one; bini, two by two, &c. declined like the plural of bonus.

The following Table contains a list of the Ordinal and Distributive Numbers, together with the Numeral Adverbs, which are often joined with the Numeral Adjectives. Ordinal. Distributive.

Numeral Adverbs. 1 Primus, a, um. Singuli, æ, a.

Semel, once. 2 sècundus. bini.

bis, twice. 3 tertius. terni.

ter, thrice. 4 quartus. quaterni.

quăter, four times. 5 quintus. quini.

quinquies, &c. 6 sextus. sēni.

sexies. 7 septimus. septēni.

septies. 8 octavus. octoni.

octies. 9 nönus. novēni.

novies. 10 děcimus. dēni.

děcies. 11 unděcimus. undēni.

undecies. 12 duodecimus. duodeni.

duodecies. 13 decimus tertius." trědēni, terni deni.

tredecies. 14 decimus quartus. quaterni deni.

quatuordecies. 15 decimus quintus. quindeni.

quindecies. 16 decimus sextus. seni deni.

sexdecies. 17 decimus septimus. septeni deni. ,

decies ac cepties. 18 decimus octavus. octoni deni.

decies ac octies. 19 decimus nonus. noveni deni.

decies et novies. 20 vigesimus, vicesimus. vicēni.

vicies. 21 vigessimus primus. vicēni singuli

vicies semel. 30 trigesimus, tricesimus. triceni.

tricies. 40 quadragesimus, quadrágēni.

quadrāgies. 50 quinquagessimus. quinquägeni.

quinquagies. 60 sexagesimus. sexāgeni.

sexagies. 70 septuagesimus. septuageni.

septuagies. 80 octogesimus. octogeni.

octogies. 90 nonagesimus. nonageni.

nonagies. 100 centesimus. centeni.

centies. 200 důcentesimus. důcēni.

důcenties. 300 trěcentesimus. trěcenteni.

trěcenties. 400 quadringentēsīmuş. quặter centeni.

quadringenties. 500 quingentesimus. quinquies centeni.

quingenties. 600 sexcentesimus. sexies centeni.

sexcenties. 700 septingentesimus. septies centeni.

septingenties. 800 octingentēsimus. octies centeni.

octingenties. 900 nongentesimus. novies centeni.

noningenties. 1800 millesimus. millēni.

millies. 2000 bis millesimus. bis milleni.

bis millies. 4. The Multiplicative numbers are simplex, simple; duplex, double, or two-fold; triplex, triple, or three-fold ; quadruplex, four-fold, &c. all of them declined like felix ; thus, simplex, žcis, &c.

The interrogative words to which the above numerals answer, are quot, quótus, quotēni, quoties, and quotuplex.

Quot, how many ? is indeclinable : So tot, so many; tõtědem, just so many; quotquot, quotcunque, how many soever; aliquot, some.

To these numeral adjectives may be added such as express division, proportion, time, weight, &c. as, băpartītus, tripartītus, &c. duplus, triplus, &c. bimus, trimus, &c. biennis, triennis, &c. bimes. tris, trimestis, &c. bilibris, trilibris, &c. binārius, ternarius, &c. which last are applied to the number of any kind of things whatever; as, versus sēnarius, a verse of six feet; denarius nummus, a coin of ten asses ; octogenarius senex, an old man eighty years old; grex centenarius, a flock of a hundred, &c.


The comparison of adjectives expresses the quality in different degrees; as, hard, harder, hardest.

Those adjectives only are compared, whose signification admits the distinction of more and less.

The degrees of comparison are three, the Positive, Comparative, and Superlative.

The Posilive seems improperly to be called a degree. It simply signifies the quality ; as, durus, hard : and serves only as a foundation for the other degrees. By it we express the relation of equality; as,' he is as tall as I.

The Comparative expresses a greater degree of the quality, and has always a reference to a less degree of the same; as, stronger, wiser.

The Superlative expresses the quality carried to the greatest degree ; as, strongest, wisest.

The comparative degree is formed from the first case of the positive in i, by adding the syllable or, for the masculine and feminine; and us for the neuter. The superlative is formed from the same case, by adding ssimus ; as, altus, high, gen. alti : comparative, altior, for the masc. altior for the fem. altius for the neuter, higher; superlative, altissimus, -a, -um, highest. So mītis, meek; dative, miti ; mitior, -or, -us, meeker; mitissimus, -a, -um, meekest.

If the positive end in er, the superlative is formed by adding rămus ; as, pauper, poor; pauperrimus, poorest.

The comparative is always of the third declension, the superlative of the first and second; as, altus, altior, altissimus ; alta, altior, altissima ; altum, altius, altissimum ; genitive, alti, altioris, altissimi, &c.



best. Mălus, pejor, pessimus, bad,


worst. Magnus, major, maximus, great, greater, greatest. Parvus, minor, minimus,


plurìmus, much,

more, Feminine, Multa, plurima ; neuter, multum, plus, plurimum; plural, multi, plures, plurimi ; multæ, plures, plurímæ, &c.

In several of these, both in English and Latin, the comparative and superlative seem to be formed from some other adjective, which in the positive has fallen into disuse; in others, the regular form is contracted; as, maximus, for magnissimus; most, for morest ; least, for lessest; worst, for worsest.

2. These five have their superlative in limus : Făcilis, facilior, facillimus, easy.

Imbécillis, imbecillior, imbecillimus, weak. Grăc/lis, gracilior, gracillimus, lean.

Similis, similior, simillimus, like. Hůmilis, humilior, humillimus, low.

3. The following adjectives have regular comparatives, but form the superlative differently; Cîter, citerior, citimus, near.

Mātūrus,. -ior, maturrimus, or maturissimus, Dexter, dexterior, dextimus, right.

ripe. Sinister, sinisterior, sinistīmus, left.

Postěrus, posterior, postremus, behind. Exter, -erior, extimus, or extrêmus, outward. Sůpěrus, -rior, suprēmus, or summus, high. Infērus, .ior, infimus, or imus, below.

Větus, větčrior, věterrimus, old. Intěrus, intěrior, intimus, inward.

4. Compounds in dicus, loquus, ficus, and volus, have entior, and entissimus ; as, mălědicus, railing, målědicentior, maledicentissimus : So magniloquus, one that boasteth; běněficus, beneficent; mălévõlus, malevolent, mirificus, wonderful; -entior, -entissimus, or mirīficissimus. Nēquam, indeclinable, worthless, vicious, has nēquior, nequissimus.

There are a great many adjectives, which, though capable of having their signification increased; yet either want one of the degrees of comparison, or are not compared

1. The following adjectives are not used in the positive: Dētěrior, worse, deterrimus.

Propior, nearer, proximus, nearest or nexi.. Ocior, swifter, ocissimus.

Ultěrior, farther, ultimus. Prior, former, primus.

2. The following want the comparative: Inclytus, inclytissimus, renowned.

Nūpěrus, nuperrimus, late. Měritus, meritissimus, deserving.

Par, părissimus, equal. Novus, novissimus, nero.

Săcer, sacerrimus, sacred

at all.

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