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besides being reduced in its extent, furnishes a variety of avenues to the plain. Moreover, the mansions of the illustrious dead, like the bodies which they covered, are consumed, and have disappeared. Time, violence, and the plough have levelled all, without distinction; equally inattentive to the meritorious statesman, the patriot, the orator, and philosopher, the soldier, the artist, and physician. Atticus is described by Cicero as pleased with recollecting where the renowned Athenians had lived, or been accustomed to sit or dispute; and as studiously contemplating even their sepulchres. The traveller will regret, that desolation interferes, and by the uncertainty it has produced, deprives him of the like satisfaction; but, in the style of the ancients, to omit the research would merit the anger of the Muses.
It has been observed, that, without Dipylon, the road branched off toward the Piræus and Eleusis as well as the Academy. The road to the haven and to Eleusis divides now, not far from the temple of Theseus, and is nearly in the same direction as formerly. On the right hand of the Eleusinian road is a way, which leads to the site of the Academy. Achmet Aga had lately erected a house on or near it, with a large garden, and a plentiful fountain by the road-side, supplied, it is likely, by the channels which conduced to the coolness and verdure of the old suburb. Farther on is a rocky knoll, which was the Colonus Hippius. Some massive fragments of brickwall occur there, with a solitary church or two.
In the plain beyond the Equestrian Hill is the Cephissus,* a muddy rivulet, turning some over-shot mills in its course through a rich and fertile track covered with gardens, olive
trees, and vineyards. The stream anciently crossed the Longwalls in its way to the Phaleric shore, which also received the Ilissus. These waters, it is likely, formed the marsh. The Cephissus was very inconsiderable in the summer. It is now commonly absorbed, before it reaches the coast; except after melting snow or heavy rain rushing down from the mountains. 1996:07 sport et Agile e tte ach198901- 699: Bia: dia enfregite bree-HELPnya a n d boduceyeme} swip94.438 Discott *#73H? D ? HOME SVE! CHAP YYIU:015
The Lyceum—Cynosarges--Mention of them
in Plato—The site.' We proceed now to the gymnasia on the other side of Athens, the Lyceum and Cynosarges. Dieses Les
The Lycéum was sacred to Apollo Lycius, a proper patron, as an ancient author has remarked, the god of health bestowing the ability to excel in gymnic exercises. The image represented him as resting after fatigue, with a bow in his left hand, his right arm bending over his head. The gymnasium was erected by Lycurgus, son of Lycophron. The militia of Athens paraded there, and were instructed in the management of their horses, shields and spears, in forining the phalanx, and in all the established modes of attack and defence. Behind the Lyceum was a monument of Nisus. The Lyceum was long noted for a plane-tree of uncommon size, which is described by.Pliny, and was near a fountain by the road-side.
Cynosarges was but a little without the city-gate. There was a temple of Hercules. They related, that when Diomus
was sacrificing to the hero, a white bitch had seized part of the victim, and carried it to this spot, where the altar was erected in obedience to an oracle, which had foretold that incident. On a summit near was the tomb of Isocrates. Philip, who reduced the city to require aid from the Romans, encamped by Cynosarges, and set fire both to that place and the Lyceum.
These gymnasia were near the Ilissus, which river flowed from the region beyond Agræ, the Lyceum, and the fountain celebrated by Plato ;* the bed making a curve near the junction with the Eridanus. Phædrus has been described as going from a house by the temple of Jupiter Olympius toward the Lycéum, as turning out of the way with Socrates, and sitting down by Enneacrunus and the Ilissus, above the crossing over to the temple of Diana Agræa. In the dialogue entitled Lysis, Socrates passing from the Academy to the Lyceum by the way without the wall, and coming to the gate, where was the fountain of Panops, discovers over against the wall an inclosure with an open gate, which was a palæstra or place for exercises lately built. This probably belonged to Cynosarges. In another dialogue, going out of the city to Cynosarges, and approaching the Ilissus, he sees Clinias running toward Calirhoe, turns out of the way to meet him, and accompanies him, the way by the wall, to a house near the Itonian gate.*
* Strabo, p. 400. Hence Statius, Amfractu riparum incurrus Ilissus. Theb. 1. iv. v. 52.
+ The Itonian gate was by the pillar of the Amazon. In an account of the battle of Theseus with the Amazons it is related, that the left wing of their army was toward the Amazonéum, and the right toward Pnyx (προς την Πνύκα κατα την Χουσαν jkELV;) that on this side, the Athenians, who engaged from the Museum, were repulsed, and that the tombs of the slain were by the broad-way leading to Dipylon, probably from the agora; but that those who attacked from the Palladium, Ardettus, and the Lyceum, drove the enemy to their camp; and that the pillar by the temple of Tellus Olympia was placed over the Amazon, who lived with Theseus, and is generally called Antiope. Pausanias informs us, that the goddess, surnamed Olympia, had a sacred portion within the wall of the Olympiéum ; that the monument of Antiope was by the entrance of the city from Phalerum ; and that the Athenians had also a tomb of Molpadia, another Amazon, by whom she was slain.
The Lyceum was beyond the Ilissus, and the crossing over is below that, which led to the temple of Diana Agræa. The site is now marked by a well and a church, and many large stones scattered about. Cynosarges was not far from the Lyceum, and perhaps on the same side of the Ilissus as the city, where is now a garden near this bed, and by the road. The artificial currents of water having ceased, the environs of Athens are become, except near Enneacrunus, more bare and naked than they were even after the devastations of Philip and Sylla.
CHAP. XXIV. Of the University of Athens—The Professors--Degrees-
Dresses-Manner of entranceCharacter and extinction of the Philosophers--Ruin of the University.
Do Duriste! Athens maintained under the Romans its reputation for philosophy and eloquence, and continued, though subdued, the metropolis of learning, the school of art, the centre of
The monument by the city-gate, coming from the Piræus, of which Pausanias says, that he did not know to whom it belonged, was probably the Heroum of Chalcodon, for that is mentioned as near the Piræan gate. Ægeus, father of Theseus, espoused his daughter. Meursius Att. Lect. p. 1773. De Regibus Ath. p. 1108.
taste and genius. The gymnasia and the gardens of the philosophers were decorated with the capital works of eminent masters, and still frequented. The fierce warrior was captivated by Greece ,and science, and Athens humanized and polished the conquerors of the world. But Sylla greatly injured the city, by transporting to Rome the public library, which had been founded by Pisistratus, carefully augmented by the people, removed by Xerxes into Persia, and restored long after by Seleucus Nicanor. The spirit of learning drooped on the loss; and the Roman youth, under Tiberius, were sent to study at Marseilles, instead of Athens. Even there the barbarous Gauls joined in the pursuit of eloquence and philosophy. The sophist, as well as the physician, was hired to settle among them ; and the nation was civilized by the Greek city.
The emperor Hadrian embellished Athens with a noble library and a new gymnasium, and restored science to its ancient seat. Lollianus, an Ephesian, was first raised to the high dignity of the sophistical throne, which was afterwards filled by Atticus Herodes, and by other eminent and illustrious persons. The number of professors was increased by Antoninus the philosopher, who had studied under Herodes. His establishment consisted of thirteen ; two Platonists, as many peripatetics, stoics, and Epicureans, with two rhetoricians and civilians ; and a president, styled Præfect of the Youth. The student proceeded from the philosopher to the rhetorician, and then to the civilian. A yearly salary of six hundred aurei, or pieces of gold,* was annexed to each of
* About 4681. See W. Wotton's History of Rome. London 1701, p. 106, with the Errata and p. 169. .