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T. Kitchin faulp.

the long portico, were erected by the ports. Here was an agora, or market-place; and, farther from the sea, another called Hippodamia. By the vessels were dwellings for the mariners. A theatre was opened, temples were raised, and the Piræus, which surpassed the city in utility, began to equal it in dignity. The cavities and windings of Munychia, natural and artificial, were filled with houses ; and the whole settlement, comprehending Phalerum and the ports of the Piræus, with the arsenals, the store-houses, the famous armoury, of which Philo was the architect, and the sheds for three hundred, and afterwards four hundred trirenes, resembled the city of Rhodes, which had been planned by the same Hippodamus. The ports, on the commencement of the Peloponnesian war, were secured with chains. Centinels were stationed, and the Piræus was carefully guarded.

It was the design of Themistocles to annex the Piræus to the city by long walls. The side descending to Phalerum was begun. Cimon then furnished money, and made a foundation with chalk and massive stones, where the ground was wet and marshy. Pericles completed it, and erected the opposite wall. The Peloponnesian war impending, he was attentive to the fortifications in general. Callicrates was -his architect.

The four hundred tyrants, who in the first year of the ninetysecond Olympiad* usurped the government of Athens, knowing that their power depended on the possession of the Piræus, walled about the promontory Eētion. Soon after the Lacedæmonians insisted on the demolition of the long walls, except only ten stadia, or a mile and a quarter, on each

* Before Christ, 410.

side ; and obtained it under the thirty tyrants.f Thrasybulus, the brave patriot, by whom these were expelled, fortified Munychia. Conon resolved to restore the walls of the Piræus and the long walls; and Demosthenes, to render the Piræus yet more secure, added a double fosse.

The Piræus was reduced with great difficulty by Scylla, who demolished the walls, and set fire to the armoury and arsenals. In the civil war it was in a defenceless condition. Calenus, lieutenant to Cæsar, seized it, invested Athens, and ravaged the territory. Strabo, who lived under the emperors Augustus and Tiberius, observes, that the many wars had destroyed the long walls, with the fortress of Munychia, and had contracted the Piræus into a small settlement by the ports and the temple of Jupiter Saviour. This fabric was then adorned with wonderful pictures, the works of illustrious artists ; and on the outside, with statues. In the second century, besides houses for triremes, the temple of Jupiter and Minerva remained, with their images in brass ; and a temple of Venus, a portico, and the tomb of Themistocles. By Münychia was then a temple of Diana. By Phalerum was a temple of Ceres, of Minerva, and, at a distance, of Jupiter; with altars of the unknown gods and of the heroes.

We found by Phalerum and Munychia a few fragments, with rubbish. Some pieces of columns and a ruined church probably mark the site of one of the temples. In many places the rock, which is naked, has been cut away. On the brow toward Munychia a narrow ridge is left standing, with small niches and grooves cut in it, as by the lake of

+ The city had expended not less than 1000 talents on the arsenal. They sold it to be removed for three talents. It was restored by Lycurgus.

Myūs, perhaps to receive the offerings made to the marine deities on landing; or, before embarking, to render them propitious; and for the insertion of voted tablets, as memorials of distress and of their assistance. One stone is hollowed so as to resemble a centry-box. , The walling of the Piræus must have been greatly expedited by these quarries, which are mentioned by Xenophon. At Phalerum the soil appeared shallow, but produces corn. No trees or bushes grow there.

The port of the Piræus has been named Porto Lione, fronz the marble lion seen in the chart, and also Porto Draco. The lion has been described as a piece of admirable sculpture, ten feet high ; and as reposing on its hinder parts. It was pierced, and, as some have conjectured, had belonged to a fountain. Near Athens, in the way to Eleusis, was another, the posture couchant, probably its companion. Both these were removed to Venice by the famous general Morosini,* and are to be seen there, before the arsenal. At the mouth of the port are two ruined piers. A few vessels, mostly smallcraft, frequent it. Some low land at the head seems an incroachment on the water. The buildings are a mean custom-house, with a few sheds; and by the shore, on the east side, a warehouse belonging to the French; and a Greek monastery dedicated to St. Spiridion. On the opposite side is a rocky ridge, on which are remnants of the ancient wall, and of a gateway toward Athens. By the water edge are vestiges of building ; and going from the custom-house to the city on the right hand, traces of a small theatre in the side of the hill of Munychia.fi

* See Museum Venetianum, t. 2.

+ It is mentioned by Thucydides, Xenophon, and the orator Lysias. Meursii Piræus, p. 1940.

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