ter for $350 7 pounds of sugar for 83 cents, an ounce of pepper to 6 cents; what did he give for the whole? Ans. 12'395 = 12395 mills, or 1000ths. As the denominations of federal money correspond with the parts of decimal fractions, so the rules for adding and subtracting decimals are exactly the same as for the same operations in federal money. (See .28.) 2. A man, owing $375, paid $175 75; how much did he then owe? $375 OPERATION. =37500 cents, or 100ths of a dollar. 175'75 17575 cents, or 100ths of a delar. $199 25 = 19925 cents, or 100ths. The operation is evidently the same as in sub'raction of federal money. Wherefore,-In the addition and subtraction of decimal fractions,-RULE: Write the numbers under each other, tenths under tenths, hundredths under hundredths, according to the value of their places, and point off in the results as many places for decimals as are equal to the greatest number of decimal places in any of the given numbers. EXAMPLES FOR PRACTICE. 3. A man sold wheat at several times as follows, viz. 13'25 bushels; 8'4 bushels; 23'051 bushels, 6 bushels, and "75 of a bushel; how much did he sell in the whole? Ans. 51451 bushels. 4. What is the amount of 429, 21, 355, 1770 and 170? Ans. 808, or 808'143. 5. What is the amount of 2 tenths, 80 hundredths. 99 thousandths, 6 thousandths 9 tenths, and 5 thousandits : Ans.. 2. . What is the amount of three hundred twenty-nine, and seven tenths; thirty-seven and one hundred sixty-two thousandths, and sixteen hundredths? 7. A man, owing $4316, paid $376'865; how much did he then owe? Ans. $3939'135. 8. From thirty-five thousand take thirty-five thousandths. 9. From 5'83 take 4'2793. 10. From 480 take 245'0075. Ans. 34999'965. Ans. 1'5507. Ans. 234'9925. 11. What is the difference between 1793'13 and 817' 05693 ? Ans. 976 07307. 12. From 418 take 26. Remainder, 198, or 1'98. 13. What is the amount of 29, 3741008000, 975, 315, 27, and 100? Ans. 942'957009. MULTIPLICATION OF DECIMAL FRACTIONS. ¶ 71. 1. How much hay in 7 loads, each containing 23'571 cwt.? OPERATION. 23'571 cwt. = 23571 1000ths of a cwt. Ans. 164'997 cwt. 164997 1000ths of a cwt. We may here (T 69) consider the multiplicand so many thousandths of a cwt., and then the product will evidently be thousandths, and will be reduced to a mixed or whole number by pointing off 3 figures, that is, the same number as are in the multiplicand; and as either factor may be made the multiplier, so, if the decimals had been in the multiplier, the same number of places must have been pointed off for decimals. Hence it follows, we must always point off in the product as many places for decimals as there are decimal places in both factors. common or vulgar fractions. Thus, "75 is %, and '25 is : now, 7 x 23% == '1875, Ans. same as be fore. 3. Multiply '125 by '03. OPERATION. '00375 Prod. 5000 Here, as the number of significant figures in the product is not equal to the number of decimals in both factors, the deficiency must be supplied by prefixing ciphers, that is, placing them at the left hand. The correctness of the rule may appear from the following process: 125 is, and '03 is 130: now, 12% X 180 = 10000000375, the same as before. These examples will be sufficient to establish the following RULE. In the multiplication of decimal fractions, multiply as in whole numbers, and from the product point off so many figures for decimals as there are decimal places in the multiplicand and multiplier counted together, and, if there are not so many figures in the product, supply the deficiency by prefixing ciphers. EXAMPLES FOR PRACTICE. 4. At $5'47 per yard, what cost 8'3 yards of cloth? Ans. $45'401. 5. At $'07 per pound, what cost 26'5 pounds of rice ? Ans. 1'855. 6. If a barrel contain 175 cwt. of flour, what will be the weight of '63 of a barrel? Ans. 1'1025 cwt. 7. If a melon be worth $'09, what is "7 of a melon worth? Ans. 6 8. Multiply five hundredths by seven thousandths. 9. What is '3 of 116? 10. What is '85 of 3672 ? 