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some acquaintance amongst the To the Editor of the Christian Observer. undergraduates. I must be allowed to express my opinion that many of the respectable medium the Christhese, men too, in many instances, tian Observer offers for communicawho prosess themselves the friends tion with the public, must be my of religion, have shewn a lament- apology for troubling the Editor able tameness in this particular.- with the annexed certificate for When I first went to college. I look insertion: it is brought forward for with me letters of introduction to no purpose of contention, but sim-, some members of the university, ply to serve the cause of justice. of unquestionable piety, and no in- You are no stranger to a spurious considerable rank in the republic letter, inseried by Dr. Marsh in his of letters. They treated me with Reply to Dr. Milner's Strictures, flattering marks of civility; and for written in the assumed language of a a time perhaps my conduct gave me

Quaker, having a post-mark upon it, some claim to their regard. Soon, which induced ihe Doctor to imagine bowever, I was led into habits to that his correspondent resided at or which I am sure they could not be near Abingdon, in Berkshire.--I am strangers, and which, I am equally aware that the whole Society of sure, they could not approve. But Friends can hardly be responsible they never expressed their disappro- for the intemperance of a single bation, and they continued to honour meniber, if the fact were just as it me with unaliered attention to the has been represented to the public; close of my academical life. Doubt.. but when there is the clearest eviless, this attention was well meant; dence that there is not an individual and the kindness from which it of their persuasion in being, of the flowed merits my warmest grati- name allixed to the “ Abingdon tude. But had that kindness shewn Letter," and while Dr. Marsh, not itself in earnest and friendly re. content with bringing the subject monstrances on the impropriety of forward in two publications, has my conduct, I feel a strong persua. continued to insist upon the correctsion that I should not be compelled, ness of bis assertions, by public inas I am, to retlect, with ineffectual vitation to “all gentlemen who may sorrow, on the consumption of many doubt the authenticity of the Abingpounds, and, which is of more awful don Letter to call upon him and see importance, of many hours, in lus. that letter, an examination of which urious indulgence, and indolent or will convince them that it is authendissipated amusements.

tic;" we need not be surprised that May He, in whose hand are the respectable persons, resident in bearts of all men, so dispose the Berkshire and Oxfordshire, should hearts of the governors and other show some anxiety to counteract the graduates of our universities, that effect of such a delusioa: for my they may watch over the young and own part, I confess, that I could inexperienced members, with se- hardly repress a smile at such a dulous and affectionate anxiety! specimen of the Professor's, ingeAud may He so incline the hearts nuity! The mere exhibition of a of the young to habits of study, letter prove the authenticity of it! .-. retirement, frugality, and devotion, The letter must be genuine-for that in those hallowed seats of here it is! Dangerous logic! To science - "true religion and useful reason thus, would give currency to, learning may flourish and abound, the grossest frauds, and render for-, and that there never may be want. gery a safe as well as profitable em ing” from them "a supply of fit ployinent. Not a Bank-of, England and able men, doly qualified to serve note could be relused payment, God both in church and state!” however clumsily executed. True,

of false is out of the question--Christ. Obsery. No. 143.

2 H

URBANUS.

I am,

AMICUS.

Here is the note, and that is incon- ciates of the human mind in every trovertible proof of its being ge- pursuit which brings it into contact nuine, and no forgery!

with others. Take the effects of &c.

that species of Emulation which is necessarily implied in what is

(hatefully I was going to say, from “We the undersigned, resident at its abuse,) denominated an argument the places respectively set against between two persons. Let their our names, do hereby certify that argument, or call it the comparison there is no person, professing with of their ideas, take place upon one of the people called Quakers, of the the gravest points of the Christian name of James Whiten, James religion. Let their honest motive Whitin, or James Whiting, in the be to acquire clear notions upon the neighbourhood of Abingdon, nor subject, and so to glorify God.has been to our knowledge; and Alas! how very soon will both further, that we know of no person, motive and subject often change in connection with the aforesaid their complexion " the gold beSociety, who bears either of the come dim, the most fine gold be above names, in the counties of changed,"-beneath the sullying Berks or Oxon, or elsewhere. effects of a vain-glorious or a dis" Robert Allen, Abingdon, Berks. appointed ambition. It began by

