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fixed to the Second Part of the Homilies," where a change of Les sons, at the discretion of the officiating minister, is not only permitted, but encouraged.
Now the Second Part of the Homilies" was "set out by the authority of Queen Elizabeth *," in the year 1560 †, but not sanctioned by Parliament: I conceive, therefore, that the "Admonition" appealed to by the "Country Curate," could in no respect supersede the Liturgy, which was sanctioned by the Act of Uniformity passed in the year 1559. But, without any discussion of that question, it is most certain, that the "Admonition" cannot justify a departure from the present Liturgy, which was made a part of the law of the land by the Act of Uniformity passed in the year 1662. This statute (14 Car. II. cap. iv. sect. 24) enacts, "that the several good laws and statutes of this realm, which have been formerly made, and are now in force, for the Uniformity of Prayer and Administration of the Sacraments within this realm of England, and places aforesaid, shall stand in full force and strength, to all intents and purposes whatsoever, for the establishing and confirming of the said book, intituled The Book of Common Prayer and Administration of the Sacraments, and other Rites and Ceremonies of the Church, according to the Use of the Church of England: toge
* Homilies, Oxford Edit. 1802, page 125. Bishop Tomline on Article xxxv. 1 Eliz. cap. ii.
ther with the Psalter or Psalms of David, pointed as they are to be sung or said in Churches; and the Form or Manner of making, ordaining, and consecrating of Bishops, Priests, and Deacons," herein before mentioned to be joined and annexed to this act; and shall be applied, practised, and put in use for the punishing of all offences contrary to the said laws, with relation to the Book aforesaid, and to no other."
The penalties, which were denounced by the act of Elizabeth against a wilful non-conformity to the Liturgy of that day, are hereby denounced against a wilful non-conformity to the present Liturgy. These penalties, as they affect beneficed persons, are for the first offence, forfeiture of a year's profit of all his preferment, with six months' imprisonment-for the second offence, a year's imprisonment and deprivation ipso facto-and, for the third offence, deprivation ipso facto, with imprisonment for life. The punishment of a person not beneficed, is, for the first offence, a year's imprisonment for the second, imprisonment for life. See 1 Eliz. cap. ii. sect. 4-8.
Thus much may suffice for the illegality of the practice concerning which the Country Curate" inquires. On its incompatibility with the solemn promises and engagement of the clergy, and on the bad consequences that might other wise result from it in a religious and moral view, I forbear to insist at present.
A COUNTRY VICAR.
To the Editor of the Christian Observer.
As a resident in the city of Oxford, I feel extremely desirous that the Judicious advice of "RUSTICUS,"which appeared in your highly-esteemed Miscellany for December last
should receive its deserved attention from those to whom it is addressed; but I have little hope that the appeal will be productive of much improvement, unless the Heads of Houses, the Proctors and Tutors of the respective col
leges (who constitute the guardians and governors of all minors of their body) do resolve on measures similar to those adopted by their predecessors in office, as exhibited in the following copy of a folio bill, headed with the University Arms.
"At a General Meeting of the Vice-Chancellor, Heads of Houses, and Proctors of the University of Oxford, June 23d, 1701. "Whereas, all undergraduates and minors whatsoever are strictly accountable, in all their matters of bargain and expense, to their respective tutors and governors; and ought not, by the laws and usages of this place, to be trusted or dealt with for any sum or thing exceeding five shillings in value, without the approbation of the said tutors and governors; and that, notwithstanding, several persons have of late presumed to trust and deal with young scholars, for very considerable sums of value, to the great detriment of many of them, and the insufferable affront to public discipline:
"These are straitly to charge and require all manner of persons, whether privileged or not privileged, of what trade or occupation soever, that, from the day of the date hereof, they do not buy, sell, trust, or bargain, with any undergraduate or minor whatsoever, that hath his residence or name in any college or hall in this University, for any sum or thing above the said value of five shillings, without the knowledge or express approbation of his tutor or governor respectively, under the penalty of being proceeded against (by disprivileging, discommoning, &c. according to the quality of the person, and nature of the offence) as a perturber of the peace and good government of this place. We likewise further require and command all such as have trusted or dealt with undergraduates, without the knowledge of their respective tutors, beyond the value of five shillings aforesaid, that they
bring in true bills of all such credits and demands as are yet unpaid them, to the respective tutors or governors concerned, at or before the twenty-first day of July next after the date hereof, under the penalties aforesaid to be inflicted upon the same. all such as shall neglect or refuse
Roger Mander, Vice-Chancellor."
