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The heading food includes the cost of provisions used in the meals for the family. All meals eaten away from home should also be included under this heading.
Under shelter is included rentor taxes, repairs and interest on the investment if the home is owned. Heating, electric lights, telephone, water bill, furnishings and their upkeep should also be recorded under this heading.
Clothing includes all clothing whether made at home or purchased ready-to-wear. Laundry and cleaning expenses may also be included under this division of the budget.
Miscellaneous expenses include all items not included in the preceding headings, such as amusements, education, physician's services, church contributions, papers and magazines, etc.
In every budget a definite amount should be set aside for savings. One authority on family budgets suggests that a definite amount be placed in the savings bank at the first of each month and that the family should live on what is left. Savings includes investments in property, bonds, savings stamps, insurance, etc., as well as money placed in a savings account in the bank.
1. If the income of the family whose budget is given on the preceding page is $160 per month, how much do they allow for food? (What is 30% of $160?) How much less than this amount did they spend?
2. How much is allowed for shelter? What were the expenses for this heading? What was the saving in this division of the budget?
3. How much was allowed for clothing? How much more than this amount was spent during that month?
4. Compare the allowance and the expenses for the miscellaneous items.
5. What was the balance left out of the income for that month besides the savings for the month?
The smaller the income, the larger is the proportion needed for food, clothing and shelter. The larger the income, the larger is the per cent that can be devoted to savings.
6. Find the amounts for each heading in the following budget for a salary of $120 per month: Food 35%, shelter 30%, clothing 20%, miscellaneous 10%, savings 5%.
The number in the family affects the per cents in the different headings. For example about twice as much would be needed for food and clothes in a family of 2 adults and 3 children as in a family of 2 adults.
7. Find the amounts of the various divisions of the following budget for a family of 5 with an income of $300 per month: food 25%, shelter 25%, clothing 20%, miscellaneous 15%, savings 15%.
8. A family of five with an income of $500 per month made the following budget: food 15%, shelter 20%, clothing 20%, miscellaneous 20%, savings 25%. What were the allowances for each heading?
9. Make out a budget for a family of two on an income of $200 per month, using the headings food, shelter, clothing, miscellaneous and savings.
10. Make out a budget for a single woman on a salary of $20 per week, using the following headings: food, room rent, clothing, miscellaneous and savings.
11. Make out a budget for a single man on a salary of $35 per week, using the same headings as those in problem 10.
The teacher should suggest that the pupils help their parents prepare a budget for the home. These budgets should not be discussed in class on account of bringing up family matters which parents would prefer not to have discussed in school.
12. Make out a budget for a single man on a salary of $180 a month, using the headings in problem 10.
13. Find the amounts of each heading in the following budget for a salary of $240 a month: food 30%, shelter 25%, clothing 20%, miscellaneous 10%, savings 15%.
Exercise 2. The Cash Account
Every well conducted business has its cash account which shows the various items for which money has been paid out and the various sums received. Every family should keep an accurate cash account in order that unnecessary expenses may be seen and avoided.
A Cash Account
Balance on hand
This account is balanced at the end of the first week of the month. The balance is found by subtracting the sum of the expenses from the sum of the receipts.
1. Enter the balance under the receipts for Jan. 8 and then fill out the cash account for the following: Jan. 8 gas bill $2.62; Jan. 9 meat 65c; Jan. 9 telephone bill $1.65; Jan. 10 weekly salary $45.00; Jan. 10 lecture $1.00; Jan. 10 clothing $6.75; Jan. 12 chocolates $1.20; Jan. 13 meat 87c; Jan. 14 movies 32c. Balance the account for January 14.
Exercise 3. Home Garden Accounts Everyone who tends a garden should keep an account of the expenses and the value of the vegetables raised so that the net profit of the garden may be found. The following account shows what one girl made on the home garden during one summer. In some cases she sold vegetables at reduced prices in order to create a big demand for them in her immediate neighborhood. Vegetables used at home were valued at the same prices as those that she sold.
1. Place the following expenses and receipts in the form of a cash account and determine the profit:
Expenses: Plowing and harrowing the garden $1.50; spraying materials 65c; lumber for a temporary hot-bed frame $1.08. In addition the following amounts were spent for seeds: peas 50c, potatoes 50c, radishes 10c, head lettuce 10c, tomatoes 10c, carrots 10c, pumpkins 10c, cabbage 10c, sweet corn 15c, cucumbers 10c, beets 10c, salsify 10c, beans 20c, onions 10c, eggplant 10c.
Receipts: 43 lbs. peas in the pod at 8c a lb.; 2 bu. 3 pk. early potatoes at 75c a pk.; radishes $2.15; 127 heads of lettuce at 10c each and 59 heads at 7c each; 163 lbs. tomatoes at 5c a lb.; 152 lbs. of carrots at 2c a lb.; 23 pumpkins at 10c each; 13 dozen ears sweet corn at 30c a doz.; 49 heads of cabbage at 10c each; 34 lbs. cucumbers at 4c a lb.; 36 bunches of beets at 3c each; 17 bunches salsify at 8c each; 43 lbs. string beans at 10c a lb.; 51 lbs. onions at 4c a lb.; 24 eggplants at 15c each and 31 eggplants at 10c each.
2. Find the value of the vegetables at the prices in your community. Ask your mother to give you these prices. Find the profit at these prices.
3. A gardener ordered the following seeds from a seed company: 1 pkt. eggplant 10c; 1 pkt. cauliflower 25c; 1 pkt. cucumbers 10c; 1 pkt. head lettuce 10c; 1 pkt. parsnip 10c; 1 pkt. Swiss chard 10c; 1 oz. sugar beets 10c; 1 pkt rutabaga 5c; 1 pkt. turnips 5c. Find the total cost of the seeds, including 3 cents for the cost of a postal money order and 2 cents for mailing the letter.
Exercise 4. Ordering Groceries When groceries are ordered over the telephone or purchased in person and charged, the store usually gives a sales slip listing the articles and giving the price of each. When the articles are
delivered, they should be compared
with the sales slip to see that there H. A. MARDEN
is no shortage. The sales slips
should be kept until the end of the Sold ro me lid Hardy month so that they can be compared Address_1200 Main St
with the amounts of the monthly Jelen /*Soda Crackers 22
statement. *dried feet malt bread
The following grocery orders were /* Butter
64 given by Mrs. Hardy during one
Jan. 2: Sugar 50 cents; soap 32; bread 15; cocoa 22.
Jan 2: Bread 30; oranges 24;
eggs 60; salt 10. Jan. 5: Salmon 38; crackers 22; dried beef 33; bread 15; butter 64.
Jan. 7: Beans 24; bacon 21; bread 15; oleo 42.
Jan. 10: Yeast 3; condensed milk 8; apples 24; baking powder 25; flour $1.80.
Jan. 12. Oatmeal 28; vanilla 30; butter 64.