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dion, father of Erectheus, in which the inscribed marble, mentioned as having rolled down from the acropolis, was once placed. One statue of him was among those of the Eponymi or heroes, from whom the tribes had been named ; and another, worthy notice, was in the acropolis ; probably in this building, which may be supposed to have stood near the eastern extremity of the rock. A temple likewise was then extant, inscribed, “ The People. To the goddess Rome and to Augustus Cæsar. Pammenes son of Xeno of Marathon, the priest of the goddess Rome and of Augustus the Saviour, in the acropolis, being strategus or general of the city.* A daughter of Asclepiades of Alae being priestess of Minerva Polias, the most mighty. In the archonship of Areus son of Morio a Pæanian.” The year in which this person was archon is not ascertained, but it coincides with the building of the temple, which was posterior to the year of Rome seven hundred and forty one. The inscription was copied, before Mahomet the second got possession of Athens, from the vestibule of a temple in the acropolis, then a church dedicated to the Panagia, or Virgin Mary.

Pausanias, after mentioning Enpeacrunus as the only fountain at Athens, has yet recorded two more; one in the temple of Æsculapius, the other below the Propyléa. Both these, it is likely, were unserviceable, except for certain ablutions and purifications. The water of the latter is now conveyed to the principal mosque in the town for such uses.fo It may be conjectured that the fountain stood anciently higher up toward the cave of Pan; and that the current, since intercepted, was continued into the temple of Æsculapius. There it disappeared; but emerged again, after running twenty stadia, or two miles and a half, underground toward Phalerum. It was first named Empedo, and then Clepsydra. 3

* Some for Tollras read of diras. See the inscription in Fabricii Roma, Gruter p. cv. ix. and in Corsini Fast. Att. t. 1, p. 42. This learned chronologer places Areus in the year U. C. 727, or in the following, t. 4. p. 140; but see Chishull Antiq, Asiat. p. 205. 207.

v. Ruins of Athens, p. 15.


We have before remarked, that a writer, who lived under the two emperors named Theodosius, has mentioned the Areopagus as no longer a court of judicature. The first inśtance of a trial for murder there was said to have been furnished by a crime, which Halirrhotius, a son of Neptune, committed in the temple of Æsculapius, and which provoked Mars to kill him. Most of the other magistracies were likewise extinct ; and in particular, the tribunal called Delphinian, the Heliæan, which was near the agora, the council of Five Hundred, and the Eleven ; with the Polemarch, the Thesmothetæ, and the annual archon.

The procession at the Greater Panathenæa attended a peplus or garment, designed as an offering to Minerva Polias in the acropolis. This was woven by select virgins in various colours representing Minerva and Jupiter engaged with the Titans, and the exploits of Athenian heroes. It was extended as a sail to the vessel, which was moved by machinery. The procession formed in the Ceramicus without the city, and entering at Dipylon, passed between the porticoes, and through the agora ; crossed the Ilissus, and going round the Eleusinium, returned by the Pelasgicon and the temple of Apollo Pythius, to the station of the vessel near the Areopagus; from whence, it may be inferred, the offering was carried by men up to the temple, the ascent to the Propyléa being long and steep. Harmodius and Aristogiton concealed each a poignard in a myrtle-bough, and waited to assassinate the tyrants, who regulated this solemnity, in the Ceramicus without the city ; but, fearing they were betrayed, rushed in at Dipylon, and slew Hipparchus by the Leocorium or monunient of the daughters of Leo, one of the Epo. nymi, which was in the middle of the inner Ceramicus. Demetrius, a descendant of the Phalerean, that his mistress Aristagora, a courtezan of Corinth might enjoy the spectacle, erected for her a stage against the Mercuries.


Omissions in Pausanias-The tower of the Winds Dance of the

dervishesA Doric portal ; supposed the entrance of an agora-The Athenians given to flatteryPausanias illustrated.

We have now completed the proposed survey of ancient Athens; but two structures yet remain, either omitted or mentioned inexplicitly by Pausanias. One is the tower of the winds or of Andronicus Cyrrhestes, which was in or near the street called the Tripods, and bearing some resemblance to the choragic monuments was perhaps overlooked by the author. The other is a Doric portal, situated at the foot of the hill of the acropolis, and once, it is likely, belonging to that agora, from which the gymnasium of Ptolemy was but a little distant. Besides these the Pnyx is unnoticed.

The tower of Andronicus Cyrrhestes is a small edifice of marble, an octagon, decorated with sculpture representing the winds, eight in number; and has supported a Triton, which turned as a weathercock, and pointed with a wand to the wind then blowing. On the sides were sun dials to shew the hour of the day. It is mentioned by Varro and Vitruvius, and accurately published in The Ruins of Athens. A young Turk explained to me two of the emblems; that of the figure of Cæcias, as signifying that he made the olives fall; Sciron, that he dried up the rivers.

The tower of the winds is now a teckeh, or place of worship belonging to a college of dervishęs. I was present, with my companions, at a religious function, which concluded with their wonderful dance. The company was seated on goat-skins on the floor cross-legged; forming a large circle. The chief dervish, a comely man, with a grey beard, and of a fine presence, began the prayers, in which the rest bore part, all prostrating themselves, as usual, and several times touching the ground with their foreheads. On a sudden, they leaped up, threw off their outer garments, and, joining hands, moved round slowly, to music, shouting Alla, the name of God. The instruments sounding quicker, they kept time, calling out Alla. La illa ill Alla. God. There is no other God, but God. Other sentences were added to these as their motion increased ; and the chief dervish, bursting from the ring into the middle, as in a fit of enthusiasm, and letting down his hair behind, began turning about, his body poised on one of his great toes as on a pivot, without changing place. He was followed by another, who spun a different way, and then by more, four or five in number. The rapidity, with which they whisked round, was gradually augmented, and became amazing; their long hair not tonching their shoulders but flying off; and the circle still surrounding them, shouting and throwing their heads backwards and forwards; the dome re-echoing the wild and loud music, and the noise as it were of frantic Bacchanals. At length, some quitting the ring and fainting, at which time it is believed they are favoured with extatic visions, the spectacle ended. We were soon after introduced into a room furnished with skins for sofas, and entertained with pipes and coffee by the chief dervish, whom we found, with several of his performers, as cool and placid, as if he had been only a looker-on.

The Doric portal may be seen in The Ruins of Athens, with its inscriptions. One of these informs us, that the people erected the fabric, with the donations made to Minerva Archegetis, or the Conductress by the god Julius Cæsar, and his son the god Augustus, when Nicias was archon. Over the middle of the pediment was a statue of Lucius Cæsar, styled the son of the god Augustus, it is supposed, on horse-back. At each angle was also a statue ; probably of Augustus and of Julius Cæsar, or M. Agrippa, the natural father of Lucius. The goddess, Julia, daughter of Augustus, his mother, had likewise a statue; the pedestal remaining by one of the columns. Minerva was in great repute as a tutelary deity. Augustus Cæsar ascribed to her guidance his victory at Actium, and honoured her with a temple, in which he dedicated his Egyptian spoils.* She received at Athens a portion of plunder, both from him and from Julius, as an acknowledgement of her services. The strategus or general of the cityforces, Euclees of Marathon, acted as overseer of the building for his father Herodes. The great sophist Tiberius Claudius Atticus Herodes was also of Marathon ; and in the

* Chishull, Antiq. Asiat. p. 201, p. 193. Lucius was adopted by Augustus eighteen years before the Christian Æra, and died in the second year after it.

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