Jas. Reynolds, Faringdon, ditto. “two friends going hand in hand in
Cba.Reynolds, Faringdon, ditto. pursuit of truth :" it ends with "a
Jere. Wallis, Abingdon, ditto. duel in the form of a debate."
Rich. Reynolds, Faringdon,ditto. The point of honour, in this case the
Thos. Skennir, Witney, Oxon. prize of reasoning, is too precious to
Dan. Rutter, Witney, ditto. be resigned without a struggle on
E. Swaine, Henley, ditto. either side. And this perhaps makes
Joseph May, Henley, ditto." an argument a more frequent and

more fruitful source of contentions
and rancorous feeling even than

many games, where, under the same ON THE PRINCIPLE OP EMULATIO.V. principle of Emulation, there is

still a mixture of chance with skill (Concluded from p. 159.)

in producing the event. The skill When we consider the great im. in these last is more easily resolved portance of a right management of into habit, or palliated by fortuitous the temper in the formation of the occurrences, than where the event Christian character, it cannot be a wholly depends on the exercise of matter of surprize that I should re- the reasoning faculty. And therequest the attention of your readers to a fore, perhaps, even chess, though few remarks on that point, in closing the most reasoning of all games, this too-long-protracted discussion has not the production of so much on the subject of Emulation. It rancour and ill blood to answer for, must be owned, even where the in a given time, as the unfortunate object of Emulation is most legiti. disputes, for instance, on the subject mate, the motive for carrying it on of Calvinism. Now it is the produce most laudable, and the means wholly Lion of this contentious, this envious, unexceptionable, that still it may be this oftentimes malignant, and still conducted in a very bad spirit. oftener vain-glorious, temper, which Joy at the failure of others, undue has induced many sound writers on exultation at your own success, with morality to proscribe the principle the whole tribe of splenetic vapours of Emulation from the allowed limits at the prospect, or, under the imme. of human agency. Your excellent diate lash of disappointment, are correspondent himself, in another The too ready and unfortunate asso. paper, bas enjoinod a careful obsere vation of tbe miod and temper of the sity; teach him “ to be sober, and pupil, before he be fully allowed the to watch unto prayer;" direct him use of any species of game of com- to that source of instruction where petition ; and the first dawnings of alone he can learn to be “ meek a quarrelsome or contentious spirit and lowly in heart;" and then send are to be the signal for laying aside him forih, not with a padlock on the racket or the board. Truly his lips or a chain on his thoughts, enough, I am not surprised at these but armed with the whole armour instruments of competition being so of God, and furnished with principles easily dismissed, when upon his own which can wortbily influence his principles it was rather inconsistent reason, or direct his speech. to admit them at all; "a superiority" Now, without any desire to adin such pursuits being almost lite- vocate the cause of games of comrally "sought for its own sake." petition, it is extraordinary, neverNor, indeed, should I have any great iheless, that it should occur to me, to objection to their being laid aside apply just this same mode of conduct from such a cause, with this single and precaution to the lesser danger variation from your correspondent's arising from their moderate use? plan; that the pupil should be The advocate for amusement would rather persuaded to lay them aside say, that children must be amused; himself as dangerous to his own that it is scarcely possible to devise peace, than be forcibly deprived of games in which some mode of them as

a mere punishinent for competition will not be found; and, having misused them. From this that the warning beforehand where latter measure, Lown, I see much necessary (and where is it not?) hazard lest an increasing, fondness will probably operate more salushould result, wbich would appear tarily, with the immediate opporat a more favourable opportunity. tunity of putting it into practice,

