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AVOIRDUPOIS WEIGHT. 149. Avoirdupois Weight is used in weighing groceries and all coarse articles; as sugar, tea, coffee, butter, cheese, flour, hay, &c., and all metals except gold and silver.

16 drams (dr.) make 1 ounce, marked 16 ounces

1 pound,

16. 25 pounds

1 quarter,

qr. 4 quarters

1 hundred weight, cut. 20 hundred weight

1 ton, marked

T. Obs. 1. The Avoirdupois Pound of the United States is determined from the standard Troy Pound, and is in the ratio of 5760 to 7000 ;* that is,

1 pound Troy contains 5760 grains.
1 pound Avoirdupois

7000 grains Troy.
1 ounce

437grains 1 dram

27}grains 2. The British Imperial Pound Avoirdupois is defined to be the weight of 2710000 cubic inches of distilled water, at the temperature of 600 Fahrenheit, when the barometer stands at 300.

3. Gross weight is the weight of goods with the boxes, casks, or bags which contain them.

Net weight is the weight of the goods only.

4. Formerly it was the custom to allow 112 pounds for a hundred weight, and 28 pounds for a quarter ; but this practice has become nearly or quite obsolete. In buying and selling all articles of commerce estimated by weight, the laws of most of the States as well as general usage, call 100 pounds a hundred weight, and 25 pounds a quarter.

11. How many drams are there in 2 ounces? In 3 oz.? In 4 oz. ? In 5 oz.?

12. How many ounces in 2 pounds ? In 3 lbs. ? In 4 lbs.? In 5 lbs. ?

13. How many pounds in 2 quarters ?

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Quest.—149. What is Avoirdupois weight ? Repeat the Table. Point to an object that weighs an ounce. A pound. Obs. How is the Avoirdupois pound of the United States determined ? What is gross weight? Net weight? How many pounds were formerly allowed for a hundred weight ?

* Reports of Sec. Treas., March 3, 1832: June 20, 1832. Also, Cong. Documents of 1833.

Hind's Arith., Art. 223.

14. How many quarters in 2 hundred weight? In 3 cwt. ? In 5 cwt.? In 6 cwt. ?

APOTHECARIES WEIGHT.

150. Apothecaries Weight is used by apothecaries and physicians in mixing medicines.

20 grains (gr.) make 1 scruple, marked sc. or .
3 scruples

1 dram,

dr. or 3. 8 dranis

1 ounce,

oz. or 3.
12 ounces
1 pound,

Ib.

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Obs. 1. The pound and ounce in this weight are the same as the Troy pound and ounce; the other denominations are different. 2. Drugs and medicines are bought and sold by avoirdupois weight.

15. In 2 scruples, how many grains? In 3 sc. ? In 4 sc. ?

16. In 3 drams, how many scruples ? In 4 dr. ? In 5 dr ? In 7 dr. ?

17. In 2 pounds, how many ounces? In 3 lbs. ? In 6 ths.?

LONG MEASURE.

151. Long Measure is used in measuring length or distances only, without regard to breadth or depth.

1 yard,

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3 barleycorns (bar.) make 1 inch,

marked in. 12 inches

1 foot,

ft. 3 feet

yd. 5} yards, or 164 feet

1 rod, perch, or pole, r. or p 40 rods

1 furlong,

fur. 8 furlongs, or 320 rods

1 mile,
3 miles
1 league,

1. 60 geographical miles, or

1 degree,'

deg., or. 69statute miles 360 degrees make a great circle, or the circumference of the earth.

m.

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Quest.-150. What is Apothecaries Weight? Recite the Tab Obs. To what are the apothecaries ounce and pound equal? How are drugs and medicines boughi and sold ? 151. What is Long Measure ? Recite the Table.

Obs. 1. Long measure is frequently called linear, or lineal measure. The barleycorn is seldom employed as a measure. The inch is usually divided into tenths.

2. The standard unit of Length adopted by the General Government, is the Yard of 3 feet, or 36 inches, and is identical with the Innperial Yard of England. It is made of brass and is determined from the scale of Troughton* at the temperature of 60° Fahrenheit.

18. How many barleycorns in 3 inches? In 4 in. ? In 6 in.? In 8 in.? In 15 in. ?

19. In 3 feet, how many inches? In 3 feet and 4 in., how many inches ? In 4 feet and 7 in. ?

20. How many furlongs in 3 miles and 2 furlongs? How many in 4 m. and 5 fur. ? In 6 m. and 7 fur. ?

21. How many inches in 6 barleycorns? In 12 bar. ? In 16 bar.? In 23 bar. ?

22. How many feet in 27 inches ? In 36 in.? In 41 in.? In 61 in. ?

23. How many yards in 12 feet? In 17 ft. ? In 25 ft.? In 30 st. ?

CLOTH MEASURE.

