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nerous, and high-conditioned fruits shall be bold to claim the argument both of private and public benevo. as my own, or concede it to your lence, spring from the soil of well. correspondent. In the mean time, regulated Emulation; and even the wishing most heartily that no same pursuit upheld after the most objects of Emulation may be proremarkable changes of mind in in, posed to us, but the very highest dividuals, without any apparent and most beneficial to man; no consciousness of guilt in their pro. motive enforced, but the glory of ceedings; I should be more dis. God and obedience to his will; no posed to question the ground on temper inculcaled, but that of which I am standing. If firm at

peace on earth and good will all, sir, it should be made to feel towards men;" I shall conclude, 80. A question involving so many by pointing at once our prayers and interests, and affecting the fate of our endeavours towards that bright almost the whole rising generation, eminence which can alone justify · should not be left at large; nor the all means by which it shall have exertions now making in that cause been obtained, the eminence of be suffered to continue, if they are true holiness, leading, through the mischievous, or be discouraged if merits of a Redeemer, lo the very beneficia). The question is, indeed, throne itself of God. " Here is now fully at issue. Many years honour worthy our ambition; bocannot revolve over our heads, nour, after which we all are invited should it please God to leave us the to aspire ; which all may obtain, space of ground we now occupy for who strive worthily and lawfully, the experiment, before its success and of which, when once obtained, will be most amply tried. According nothing can ever deprive the posas the succeeding generation shall have been actually improved, or

VINDEK. deteriorated in disposition, so I • Horne on the 113th Psalm.

sessors *



Remarks on Prisoits. By STEVEN. the Legislature. The state of our

SON MacGilu, D. D. Minister gaols is a subject which has attracted of the Trone Church of Glasgow. much less than it ought to have Glasgow,

London, done of the public attention. We Longman. Pp. 79.

have been distinguished of late by In the mouth of May, 1809, we had improvements

in almost every occasion to review a valuable work branch of our internal polity, and by Dr. Macgill, entitled, “ Consi- by an excursive benevolence which derations addressed to young has known no bounds but the Clergyman; or some Trials of limits of the globe; while the Principle. and Character, which rice and the wretchedness which may arise in the Course of his Mi- are still found united within the nistry ;" and we ventured 10 ex- walls of too many of our prisons, press a strong wish that it might have either been wholly overlooked, be read by every clergyman in or, when dragged into notice by the the kingdom. We feel nearly as indignant feelings of some benevolent strong a desire that the tract now individual, have often only served before us may go into the bands of to excite a sentiment of hopeerery Member of both Blouses of less regret. ln a variety of instances, indeed, much has been done dom as Britain? Unless it be greatly to realize the philanthropic designs changed since I had an opportunity of viof a Howard; but in many of our viting it, abort three years ago, the accon prison-houses, the evils of our an. modation for debtors and for females is cient system remain in a great

deplorable. In the account given of it in

the Picture of London, where mention is measure unredressed.

made of some important improvementi, “ How surprising is it,” observes our at

during the sheriffally of Messrs. Smith and thos, “ that amongst a people so just and Phillips, we find still the following facts : huinane as the British, those objects should feet by fifteen; the number of inl.abitants,

• The rooms (for debtors) are twenty-three have received so little public attention. The is from twelve to twenty in each room. The evils existing in our prisons, the benevolent debtor's side contains, sometimes, three Howard, many years ago, laid open, in plain hundred ; and, for this number, a court is and moderate language, yet in a manner Atted deeply to affect the mind. In many other gards, felons are lodged, and in 2010

provided of fifty by thirty-two feet. In four places he excited attention, and great improvements were made.