But my principal difficulty in the than a bare removal of all possible affair lies here. After you have temptation, as you vainly think, to forbid your child the use of the bat, an indefinite distance. or the board, you must, à fortiori, My motive in pursuing this according to a former observation, train of reasoning will be easily anforbid him the use of his reasoning ticipated to be that of applying it powers. And I must acknowledge to the question of educational emumy wonder that this plain conclu- lation. Here is a positive, a most sion never occurred to your corre. important, a most indispensable end spondent, and to those who think to be answered by the game, if you with him on the subject, viz. that if please so to call it, of competition. games of competition are amuse. And will you dispatch the principle meots scarcely ever to be entrust. out of existence, because the ed with safety in children's hands, tempers to which it may lead, by much less should the multifarious abuse, are of a questionable or even Lemplations of ordinary conversa. of the worst kind? Will it not be the tion be left without a guard and a more discreet, more moderate, more check; which, ia the case of many scientific, and more salutary course to disputatious tempers would, even to steer between the extremes:--llot to the end of life, amount almost to a inflame thetemper of the pupilindeed lotal prohibition to converse. In by any refined and artificial appenChis case your correspondent will dages to the principle in question ; doubtless reply, Converse we must, on the contrary, to purify it as much argue we must; any prohibition to as possible from every corrupting the contrary would be absurd : tendency; then to warn your pupil therefore rather warn your pupil of of the abuse to which, thisin common his natural temper ; put him on his with every principle of the human guard against his favourite propen. mind, is, through our natural depravity, become liable; and, so to dis- cations of failure, or exulting in thie miss him, covered with every triumphs of victory. In classes of human and divine protection in any magnitude, personal compeyour power, to the arena of useful tition is of necessity wholly lost in and honourable conibat.

a general struggle for the highest . But we are here again upon place. The pupil is soon made to narrow anil unfavourable ground. feel that for his approximation to We are supposing emulation lia- the top of his class, or bis distance ble to produce all the ill tem- from it, he is mainly dependent on pers which your correspondent bis own conduct. To attain it, he would charge upon it. We are readily excuses in another the effort supposing to the utmost limit of its which he had the moment before dangers; without taking into the made himself. He even learns to account the power it possesses of sympathize with his fellow in a an opposite kind; the tendency failure of which he has felt the which unquestionably resides in it smart. Often will you see in such to rectify iis own abuses.

contests the most amiable traits of The effect of Emulation in cor- disinterested generosity; and even recting those very feelings of pride one competitor assisting another 10 which, it was admited, might some attain that eminence, with which times give birth 10 it, has been al- both have learnt to associate the ready noticeul. And, however paradox- rewards of diligence and the approical it may appear, I have no difficulty bation of the master. In contests in affirming, that its operation for- of a higher order, other emotions ward upon its own effects, will be prevail equally destructive of the eventually as beneficial as we have low feelings of a peter jealousy. proved its operation backward on In university-examinations the soits cause to be:— the temper which it lemnity of the preparation, the gaze may for a time excite, it will itself of spectators, the importance of the provide the means of ultimately prize, and the future consequences of extinguishing:----A well-regulated the award, all seem to carry the school upon the principles of Emu- mind beyond itself, and to produce Jation (not where beating and box. more than half the purifying effect ing, and pulling the hair, and spit. attributed by Aristotle to tragedy ting in the face of the unsuccessful itself. The mortal combatants candidate are privileges allowed to learn a mutual feeling, and embrace the conqueror, as we have heard is in common danger. If some extrathe case in some Lancastrian schools) ordinary cases of sturdiness or spleen atfords, I strongly believe, one of occur, which are sure to be noticed the best cures that exist, for the and scouted, I believe the examina.