152. Cloth Measure is used in measuring cloth, lace, and all kinds of goods which are bought and sold by the yard. 24 inches (in.) make 1 pail,

marked na. 4 nails or 9 in.

1 quarter of a yard, 97: 4 quarters

1 yard,

yd.
3 quarters or { of a yard“ 1 Flemish ell,
5 quarters or 1} yard 1 English ell,

6 quarters or 14 yard 1 French ell, Obs. Cloth measure is a species of long measure. The yard is the same in both. Cloths, laces, &c., are bought and sold by the linear yard without regard to their width.

66 Fl. e. 16 E. e. 66 F. e.

Quest.-Draw a line an inch long upon the black board. Draw one a foot, and another a yard long. How long is your desk? Your teacher's table? How wide? How long is the school room? How wide ? Obs. What is Long Measure often called? What is the standard unit of Length adopted by Congress ? 152. What is Cloth Measure? Repeat the Table.Obs. Of what is cloth measure a species? What is the kind of yard by which cloths, laces, &c. are bought and sold ?

* A celebrated English artist.

24. In 3 quarters, how many nails ? In 5 qrs. ? In 7 qrs.?

25. How many quarters in 4 yards ? In 6 yds. ? In 8 yds.? In 11 yds.? In 15 yds.?

26. How many quarters in 5 Flemish ells ? In 7 Fl. e.? In 10 Fl. e.?

27. How many quarters in 4 English ells? In 6 E. e.? In 9 E. e. ?

28. In 10 quarters, how many yards? In 12 qrs. ? In 15 qrs.? In 18 qrs. ? In 24 qrs. ? In 30 qrs. ? 29. How many French ells in 12 quarters ?

In 24 qrs. ? In 36 qrs. ? In 45 qrs. ?

SQUARE MEASURE.

153. Square Measure is used in measuring surfaces, or things whose length and breadth are considered without regard to heighth or depth; as land, flooring, plaster

ing, &c.

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89. yd.

89. r.

R.

1 acre,

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144 square inches (sq. in.) make 1 square foot,

marked sq. ft. 9 sqnare feet

square yard, 304 square yards, or 2724 square feet

1 sq. rod, perch, or pole,“ 40 square rods

1 rood, 4 roods, or 160 square rods

A. 640 acres

1 square mile,

M.

Square Inch. Obs. 1. A square is a figure which has four equal sides, and all its angles right angles, as seen in the first diagram. Hence,

A Square Inch is a square, whose sides are each a linear inch in length.

A Square Foot is a square, whose sides are each a linear foot in length.

Quest.–153. What is Square Measure? Recite the Table. Obs. What is a square ? Draw a square upon the black board. What is a square inch? A square foot ?

A Square Yard is a square, whose sides 9 sq. ft.=1 sq. yd. are each a linear yard or three linear feet in length, and contains 9 square feet, as represented in the adjacent figure.

2. In measuring land, surveyors use a chain which is 4 rods long, and is divided into 100 links. Hence, 25 links make 1 rod, and

92 inches make 1 link. This chain is commonly called Gunter's Chain, from the name of its inventor.

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30. How many inches in 2 square feet? 31. How

many square feet in 2 square yards ? In 3 yds? In 5 yds.? In 8 yds.?

32. How many square yards are there in 2 square rods?

33. How many roods in 80 square rods ?

34. How many acres in 16 roods? In 25 R.? In 30 R.? In 48 R.?

CUBIC MEASURE.

154. Cubic Measure is used in measuring solid bodies, or things which have length, breadth, and thickness, such as timber, stone, boxes of goods, the capacity of rooms,

&c. 1728 cubic inches (cu. in.) make 1 cubic foot, marked cu. ft. 27 cubic feet

1 cubic yard,

cu. yd. 40 feet of round, or

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1 ton, 50 ft. of hewn timber

T.

1 foot of wood, or 15 cubic feet

c. ft.

a cord foot
8 cord feet, or
1 cord,

C. 128 cubic feet

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Obs. 1. A pile of wood 8 feet long, 4 feet wide, and 4 feet high, contains 1 cord. For, 8X4X4=128.

Quest.-Obs. What is a square yard ? Draw a square inch; a square foot, &c. 154. What is Cubic Measure? Recite the Table.

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