But in many

ther, women-selons; a wretched place, itu places also, and in places where attention which, in three wards, are sometimes kept might chiefly lave been expected, little has upwards of one hundred women.". pp.17-19. been done, and the most flagrant abuses As a farther illustration of our aucontinue to exist. In London, the seat of thor's remark, we will here insert an government, and where, from the number and character of the prisoners, it is of the extract of a letter addressed to the first importance, not only to individuals

, Lord Mayor of London, by the bebut to the nation, that ihe state of pri nevolent Mr. James Neild, ou the sons should be made an object of regular 11th Dec. 1804. and systematic attention, evils of the worst " It is now more than three

years nature continue to prevail. Who could since I made my first report to the have thought, that, after all his labours, Lord Mayor and the Court of AlHoward should have had to record, in his last dermen, of the state of the Borough publication, such facts as the following? Compter. A Committee was appointNewgate-No alteration! In three of ed to inspect it.

The windows were four rooms, there were near one hundred repaired and glazed : it was whiteand bity women crowded together, many washed and swept. This being all young creatures with the old and hardened, some of whom had been confined upwards the improvement it has received, of two years; on the men's side, likewise, permit me to trespass on your Lordthere were many bugs of twelve or fourteen ship's patience, and that of the boyears of age, some almost naked. In the nourable Court, whilst I describe iaen's infirmary, there were only seven irur: its present state. bedsteads; and, at my last visit, there • Sir Waikin Lewes, as Bailiff of being twenty sick, some of them naked, the Borough, is, I

presume, the and with sores, in a miserable condition, lay keeper. His deputy, John Bulleon the floor, with only a rug. There were four sick in the infirmary for women, extends its jurisdiction over five

vant, has no salary. This prison which is unly fifteen feet and a half by twelve, has but one window, and no bed- parishes. Men and women debtors ateads, sewers offensive, prisons nut while. have one small court-yard, about washed.' The Fleet, the King's Bench, nineteen feet square; and they apand raany others of the principal prisons, pear to me at all times 10 associate he marks in like maunes, with the emphatic together. They have nothing but works' no alteration! I believe that se. the dirty boards to sleep upon. No veral alterations have been made since that bedding, or even straw allowed. No period; but bow few are yet in that state fire, even in this cold and damp seawhich justice, humanity, religion, and en

No medical assistance in lightened policy, would dictate! A! pre- sickness. No religious attentions sent, I consider the subject with a view lo

whatever. The few remaining the Health of the prisoners. And is, even now,

that object attended to in Newgate, boards in the men-debtors' rooni for example, as might be expected in one of (mentioned in my former report) the first prisons of the capital of such a king. are now taken away, as are ihe


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joists on which they were laid. The we hail, as the harbinger of a new and room is useless; the floor is earth. better order of things in this importNeither mops, brooms, ner pails are ant department of public discipline, allowed, to keep the prison clean. the appointment of a Committee of Soap or towels are not afforded to the House of Commons, on the mothe prisoners; so that a man may tion of Mr. Eden, to examine into for a debt of one guinea, remain in the state of our gaols, with a view this wretched place forty days, to their effectual reform. We par. without once taking off his clothes, ticularly recommend the work beor washing his hands and face. fore us to the attention of that gen

“ Permit me now, my Lord, to tleman and his Parliamentary Assosubmit to your consideration the al- ciates in this beneficent pursuit. lowance to this prison. It is a two- The justifiable ends of a prison, penny loaf a day; weight, March Dr. Macgill conceives to be, and 10, 1801, six ounces! and Dccem- we ihink rightly, “ to keep in cusber 7,' 1804, eight ounces. This tody the accused, till the period of scanty provision, without any nu: their trial; to keep in custody the tritious liquor, only water, is not condemned, till the sentence of the sufficient io support the cravings of law be executed; "and, lastly, to nature ; and the prisoner at his dis- punish by confinement

, particular charge may be fit for an hospital, offences. To confine a person on but he cannot be fit for labour.”

the mere accusation of guilt is, un“ What shall I say to a system questionably, a grievous hardship still continued, though respectfully which can only be justified by the submitted to the Court more than necessity of the case, and which three years ago? I am informed, should iherefore be softened as far there has been no resident Alder- as is consistent with the object of man in this ward for many years, security. On no account ought he which may in some measure account to be placed on a level, as to treatfor the total neglect of this misera- ment, with convicted criminals, or ble place."