11. What is '37 of '0563 ? 12. Multiply 572 by '58. cents. Product, '00035. Ans. 3121'2. Ans. '020831. Product, 33176. 13. Multiply eighty-six by four hundredths. 14. Multiply '0062 by '0008. Product, 3'44. 15. Multiply forty-seven tenths by one thousand eighty six hundredths. 16. Multiply two hundredths by eleven thousandths. 17. What will be the cost of thirteen hundredths of a ton of hay, at $11 a ton? 18. What will be the cost of three hundred seventy-five thousandths of a cord of wood, at $2 a cord? 19. If a man's wages be seventy-five hundredths of a dollar a day, how much will he earn in 4 weeks, Sundays excepted? DIVISION OF DECIMAL FRACTIONS. T72. Multiplication is proved by division. We have seen, in multiplication, that the decimal places in the product must always be equal to the number of decimal places in the multiplicand and multiplier counted together. The multiplicand and multiplier, in proving multiplication, become the divisor and quotient in division. It follows of course, in division, that the number of decimal places in the divisor and quotient, counted together, must always be equal to the number of decimal places in the dividend. This will still further appear from the examples and illustrations which follow: 1. If 6 barrels of flour cost $44'718, what is that a barrel? By taking away the decimal point, $44'718 44718 mills, or 1000ths, which, divided by 6, the quotient is 7453 mills, $7'453, the Answer. = Or, retaining the decimal point, divide as in whole numbers. OPERATION. 6)44'718 Ans. 7'453 As the decimal places in the divisor and quotient, counted together, must be equal to the number of decimal places in the dividend, there being no decimals in the divisor,-therefore point off three figures for decimals in the quotient, equal to the number of decimals in the dividend, which brings us to the same result as before. 2. At $475 a barrel for cider, how many barrels may be bought for $31 ? In this example, there are decimals in the divisor, and none in the dividend. $475 475 cents, and $31, by annexing two ciphers, 3100 cents; that is, reduce the di vidend to parts of the same denomination as the divisor. Then, it is plain, as many times as 475 cents are contained in 3100 cents, so many barrels may be bought. 475)3100 (6240 barrels, the Answer; that is, 6 barrels and of another barrel. 2850 250 But the remainder, 250, instead of being expressed in the form of a common fraction, may be reduced to 10ths by annexing a cipher, which, in effect, is multiplying it by 10, and the division continued, placing the decimal point after the 6, or whole ones already obtained, to distinguish it from the decimals which are to follow. The points may be withdrawn or not from the divisor and dividend. OPERATION. 4'75)31'00 (6'526+ barrels, the Answer; that is, 6 barrels and 526 thousandths of another barrel. 2850 2500 2375 1250 950 3000 2850 150 By annexing a cipher to the first remainder, thereby reducing it to 10ths, and continuing the division, we obtain from it '5, and a still further remainder of 125, which, by annexing another cipher, is reduced to 100ths, and so on. The last remainder, 150, is 15% of a thousandth part of a barrel, which is of so trifling a value, as not to merit notice. If now we count the decimals in the dividend, (for every cipher annexed to the remainder is evidently to be counted a decimal of the dividend,) we shall find them to be five, which corresponds with the number of decimal places in the divisor and quotient counted together. 3. Under ¶ 71, ex. 3, it was required to multiply '125 by '03; the product was '00375. Taking this product for a dividend, let it be required to divide '00375 by ‘125. One operation will prove the other. Knowing that the number of decimal places in the quotient and divisor, counted together, will be equal to the decimal places in the dividend, we may divide as in whole numbers, being careful to retain the decimal points in their proper places. Thus, |