You are aware, sir, that young men are sent to the Universities from the age of sixteen to twenty years-a period of our lives which more especially requires the counsel and example of wisdom and experience, and not unfrequently the restraints of authority, to form a character of worth and usefulness. much to be deplored, that youths, on But it is their entrance at the University, are considered men, and gentlemen ; and, without regard to the situation and circumstances of their parents, many of whom are far from affluent, they soon form an acquaintance with persons whose incomes far exceed their own, and whose style of consequence is, too often, that, from expense they are led to rival. The the facility of credit with the tradesmen, &c. they soon find themselves involved in extensive, unnecessary debts.-It is a painful task to me to enter into a detail of follies which some may term "the generous thoughtlessness of youth;" but, as a father, as a Christian, I feel myself impelled to relate a recent instance or two "of the growing expensiveness of a college education," with the hope that they may serve as a beacon to all whom it may concern. ter, whose numerous family obschoolmastained Royal patronage, was enabled, through the munificence of her benefactor, to send one of her sons to the University. vainly hoped to see this beloved The poor mother youth a respectable clergyman, and calculated that sixty or seventy pounds per annum, together with what he would receive from the foundation, would amply cover all
The widow of a
his expenses, and enable him to appear as a gentleman; but, sad to tell! after he had been at the University a little more than a twelvemonth, it was found that he had contracted debts to the amount of six hundred pounds! Her prospects were consequently blasted, and she was compelled to procure a subaltern's commission for him, and send him abroad, leaving his creditors unpaid.
Another instance of the baneful effects resulting from the expensive habits of the undergraduates, I have lately witnessed in the son of a clergyman who held a living of about four hundred pounds per annum, in Herefordshire. The young man, after taking his bachelor's degree, received ordination, and a curacy in Wales of eighty pounds a year, which was his whole income. While at college, his father had allowed him one hundred pounds a year, and he supposed that this allowance had covered all his expenses; but before the young man had been at his curacy six months, he was arrested by his wine-mer chant for one hundred and forty pounds. I read a letter from the worthy father on this distressing occasion; stating, that it wrung him to the heart to see his only son on the eve of imprisonment; and he with difficulty discharged the debt and costs. This was, however, but the beginning of his sorrows, for shortly afterwards the tailor was proceeding by law for the payment of upwards of an hundred pounds; and finding there were more debts still, the distressed parent was advised to collect the whole of his son's bills, and agree to some method of liquidation. The aggregate amount of the debts was found to exceed eleven hundred pounds: among the items were, the confectioner's bill, nearly one hun dred pounds, for dinners, desserts, &c.; seventy pounds for watch-seals, rings, and broaches; forty-five pounds for whips and spurs; upwards of thirty pounds for per
fumes and soap; and an immense bill for boots and shoes, having between thirty and forty pairs of boots with him. The father's letter to a person in Oxford concluded thus: "With many tears I state the thoughtless extravagance of my graceless son, which has compelled me to borrow a large sum of money from a friend; but what I feel most severely is, it deprives me of the means of supporting my aged mother, which I have done for some years."
Surely, sir, such instances as these, of which I fear there are very many, loudly call for the immediate attention of every Head of a House in both Universities. Such a clergyman as this, must necessarily be in that pitiable situation described by "Rusticus," "if summoned to visit one of the poor of his flock, whose case calls for charitable assistance, when the recollection of bills unpaid, only contracted through extravagant habits, checks his benevolence, and he is reluctantly forced to say, Be ye warmed, or be ye clothed,' while he cannot give them those things which are needful to the body." To cure these evils, although it might be impracticable to resort to the law I have quoted above, yet surely much might yet be done: might not, for instance, some such expedient as this be adopted, namely, that the Vice-Chancellor, Heads of Houses, &c. should enact a law, that henceforth all persons dealing with members of the University should annually, or oftener, deliver an account to the tutors of their respective demands, that they may be regularly transmitted to the parents, with a view to their early and punctual discharge. Many of the young men, be it remembered, probably never before possessed ten pounds at one time, and have not been accustomed to habits of economy: when, therefore, they have the uncontrouled disposal of a large annual sum, not having learnt the value of money, it is too often dissipated in a very thought
less and sinful manner: while, in addition to this, by the facility of credit, the inconsiderate youth is plunged into difficulties which prove inextricable. Many advantages, I think, would result from the adoption and steady enforcement of some such regulation. Not only would the money intended for the necessary college expenses be applied to that object, instead of being wasted on women, gigs, horses, &c.; but bodily health, and vigour of mind, would be preserved and strengthened; habits of industry, integrity, economy, and self-denial, would be formed and established: and these advantages would affect not only the individual and his immediate connections, but would extend themselves to every department of church and state.
evitable consequences, which will follow the habits of thoughtless extravagance in which they indulge; we must abandon the hope that they ever will spontaneously institute a new mode of conduct. But, admitting, as I do, the weight of these arguments, and happy as I am to add my testimony to that of "Rusticus," that there are many of our academical youth who recognize the authority of the Christian Observer; many who are anxious to regulate their conduct by the rules of the Bible; there still are circumstances which cause, in my mind, very serious doubts, whether these amiable delinquents are likely to set about the cure of their own malady; whether, for such a purpose, the voice of persuasion will have sufficient power, unaided by the arm of authority.
