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A gallon, a quart, and a pint measure should be brought into class. Pupils should measure, and thus learn the relative capacities.

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1. How many pints equal a gallon ? a half gallon ?
2. How many quarts equal 16 pints ? 24 pints ? 36 pints ?
3. How many gallons equal 28 quarts ? 12 qt. ? 32 qt. ?

Written Work

2 qt. 1 pt.

4 pt. 1 pt.

1. Change 4 gal. 2 qt. 1 pt. to pints.

Since there are 8 pints in 1 gal4 gal. = 4 x 8 pt. = 32 pt. lon, in 4 gallons there are 4 times = 2 x 2 pt.

8 pints or 32 pints. Since there are 2 pints in 1 quart, in 2 quarts there

are 2 times 2 pints, or 4 pints. 32 4 gal. 2 qt. 1 pt.

= 37 pt.

pints + 4 pt. + 1 pt. 37 pt. Hence

4 gal. 2 qt. 1 pt. = 37 pt. Change : 2. 6 gal. 1 pt. to pints. 4. 4 gal. 3 qt. to pints. 3. 8 gal. 1 qt. 1 pt. to pints. 5. 5 gal. 2 qt. 1 pt. to pints.

6. Change } gal. to pints.

7. Mary bought 32 gallons of cream at 10$ a pint. How much did it cost her ?

8. A grocer sold 64 gallons of vinegar at 8¢ a pint. How much did he receive for it ? 9. Change 127 pt. to gallons.

Since 2 pints=1 quart, there 2)127, no. of pints.

will be j as many quarts as pints; that 4)63, no. of qt. +1 pt.

is, 63 qt. + 1 pt.

Since 4 quarts =

1 gallon, there will be į as many 15, no. of gal. + 3 qt.

gallons as quarts; that is, 15 gal. +

3 qt.

NOTE. The numbers in the operation must be regarded as abstract. Do not say 127 pints = 2 = 63 quarts + 1 pint. It is evident that 127 pints = 2 would equal 63} pints.

Change :
10. 375 pt. to quarts.

14. 469 qt. to gallons. 11. 846 pt. to quarts. 15. 875 qt. to pints. 12. 278 pt. to gallons. 16. 13 gal. to quarts. 13. 675 pt. to gallons. 17. 144 gal. to pints.

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Dry measures are used in measuring grain, fruit, roots, and other dry articles. Name five articles sold by the bushel.

2 pints (pt.) = 1 quart (qt.)
8 quarts =1 peck (pk.)
4 pecks

=1 bushel (bu.)
1 bushel = 2150.42 cubic inches
1 bu. = 4 pk. = 32 qt. = 64 pt.

1. Find, by measuring, how many pecks equal a bushel. 2. How many quarts will fill a peck measure ? 3. How many quarts will fill a bushel measure? 4. How many bushels do 16 pecks equal ? 64 quarts ?

Written Work Change : 1. 3 bu. 2 pk. 6 qt. to pints. 4. 65 pk. to bushels. 2. 96 pt. to bushels.

5. 8 bu. 3 pk. 1 pt. to pints. 3. 1200 qt. to bushels, 6. 1500 pt. to bushels.

Avoirdupois Weight The teacher should secure a scale and weights, and have pupils weigh articles of different kinds.

Avoirdupois weight is used in weighing heavy articles ; as, groceries, coal, grain, and metals, except gold and silver.

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The long ton is used at the United States custom houses, and in wholesale transactions in coal and iron.

The avoirdupois pound contains 7000 grains, and the avoirdupois ounce, 4374 grains.

The unit.of avoirdupois weight is the pound.

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1. Name several kinds of articles sold by the pound; by the ton.

2. How many tons equal 6000 pounds ? 24,000 pounds ? 3. Find the cost of 24 tons of hay at $ 14 a ton.

Written Work Change : 1. 6 lb. 5 oz. to ounces.

6. 2 T. 5 lb. to ounces. 2. 3 T. 8 cwt. to pounds. 7. 544 oz. to pounds. 3. 4 cwt. 3 lb. to ounces. 8. 6000 lb. to tons. 4. 51 cwt. to ounces. 9. 128 oz. to pounds. 5. 3600 lb. to cwt.

10. 810 oz. to lb. and oz.

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Time measure is used in measuring time. There are two standard units of time, the day and the year.

60 seconds (sec.) = 1 minute (min.)
60 minutes =1 hour (hr.)
24 hours

=1 day (da.)
7 days

=1 week (wk.)
1 year

= I2 mo. = 365 or 366 days =
52 wk. 1 da. or 52 wk. 2 da.

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