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3. The following want the superlative: Adolescens, adolescentior, young.
õpimus, opimior, rich. Diŭturnus, diuturnior, lasting.
Pronus, pronior, inclined downwards. Ingens, ingentior, huge.
Sătur, satŭrior, full. Jůvěnis, junior, young.
Sěnex, senior, old. To supply the superlative of jữvěnis, or adolescens, we say, mintmus natu, the youngest ; and of senex, maximus nalu, the oldest.
Adjectives in ilis, àlis, and bilis, also want the superlative; as, civilis, civilior, civil; rēgalis, regalior, regal; flebilis, -ior, lamentable. So, juvenilis, youthful; ezilis, small; &c.
To these add several others of different terminations : Thus, arcānus, -ior, secret ; declivis, -ior bending downwards ; longinquus, -ior, far off; propinquus, -ior, near.
Antěrior, former ; sèquior, worse ; sătior, better; are only found in the comparative.
4. Many adjectives are not compared at all; such are those compounded with nouns or verbs , as, versicolor, of divers colours ; pestifer, poisonous : also adjectives in us pure, in ivus, inus, orus, or imus, and diminutives; as, dèbius, doubtful; văcuus, empty ; fúgătivus, that fieth away; måtūtīnus, early; cănõrus, shrill ; legitimus, lawful ; tănellus, somewhat tender; majusculus, &c. together with a great many others of various terminations ; as, almus, gracious ; præcox, -õcis, soon or early ripe; mirus, egēnus, lăcer, mămor, sospes, &c.
This defect or comparison is supplied by putting the adverb magis before the adjective, for the comparative degree; and valdè or maximè for the superlative; thus, egēnus, needy; magis egenus, more needy; valdè or maximè egenus, very or most needy. Which form of comparison is also used in those adjectives which are regularly compared.
PRONOUN. A Pronoun is a word which stands instead of a Noun. Thus, I stands for the name of the person who speaks ; thou for the name of the person addressed.
Pronouns serve to point out objects, whose names we either do not know, or do not want to mention. They also serve to shorten discourse, and prevent the too frequent repetition of the same word ; thus, instead of saying, When Cæsar had conquered Gaul, Cæsar turned Cæsar's arms against Cæsar's country, we say, When Cæsar had conquered Gaul, he turned his arms against his country.
The simple pronouns in Latin are eighteen; ego, tu, sui ; ille, ipse, iste, hic, is quis, qui ; meus, tuus, suus, noster, vester ; nostras, vestras, and cujas.
Three of them are substantives, fego, tu, sui ; the other fifteen are adjectives. Obs. 1. Ego wants the vocative, because one cannot call upon himself, except as a second person ; thus, we cannot say, 0 ego, OI; O nos, O we.
OBS. 2. Mihi in the dative is somctimes by the poets contracted into mi.
OBs. 3. The genitive plural of ego was anciently nostrorum and nostrarum; of tu, restrorum and vestrarum, which were afterwards contracted into nostrům and vestrům.
We commonly use nostrům and vestrum after partitives, numerals, comparatives, or superlatives; and nostri and vestri after other words.
The English substantive pronouns, he, she, it, are expressed in Latin by these pronominal adjectives, ille, iste, hic or is. Ille, iste, hic, and is, express he, &c. with this difference: hic is nearest to the speaker; iste, next; and ille, farthest off. Is generally denotes a person absent.
Ille usually implies respect, and iste contempt or aversion; as, Alexander ille. magnus, Alexander the great. Tarquinius iste Superbus, Tarquin the Proud.
Ipse is often joined to ego, tu, sui ; and has in Latin the same force with self in English, when joined with a possessive pronoun; as, ego ipse, I myself.
Ego, tu, sui, ille, ipse, iste, hic, is, quis, qui, are declined in page 12.
The other pronouns are derivatives, coming from ego, tu, and sui. Meus, my of mine; tuus, thy or thine; suus, his own, her own, its own, their own, are declined like bonus, -a, -um: and noster, our; vester, your; like pulcher, -chra, -chrum, of the first and second declension.
Nostras, of our country; vestras, of your country; cujas, of what or which country, are declined like felix, of the third declension: gen. nostrātis, dat. nostrāti, &c.
Pronouns as well as nouns, that signify things which cannot be addressed or called upon, want the vocative.
Meus hath mi, and sometimes meus, in the vocative singular, masculine. The relative qui has frequently quî in the ablative; and that, which is remarkable, in all genders and numbers.
Qui is sometimes used for quis : and instead of cujus, the genitive of quis, we find an adjective pronoun, cujus, -a, -um.