ery obliquity of leniper complained tion-room to be, on the other hand, a of. Granit that some sour looks and scene where the noblest feelings of spiteful wishes glance across the a reciprocal regard have been called brow of the disappointed youth, into exercise. And whilst on this upon the first few unsuccessful trials subject we speak that we do of his skill; how soon does he know, and testify that we have learn that the indulgence of these seen,” the reader, perhaps, will be feelings is no ready road either to better pleased by a more authentic success in future, or to the favour of testimony to the same effect, conhis master or his competitors in tained in your own pages, Mr. school? Perhaps another experi- Editor, in the able character of the ment, by its success, dispels, with late venerable and ever-lamented an unexpected gleanı, the gathering Dr. Jowett of Cambridge. clouds : and the quick alternations “ In mathematical pursuits, and of fortune soon leave but little space in subjects of natural philosophy, either for brooding over the mortifi- though these two friends” (the late

46

Here,

Professor of Civil Lawand the vene- of Emulation has been already put rable the Dean of Carlisle) “ were of forth; and that, if further reasonthe same academical year, and for ings are required to defend it, they some time likely to have been must be sought from some abler competitors for the University-ho- champion of the cause. nours at degree-time, they con. therefore, I beg leave to withdraw stantly read together, afforded mu. myself from your further at:entual assistance to each other, and tion; only trusting, whatever my always communicated the respec- execution of the argument I have tive progress they were making, undertaken against your able and without the least reserve or jea- valuable correspondent may have lousy." Christian Observer for De- been, my motive in it will not be cèmber, 1813, p. 822.-1 will not misconstrued. Considering the amuse myself, sir, with imagining plans of education proposed by Dr. the vain attempts of your corres. Bell and Mr. Lancaster to be really pondent to throw aside this solitary one of the greatest blessings which, instance of a good-tempered Emu- in these later years, God has vouchlation; nor the regret I might sup- safed to our favourite iste; and view. pose him to feel that he should have ing the Principle of Emulation as rested the proof of the possibility of the main stay and distinguishing his Anti-Èmulation schemes on a characteristic of these plans; how solitary instance of success. I will should it have been possible for me rather allow him many instances of to have felt or expressed myself less success in education conducted, as strongly than I have? Deeply inhe fancies, without the aid of Emu- terested myself in the success of no lation. I will keep my own know. very insignificant establishment on ledge of the temper in which open the footing of these plans; looking and avowed Emulation may be con- earnestly for an improvement in ducted, to myself. I will “ argue the minds and moral dispositions of the question on abstract grounds;" the children, as an object of greater and I will undertake to maintain, imporiance than even their attainthat an education conducted to the ments in learning; and entertaining exclusion of the ordinary modes of the most sanguine expectations of Emulation, with any given number success in this very particular from down to one alone, as the subject of those plans, beyond all others ever the experiment, shall be more devised by the wit of man; how likely to excite, and be less calcu. must I be alarmed by the strong lated to reduce, an angracious and forebodings of your vigorous page selfish temper, than the same edu- on the issue of these hopes !-Could cation conducted by the same person, I have been convinced that Emulaonly through the medium of a sen. tion were in itself a corrupt and sible, moderate, and well-regulated unholy principle of action, I should spirit of Emulation.

as soon expect success from an edu. But, sir, perhaps happily for my- cation of which that was the basis, self, I am arrived at that point when as I should from schools which, like I have a fair excuse, or rather an the Spartan, encouraged theft and urgent call, for closing my observa. simulation. Did I not believe the tions; and, after alarming your most vigorous pursuit of Emulareaders, by the threat of a long irain tion was consistent with the highof “abstract reasoning,” to prove a est degrees of Divine grace in the very plain practical point, I shall heart, and capable of being turned, now agreeably surprize them, by re- even in ordinary studies, “ to the ferring to what has been already praise and glory of God," I should alleged ; fully assured that the strongly hesitate 'as to its lawfulutmost strength of my humble ar. ness at all. And finally, did I not guments in favour of the Principle see in practice the most noble, ge•

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