forced into their society. In the "No inquiry ever appears to case of persons condemned and kept be made about the state of this in confinement till the sentence be prison; and there being no resi- executed, their imprisonment may, dent Magistrate, the cries of the justly be accompanied by circummiserable never reach that Court stances of degradation and personal where distress seldom supplicates in hardship; but then these should be vain.” “Forgot by the City-out clearly implied in the nature of of reach of being heard—it seems a their punishment, and should in wretched cast-off, and may be num. no instance be inflicted arbitrarily,

the worst prisons in but should follow from the unaina the kingdom.”

biguous denunciation of the law. When Mr. Neild visited this pri. And this observation applies with son again in 1807, he found things equal force to the case of persons precisely in the same state-men whose direct punishment is the and women associating together; privation of liberty. The sentence no allowance of coals, por of ket of the Judge should specify the actles or saucepans to cook provi. companying circumstances of ri. sions; no mops, brooms, or pails to gour, and if any farther evils, from keep the prison clean; no bedo whatever cause arising, should be steads, bedding, or even straw to superadded, they must be regarded lie upon ; debiors obliged to sleep as inhuman and unjust. on the dirty boards in their clothes ; The remarks of Dr. Macgill on in short, the distress and wretched. confinenient for debt are equally ness extreme,

sound. The only just grounds he It is with the utmost satisfaction assigns for it, are either to prevent

bered among,

the debtor from leaving the country their strength should he wasted, or muil he shall have rendered an ac. their constitution undermined by count of his estale, and his conduct sickness ; or that their future lives, has been examined; or 10. punish if not cut short, as they sometimes fraud or any other criininal actionare, should be embittered by pain of wbich he may have been guilty. and debility, and by their necessary When continement seems necessary, consequences, poverty and wreichattention should be paid 10 the edness. Yet, from the construction suitable accommodalion of the per- and management of our prisons, son confined; and after he has made such have been the dreadful etticis a fair surrender of his properly, his flowing from confinement in too creditors should no longer have any many instances. Our feelings repower over his person. Negligence, volt from such treatment even of profligacy, or fraud, should indeed the guilty, how much more when it be punistied; but then it should be ' becomes, as it possibly may, the punistied alịer trial, and according portion of the innocent and unforto the judge's sentence. The ho tunate! Every consideration of nest and unfortunate would then justice and trumanity imperiously be protected from cruelty, and no demands that this evil should be relonger confounded with the gambe medied; and that, in the situation, Jing speculator, the profligate spend. arrangement, and management of ihrift, or the unprincipled swindler. prisons, such attention should be

Prisons, therefore, may be consi.' paid to the air, exercise, cleanliness, dered under two views; as contine- and diet of the prisoners, as shall ment for security, and confinement for afford a fair security against its fatat punishment. In many prisons these effects. On all these points Dr.' iwo objects are united. In others Macgill makes many valuable obthey are kept distinct; those appro- servations, of which we can trace priated to the latter object exclusive. but a very faint outline. The situaly being called Houses of Correction. tion selected for a prison, should be Many of Dr. Macgill's observacions airy and dry; if rtear a great town, are applicable to both descriptions. on that side of it from which the air His thoughts, however, are chiefly and smoke of the town will genedirected io the consideration of the rally be blown away. A spot near a first.

river or running brook is desirable. 1. The design for which prisons The prison should be so constructed, are erected, is to secure the person as to allow the fullest possible beneof the prisoners. The harsh means fit of fresh and wholesome air. formerly employed for this purpose, This is necessary

necessary to preserve of dark and deep dungeons, 'irou , bealth, recover the sick, and check chains and bolts, rivetting prisoners infection. The rocins of the prito the ground, &c. are either entirely soners should be on the secood abolished, or used less frequently. floor, and should enjoy, as indeed By a proper plan of building, in every corner of the prison should, deed, even irons may be rendered the means of free ventilation. A wholly unnecessary, except when convenient space should be an. prisoners are riotous ; and surely, nexed for exercise, where temales, unless they are really necessary, they and, if possible, the debtors, the should never be resorted to as à accused, and the condemned, should means of security. To put in irons "be kept distinct; which might be persons who have not been con- effected either by having several demned, is peculiarly cruel and separate courts, or by allotting ditunjust.