Simple pronouns, with respect to their signification, are divided into the following classes :
1. Demonstratives, which point out any person or thing present, or as if present: ego, tto, kie, iste, and sometimes ille, is ipse.
2. Relatives, which refer to something going before : ille, ipse, iste, hic, is, qui
5. Interrogatives, by which we ask a question : quis ? cujus ? When they do not ask a question, they are called Indefinites, like other words of the same nature.
6. Reciprocals, which again call back or represent the same object to the mind : sui and suus.
Pronouns are compounded variously :
1. With other pronouns; as, isthic, isthæc, isthoc, isthuc, or istuc. Acc. Isthunc, isthanc, isthoc, or isthuc. Abl. Isthoc, isthac, isthoc. Nom. and accusative plural, neuter, isthæc, of iste and hic. So illic, of ille and hic.
2. With some other parts of speech; as, hujusmodi, cujusmodi, &c. mēcum, tēcum, sēcum, nobiscum, vobiscum, quocum or quicum, and quibuscum : eccum, eccam; eccos, eccus, and sometimes ecca, in the nominative singular, of ecce and is. So ellum, of ecce and ille.
3. With some syllable added; as, tute, of lu, and te, used only in the nom. egomet, tūtěmets suimet, through all the cases, thus, meimet, tuimet, &c. of ego, tu, sui, and met. Instead of tumet, in the nom. we say, tutšmet : hicciné, hæccine, &c. in all the cases that end in c; of hic and cine: Meapte, tuapte, suapte, nostrapte, vestraple, in the abl. fem. and sometimes meopte, tuople, &c. of meus, &c. and ple : hicce, hæcce, hocce; hujusce; hice, hisce, hosce ; of hic, and ce : whence hujuscěmodi, ejuscemodi, cujuscemodi. So IDEM, the same, compounded of is and dem, which is thus declined: Sing.
Plur. N. idem, eadem, idem,
N. iidem, eædem, eădem, G. ejusdem, ejusdem, ejusdem, G. eorundem, earundem, eorundom, D. eidem, eidem, eidem,
D. eisdem, or
iisdem, &c. A. eundem, eandem, idem,
A. eosdem, easdem, cădein, V. idem, eadem, idem,
V. iidem, cædem, cădem, A. eodem, eâdem, eodem ; A. eisdem, or
iisdem, &c. The pronouns which we find most frequently compounded, are quis and qui.
Quis in composition is sometimes the first, sometimes the last, and sometimes likewise the middle part of the word compounded: but qui is always the first.
1. The compounds of quis, in which it is put first, are, quisnam, who? quispiam, quisquam, any one; quisque, every one ; quisquis, whosoever ; which are thus declined : Nom.
Dat. Quispam, quænam,
quodnam or quidnam ; cujusnam, cuinam. Quispiam, quæpiam,
quodpiam quidpiain; cujuspiam, cuipiam. Quisquam, quæquam, quodquam, or quidquam ; cujusquam, cuiquam. Quisque, quæque, quodque, or quidque ;
cujusque, cuique. Quisquis,
quidquid or quicquid; cujuscujus, cuicui. And so in the other cases, according to the simple quis. But quisquis has not the feminine at all; and the neuter only in the nominative and accusative. Quisyuam has also quicquam for quidquam. Accusative quenquam, without the feminine. The plural is scarcely used.
2. The compounds of quis, in which quis is put last, have qua in the nom. sing. fem. and in the nominative and accusative plural, neuter; as, aliquis some ; ecquis, who ? of et and quis; also requis, siquis, numquis, which for the most part are read separately thus, ne quis, si quis, num quis. They are thus declined : Vom.
Dat. Aliquis, aliqua,
aliquod or aliquid ; alicujus, alicui. Ecquis, ecqua or ecquæ,
ecquod or ecquid ;
eccujus, eccui. Si quis, si qua,
si cui. Ne quis, ne qua,
ne quod ne quid ;
ne cujus, Num quis, num qua,
num quod or num quid; num cujus, num cui. 3. The compounds which have quis in the middle, are ecquisain, who ? unusquisque, gen. uniuscujusque, every one. The former is used only in the nom. sing. and the latter wants the plural.
4. The compounds of qui are quicunque, whosoever; quidam, some; quilibet, quīvis, any one whom you please, which are thus declined : Nom.
Dat. Quicunque, quæcunque, quodcunque;
cujuscunque, cuicunque. Quidam, quædam,
quaddam or quiddam; cujusdam, cuidam. Quilibet, quælibet,
quodlibet or quidlibet; cujuslibet, cuilibet. Quivis, quævis,
odvis or quidvis; cujusvis, cuivis. Obs. 1. All these compounds have seldom or never queis, but quibus, in their dative and ablative plural; thus, aliquibus, &c.
