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who lived under the emperor Antoninus, has recorded them as remaining by the way, which was then used, up to the acropolis, as nearly opposite to the Metrbum, and not far from an altar of Eudanemus standing on the pavement, and known to persons, who had been initiated at Eleusis.
The royal portico seems to have ranged with Poecile.* The paintings, in the latter, exhibited the Athenians and Lacædemonians drawn up in battle-array, about to engage, at @noe, near Argos. In the middle of the wall were the Athenians and Theseus fighting with the Amazons. Next these was the taking of Troy, with the kings assembled in council ; Ajax, and, among the female captives, Cassandra, whom he had violated. Lastly, there was the battle of Marathon. ,
By the Hephæstéum, and Eurysacéum or Heroum of Eurysaces, near the agora, was the Colonus Agoræus, or Hill of the Agora ; called also Misthius, from its being a place where servants were hired. It was behind the long portico, (probably Pæcile and the Royal united) and had given its name to that part, which was otherwise termed Melite. Eurysaces was son of Ajax, and had lived at Melite ; as also Themistocles, who erected there a temple to Diana Aristobula, after vanquishing the Persian feet at Salamis ; and there was likewise the house of Phocion, and the Melanippéum or Heroum of Melanippus, son of Theseus. The extent of Melite is not defined ; but it was contiguous with Cæle, for the Cimonian monuments in that region were near the Melitensian gate. It probably approached or comprised the theatre, as in Melite was a large house where the tragedians studied their parts; and it comprehended the Eleusinian, for in Milete Hercules was initiated into the lesser mysteries, and had a temple. Milete bordered on Colyttus.
* ano ens IIoueang ka Tng Toy Baoilewç Eroaç eldiv oi 'Epuai kalovjevol Athen. Att. p. 827.
The agora was a large open spot, subdivided into stations, for sellers of provisions and a variety of other articles, some of which were sheltered by sheds or standings from the sun. The city-guard, consisting of a thousand men, once had tents in the middle, but afterwards was removed to the Areopagus. It was surrounded with temples, porticoes, and statues, but the extent of it is not defined. The altars of Apollo and Cybele are placed in it; as also the statues of Conon and his son Timotheus. These two were near the Perischanisma, a portion of it, by the altar of the twelve gods, consisting of an area of fifty feet, encompassed with a rope, the tribunal of the archon styled the king, who sate there with the other archons; a party of the guard preventing the approach of improper persons. Moreover, the statues of Harmodius and Aristogiton were in the agora ; and that of Solon, which stood before Poecile. Lycurgus and Demosthenes, and the two patriots are also on record, as in the Ceramicus. Xenophon recommends, that at the public festivals, the Athenian cavalry should be marched round the agora, beginning from the Mercuries ; and pay respect to the temples and statues of the gods, as they passed ; and, when the circuit was finished, should gallop off in squadrons from the Mercuries, as far as the Eleusinium. The procession, he imagines, if so regulated, would prove highly pleasing to the deities, as well as to the spectators.
The altar of pity or philanthropy, in the agora, was exceedingly ancient. It was said, that the Heraclidæ had fled to it from Eurystheus, and that a herald, as he was dragging them from it, was slain by the ephebi or youth of Athens, who continued to wear mourning for the outrage to the time of Atticus Herodes, when the colour of their chlamys or cloke was changed from black to white. Of all the Greeks, the Athenians alone, Pausanias tells us, regarded this deity ; as useful in the casualities of life and the manifold changes of human affairs. He remarks that the Athenians, who had established the duties of philanthropy, had also possessed more religion than any other people ; and he adds, that such as had excelled in piety were attended in proportion by good fortune. The altar, which remained under Julian, has been described as shaded with trees, among which was an olive, known to suppliants, and laurels decked with fillets ; as frequented by the wretched and ever wet with their tears ; as hung with tresses of hair, and with the votive garments of persons who had been relieved.
Abstract of Pausanias--Of the temple of the Dioscuri and of
Agraulos---Columns of different kinds of marble-Of the Delphinium--Of the temple of Venus in the gardens.
In the preceding chapter we have accompanied Pausanias from the gate Dipylon into the region called Agræ, whither he will now conduct us by a different way, on the opposite side of the acropolis, and, as it were, through the present town. He begins with the gymnasium of Ptolemy, and then notes the temple of Theseus, with the temple of Dioscuri; and, above it, that of Agraulos. The Prytanéum was near; and, going from it into the lower parts of the city, there was a temple of Serapis ; and, not far from this, the place where Theseus and Pirithous made their fatal compact ;* near which was a temple of Ilithya. This brings him to the temple of Jupiter Olympius dedicated with the statue by the emperor Hadrian, who had also erected temples of Juno and of Jupiter Panhellenius, and a pantheon, in which his acts were inscribed ; and there were edifices richly adorned, and books, and the gymnasium of Hadrian. These buildings, it may be observed, were in new Athens. The peribolus or inclosure of the Olympiéum contained also a temple of Saturn and Rhea, and a sacred portion of the goddess styled Olympia. Near the Olympiéum was Apollo Pythius, and the Delphinium or temple of Apollo Delphinius; from which the author passes to the temple of Venus in the gardens, Cynosarges, the Lycéum, the Ilissus, and Erdanus, the region called Agræ, the temple of Diana, and the stadium.
The temple of the Dioscuri, which was called also the Anacéum, with that of Aglaros, stood on the hill of the acropolis near the front. The Persians under Xerxes endeavoured to set fire to the palisades, which then secured the entrance of the fortress ; discharging arrows with burning flax from Areopagus; but got possession by climbing a precipice, before deemed inaccessible, beyond the gates, opposite to the temple of Aglauros. Pisistratus summoned the people to attend at the Anacéum, came forward from the acropolis, and addressed them in a low voice; while his guards removed their arms, unperceived, and secured them in the temple of Aglauros. It was in this temple the military oath was admi
* Vide Sophocl. Oedip. v. 1588.
nistered to the young Athenians, when they attained to the age of twenty years, and were enrolled among the citizens.
Among the ill-matched columns in the churches are several of the marble imported by Hadrian, for his pantheon and gymnasium. In the former were one hundred and twenty from Phrygia, and in the latter one hundred from Libya. The produce of the attic quarries is white; that of the Phrygian* white variegated with different colours.
Ægeus lived by the Delphinium; and in it was a spot fenced about, where, it was said, the cup fell with the poison, which, at the instigation of Medea, he tendered to Theseus, before he knew him to be his son. A Mercury to the east of the temple was called The Mercury at the Gate of Ægeus.
The temple of Venus in the gardens was without the walls, though not remote from the town, as may be inferred from the story of the Canephori. A church in the skirt of Athens, with an extensive court before it, perhaps now occupies the site. It is called Panagia Spiliotissa, St. Mary of the Cavern, possibly from the subterraneous passage, which may still exist. On the outside in the wall is fixed an inscription relating to the temple of Venus, and recording the donations of a pious female, who gloried in the titles of candle-lighter, and interpreter of dreams to the goddess. It is imperfect at the beginning, but commemorates her offering the pediment over the chancel, and a Venus, perhaps a puppet, which she had made and dressed.
* See Ruins of Athens, p. 39.