It is well known, that young men
To the Editor of the Christian Observer, are sent to college at a very early
THE friends of true religion, and those of the Church of England in particular, are deeply indebted to your correspondent RUSTICUS for his paper, in a former Number, on the growing Expensiveness of a College Education. Having been myself a sufferer by the evils which he deplores; and having observed the pernicious consequences of them in many, besides myself; I am much rejoiced to find the subject discussed in the pages of the Christian Observer;-discussed, as it is by your correspondent, with the spirit of a gentleman, no less than with the affectionate piety of a of a sincere Christian.
As far as any reformation can be expected to originate with the undergraduates themselves, nothing, I think, can be added to the excellent remarks of "Rusticus." If they remain uninfluenced by his eloquentappeal to their hopes of future usefulness in the ministry; to the concern they must feel for the general interests of religion; to the deep but unavailing sorrow, the grievous but in
age. The majority of freshmen are seventeen or eighteen years old; some younger. Add to this, that the investiture of the academical robe may almost be considered as the moment of emancipation from authority. For, although a conformity to certain rules is indispensable; although the Dean peremptorily requires the attendance of the undergraduate at chapel, and the Tutor at lectures; and although flagrant offences may subject him to severe punishment from the officers of the college or the university; still there are many, and not unimportant, parts of his conduct, left entirely to his own discretion. He may keep a horse, and a servant; he may give frequent and expensive entertainments; he may even avowedly neglect the proper studies of the place; and yet, conforming to the rules I have mentioned, and perhaps to some others of the same nature, he may not only escape censure, but be considered, to use the college phrase," a regular man."
The conclusion, to which I am led by these facts, is the following
and it is no less true because a hackneyed observation-either, that it would be adviseable not to send our young men to college at so early an age; or, that the authority of the tutor should be more exerted.
Your correspondent will perhaps tell me, that he is writing to young men who stand in no need of discipline; who are influenced, in the main, by right principles; and who only require to be reminded, that those principles should be brought into action Be it so. And from hence I draw a very strong argument in favour of my position. If they, whose dispositions and general conduct are formed upon principles which constitute the surest preservative from evil, and the strongest incite ment to good conduct, are betrayed into practices unworthy of their Christian profession; how needful is it, that those who live not under the influence, nor, in fact, recognise the authority, of scriptural injunctions, should be restrained by compulsory means from practices which tend, not only to their own ruin, but, by their example, to that of others also! Besides, if authority were used, who would be the first to give effect to its exertions? They, no doubt, who know, by implication at least, from the records of infallible truth, the indispensable duty of submission to their superiors; they, who have been instructed that they must needs be subject, not only for wrath, but also for conscience sake." Others might comply with the injunction from a fear of the penal consequences of disobedience; the Christian would do so from an approbation of its fitness and excelJence, and from the habitual desire of his heart to conform in every particular with the will of God. If the standard of right conduct were thus erected, young men of this character, I doubt not, would be the very first to rally round it, Many of them probably have secret misgivings, if not serious regret, on
account of the practices we lament. But common example gives a sanction to them; and the ab-. sence, to say the least, of all dis couragement on the part of their superiors, adds incredibly to the, force of that sanction. If the authority of their superiors were exerted in an opposite direction, they would, I am persuaded, find little difficulty in contending with the common example..
That the tutor of a college has it in his power greatly to curtail the expenses of bis pupils, admits not of a doubt. At the college of which L am a member, the cook presumes not to send a dinner or supper to the rooms of any undergraduate, without the written permission of his tutor. This permission is rarely, withheld, except as a punishment for recent irregularity. If a discretionary power of this nature is lodged, as it undoubtedly is, with the tutor, I appeal, sir, to the good sense of your readers, whether it be not a vain pretence that the restitu tion of stricter discipline in our universities is an impracticable measure.
It must also be allowed, that the undergraduate's bill is, in many cases, swelled to an enormous size, without any fault of his own, from the extravagant charges of the university tradesmen. These persons are subject to many bad debts from the members of the university; and the method which they take to reimburse themselves is, notoriously, that of raising their prices to an exorbitant height. Is it not obvious that this evil might be much corrected, if the tutors of colleges reso lutely refused to employ any tradesman who gave credit to the under graduates beyond a certain amount?
But, besides those to whom authority is entrusted, there are others who might contribute much to the removal of those abuses which form the subject of our present consideration. I speak principally of the Fellows of colleges resident in the university; most of whom have