OBs. 2. Quis and its compounds, in comic writers have sometimes quis in the feminine gender.
OBs. 3. Quidam has quendam, quandam, quoddam or quiddam, in the accusative singular; and quorundam, quarundam, quorundam, in the genitive plural, n being put instead of m, for the better sound.
OBS. 4. Quod, with its compounds, aliquod, quodvis, quoddam, &c. are used when they agree with a substantive in the same case; quid, with its compounds, aliquid, quidris, &c. for the most part, have either no substantive expressed, or govern one in the genitive. For this reason, they are by some reckoned substantives.
A verb is a word which expresses what is affirmed of things; as, the boy reads. The sun shines. The man loves.
Or, A verb is that part of speech which signifies to be, to do, or to suffer.
It is called. Verb or Word, by way of eminence; because it is the most essential word in a sentence, without which the other parts of speech can form no complete sense. Thus, the diligent boy reads his lesson with care, is a perfect sentence; but if we take away the affirmation, or the word reads, it is rendered imperfect, or rather becomes no sentence at all; thus, the diligent boy his lesson with care.
A verb therefore may be thus distinguished from any other part of speech : Whatever word expresses an affirmation or assertion, is a verb; or thus, Whatever word, with a substantive noun or pronoun before or after it, makes full sense, is a verb; as, stones fall, I walk, walk thou. Here fall and walk are verbs, because they contain an affirmation ; but when we say, a long walk, a dangerous fall, there is no affirmation expressed; and the same words walk and fall become substantives or
We often find likewise in Latin the same word used as a verb, and also as some other part of speech; thus, annor, oris, love, a substantive; and amor, I am loved, a verb.
Verbs, with respect to their signification, are divided into three different classes, Active, Passive, and Neuter; because we consider things either as acting, or being acted upon: or as neither acting, nor being acted upon; but simply existing, or existing in a certain state or condition, as in a state of motion or rest, &c.
1. An Active verb expresses an action, and necessarily supposes an agent, and an object acted upon; as, amāre, to love ; amo te, I love thee.
2. A verb Passive expresses a passion or suffering, or the receiving of an action; and necessarily implies an object acted upon, and an agent by which it is acted upon; as, amāri, to be loved; tu amāris a me, thou art loved by me.
3. A Neuter verb properly expresses neither action nor passion, but simply the being, state, or condition of things; as, dormio, I sleep; sedeo, I sit. The verb Active is also
called Transitive, when the action passeth over to the objecte or hath an effect on some other thing ; as, scribo litěras, I write letters; but when the action is confined within the agent, and passeth - not over to any object, it is called Intransitive; as, ambŭlo, I walk; curro, I run; which are likewise called Neuter verbs. · Many verbs in Latin and English are used both in a transitive and in an intransitive or neuter sense; as, sistěre, to stop; incipěre, to begin; durāre, to endure, or to harden, &c.
Verbs which simply signify being, are likewise called Substantive verbs; as, esse, or existere, to be or to exist. The notion of existence is implied in the signification of every verb; thus, I love, may be resolved into, I am loving.
When the meaning of a verb is expressed without any affirmation, or in such a form as to be joined to a substantive noun, partaking thereby of the nature of an adjective, it is called a Participle ; as, amans, loving; amatus, loved. But when it has the form of a substantive, it is called a Gerund or a Supine ; as, amandum, loving ; amatum, to love ; amatu, to love, or to be loved.
A verb is varied or declined by Voices, Modes, Tenses, Numbers, and Persons.
There are two voices; the Active and Passive.
The tenses are five; the Present, the Preter-imperfect, the Preter-perfect, the Preter-pluperfect, and the Future. The numbers are two; Singular and Plural. The persons are three; First, Second, Third. 1. Voice expresses the different circumstances in which we consider an object; whether as acting; or being acted upon. The Active voice signifies action; as, čmo, I love; the Passive, suffering, or being the object of an action; as, amor, I am loved.
2. Modes or Moods are the various inanners of expressing the signification of the verb.
The Indicative declares or afirms positively; as, amo, I love; amābo, I shall love: or asks a question; as, an tu amas ? dost thou love?
The Subjunctive is usually joined to some other verbs, and cannot make a full meaning by itself as, si me obsécret redibo, if he entreat me, I will return. Ter. The Imperative commands, exhorts, or entreats; as, ama, love thou.
The Infinitive simply expresses the signification of the verb, without limiting it to any person or mumber ; as, amāre, to love.
3. Tenses or Times express the time when any thing is supposed to be, to act, or to suffer, Time in general is divided into three parts, the present, past, and future.