ferent hours of the day for the exer2. It is no part of the punishment cise of the different classes of pria designed for prisoners, that they soners. If this separation be not should suffer from disease; that rigidly maintained, the most in


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jurious effects may be expected to His family presents a scene of filth and dis follow to the moral interests of the order; spiritless and unbappy, he is tempted prisoners. To secure cleanliness to seek abroad, the comfort which his owa both as it respects the persons of dwelling cannot give; and habits of drink. the prisoners and the prisons, is of the ing, wot unfrequently complete the wretchhighest importance. The rooms and

edness of liis condition. If such be the effect furniture should be of a kind which

ou the parents, need l enlarge on what

must be the state and character of the chil.' may easily be kept clean, and may dren! Can it be inconsistent with the liafförd little barbour for dust or ver- borty of the subject, or the rights of private min. The prison should be well properiy, to guard against such evils? To supplied with water ; each court fix, for example, a certain width for the having a pump-well and a bath, streets, and laues, and passages of a, town, with a wash-house and boiler at within which they shall not be contracted; tached is. Every prisoner tu oblige proprietors to set apart places for should be obliged to keep his per- dunghills, and means for carrying off stag. son and apparel, clean and neat :

náilt water, from the houses they let, ACeach room should be frequently and to appoint rules for keeping clean, noe

cording to their number and population; washed, and twice in the

year w.bite. washed: the courts should be wash- laves and corners of the city. These might

ouly the larger streels, but the narrowest ed more than, once every day, will be objects of public police ; and few ob. which would greatly freshen the jects

, I am persuaded, would produce a air throughout the prison; and the greater effect on the comfort, health, and straw of the beds, and the bed linen, manners of the people." pp. 11, 12., should be shifted at stated times.

Dr. Macgill condemns the plan “ The habit of cleanliness is not of giving to prisoners their allowonly conducive to health, but to ance for food in money, as pregnant decency, order, diligence, and good with a variety of evils. Their manners. This is confirmed by food, he conceives, should be disthe remark of Capt. Cook, who, de tributed to them from a general clared, that such men as he could kitchen, according to fixed rules ; induce to be more cleanly, than they and thut such a plan is both prác. were disposed to be of themselves, ticable and highly beneficial, he became at the same time more, 80

proves from the examples of the ber, more orderly, and more often poor. houses, infirmaries, and houses tive to their duty.

of correction of Glasgow and many In the same spirit are some excel- other places. No complaint has lent remarks of our author, on the there been made either of the quanstate of“ those wretched hovels which city or quality of the food, or of the the labouring classes in great; towns difficulty of excluding spirituous are obliged frequently to inhabit.”

liquors, and the consequent disors, " Pent up in the narrowest and dirtiest

dersa. This plan, if not pursued lanes; in houscs, damp, confined, airless,

with all prisoners, which our author crowded and budalled together, more like thinks, and we think with him, places for cattle ihan for nien; they breathe ought to be done, might. at least be in foul and putrid air, and lose all spirit andi pursued with such as are maintained desire for cleanliness, deceney, and order. at the public expense, which would The effect of such circumstances, not only produce much good and obviats on the health and comfort, but morals and much ovik. character of the people, is great. Those 1 3. We now come to Dr. Maghabits of decent neatness

, so important, not gill's, remarks on the attention only to comfort, bril to dignity of mind, and a maintenance of character, are lust; be.

which should be paid, in the con cause the opportunity of forming or mainstruction and management of pritaining them, is not given. The woman

sons, to the moral and religious in loses the desire to please, and sinks into a terests of the prisoners. In the first starteros Home affords few inducements to place, justice, and the ends of good La busband, after the lahours of the day: government seem to 'require, Rot

p. 17.

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