Pas time is expressed three different ways. When we speak of a thing, which was doing, but not finished at some former time, we use the Preter-imperfect, or past tiine not completed; as, scribēbam, I was writing.
When we speak of a thing now finished, we use the Preter-perfect, or past time completed; as, scripsi, I wrote, or have written.
When we speak of a thing finished at or before some past time, we use the Preler-pluperfect, or past time more than completed; as, scripsēram, I had written.
Future time is expressed two different ways. A thing may be considered either as simply about to be done, or as actually finished, at some future time; as, scribam, I shall-write, or, I shall [then} be writing ; scripsero, I shall have written.
4. Number marks how many we suppose to be, to act, or to suffer.
5. Person shows to what the meaning of the verb is applied, whether to the person speaking, to the person addressed, or to some other person or thing.
Verbs have two numbers and three persons, to agree with substantive nouns and pronouns, in these respects : for a verb properly hath neither numbers nor persons, but certain terminations answering to the person and number of its nominative.
A verb is properly said to be conjugated, when all its parts are properly classed, or as it were, yoked together, according to Voice, Mode, Tense, Number, and Person.
CONJUGATION OF VERBS.
The Latins have four different ways of varying verbs, called the First, the Second, the Third, and the Fourth Conjugation.
The Conjugations are thus distinguished :
The First has a long before re of the Infinitive; the Second has e long, the Third has e short, and the Fourth has i long, before re of the Infinitive.
Except dăre, to give, which has å short, and also its compounds; thus, Circundăre, to surround; circundămus, -dătis, -dăbam, -dăbo, &c.
The different conjugations are likewise distinguished from one another by the different terminations of the following tenses.
1. -a 2. -e
-åto ; -éto ; -Ito ; ito;
-atur ; -étur ; -itur ; -itur ;
-ate or -ātöte,
or -ētöte, -ento.
-ite or -itote,
PRESENT TENSE. 1. or,
-amur, -amini, -antar. 2. -eor,
-ēmur, -ēmini, -entur. 3. -or,
- imini, -untur. 4. -ior,
-imur, -imini, -juntur.
IMPERFECT. 1. -ábar,
-åbaris or -ābāre, -abátur; -äbāmur, -ábāmini, -abantur. 2. -ebar, -ēbāris or -ēbāre, -ébātur;
-ēbāmur, -ēbāmini, -ēbantur. 3. -ēbar, -ēbāris or -ēbāre,
-ebatur; -ēbāmur, -ēbãmini, -ebantur. 4. -iēbar, -iēbāris or -iēbāre,
-iēbāmur, -iebåmini, -iebantur.
FUTURE. 1, -ăbor,
-áběris or -aběre, -abitur ; -åbỉmur, -äbimini, -abuntur 2. -ēbor, -ēběris or -ēběre,
-ēbimur, -ēbimini, -abuntur -ēris -ére, -étur;
-ēmur, -ēmini, -entur. 4. -iar,
-ientur. SUBJUNCTIVE MODE.
PRESENT TENSE. -ēris or -ēre,
-ēmur, -êmyni, -entur. -eāris or -eare,
-eamur, -eamini, -eantur -åris -are, -atur;
-amur, -āmini, -antur. 4. -iar; -iāris or -järe,
-iāmur, -iamini, -iantur
IMPERFECT. 1. -arer, -ārēris or -arēre, -ārētur ; -årēmur,
-årentur. 2. -erer, ērēris or -ērēre,
-ērēmur, -ērēmīni, -ērentur. 3. -ěre, -ěreris -ěrére,
-ěrēmur, -ěrēmini, -ěrentur. 4. -irer, -īrēris or irere,
-īrētur; -iremur, -irēmini, -irentur,
- mini, -untor,
-imini, -iuntor Observe, Verbs in io of the third conjugation have iunt in the third person plural of the present indic. active, and iuntur in the passive; and so in the imperative, iunto and iuntor. In the imperfect and future of the indicative, they have always the terminations of the fourth conjugation, iēbam and iam ; iebar and iar, &c.
The terminations of the other tenses are the same through ali tne Conjugations. Thus,
1. -er, 2. -ear, 3 -ar,
-ērunt or ere. Plu. -ěram,
-ěrint. Plu. -issem, isses,
-issēmus, * -issētis,
-issent. Fut. -ěro, -ěris, -ěrimus, -ěrītis,
-ěrint. These Tenses, in the Passive Voice, are formed by the Participle Perfect, and the auxiliary verb sum, which is also used to express the Future of the Infinitive Active. See conjugation of the verb sum, in page 9.
-ěrit; -isset; -ěrit;