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only that a distinction should be rally of a profligare description, and one was made in the treatment of different a criminal;condemned to transpo:lation, but classes of criminals, but that their remaining in prison, on account of a luathie indiscriminate Association should be suae disense. Here there was a woman, carefully prevented. The end of comparatively respectable, compelled not
only to associate with prufigate characters, our.public institutions should be, to
but to sleep with four in the same bed, one reclaim men from vice and to pro of them a convicted criminal, whose body mote virtue. They are dreadfully was almost in a state of putrefaction! perverted when they become means " In a prison, not distinguished for negli. of corruption and nurseries of proflio .gence, I have myself seen three boys, the gacy. Such, however, is the case oldest not more than lourleen years of age, when all descriptions of persons, conlind, for a long period, in the same from the honest debtor, and the room with two hackoreyed criminals, wilo
hrad been tried, convicted, and sentenced to young, perhaps innocent and only uspected, prisoner, to the criminal these children mure ufficting, they had not
What rendered the case of
transportation. hardened in transgression, the pro; bera found guilty of any offence; they were fligate and ingenious villain, and only waiting for their trial." pp. 33, 34. the shameless and abandoned pros.
To remerty the unspeakable evils titute, are not only permitted to anising from this source, our author associate indiscriminately, but often made to sleep in the saine apart. strucieet of sufficient dimensions to
proposes that prisons shall be conments, nay, in the same beds. Every admit of a proper classification of rising hope of penitence and amende prisoners; and if any city, or meni is' thus crushed, and the county should neglect their obvious mind becomes more thoroughly duty in this respect, the law should corrupted, and more determined on conipel their attention to it. Not 'vicious pursuits. In the prisons only'should there be separate divi, even of the metropolis, crowds, sions for different descriptions of particularly of females, are hudo criminals, but every prisoner ought Wied lovether in the same room without distinction. Those who himself, to which he might, during
to have a sleeping-room allotted to only had commenced the career of the day, at all times retire. Per. 'vice are abandoned to society in
sons imprisoned for a short time for which every virtuous principle is misdemeanours, might be confined laughed to scorn: their minds are entirely to their own rooms, which polluted with indecency: new arts of would preserve them from the ge. iniquity are taught them, and new
neral infection of the prison, and Temptations presented to them. dispose them to sober thought. They issue froin prison a thousand Dr. Macgill adds,times more depraved than they enLered it.
Every prisoner, at his first imprison
ment, should be confined entirely, fur some But examples of this kind are not period, to the room allotted for him. This confined to the capital.
would enable the jailor and superintendant " In Scotland, justly distinguished for of the prison, to form some estimate of bois the purity of its principles, and the excele condition, and to determine with propriety Jence of its public institutious, still less at- the class to which lie should be assigned. It tention has been paid to the condition of would remove also the criminal, for a periud, unhappy prisoners than in England. In a from the corrupting influence of his compaprison belonging to this country, a friend of nions in vice. The silence and retirement of mine informedíme, he saw, 'during the last lis cell would dispose him to serious reflecyear, ten women confined in' ohe 'rodai, tion, and afford leisure and opportunity for where were only two beds. Among these indulging it. At such a season, and in such women, was one of a respectable character, circumstances, le might recal the evenis of contined for debt. The rest were gene. lis life, and the consequences of his crimes ;
'In England there is nuw by law'an'en. compare his days of peace with his present tire separation of debtors from felons, in fallen state; carry forward his views to the every gaul in the kingdom.
future consequences of sin; remember ile
invitation to the chief of sinners; and, with He further proposes, that suitable a full and' overflowing litart, • arise,' like rewards should be conferred on the the returning prodigal, 10 go unto his fa- industrious, and that those rewards ther.' Such have been the effects of season
should be connected as much as able correction, joined to the silence and retirement of solitude, and why ney they possible with their families. not also he felt in silence and retirement by Draw forth and keep alive, their dothe lonely prisoner ?" pp. 36, 37.
mestic affections ; let the parent scehis This solitary confinement, how. Offspring occasionally, benefiting in the ever, should not be of long dura. fruits of that employment which you encoý. tion; for when too much protracted, it rage; and convey to his family, with regular tends 10 produce dejection or sullen's attention, that assistance which liis labour ness. Persons of a more sober cha- thus soften and humanise bis beart; you will
has been enabled to procure. You will racter may be permitted to meet at inspire or keep alive those strong affections, stated hours; but the generality of which toru the most powerful incitements to prisoners should be allowed to asso- exertion and diligence. His gratitude for the ciate only in the place allotted for attentions which you pay to those who are work, or in that allotted for exercise. dear to him, will increase your influence, and It would then be easy to superintend give new force to your counsels. And he them, and one of the jailors should will experience inward satisfaction, from the always be present. A respectable consciousness that he has been enabled, in female should be placed over the the midst of all the evils of his condition, to female ward.
discharge, in some degree, the part of a Dr. Macgill proceeds to remark, which his misconduct or misfortunes have
parent, and to alleviate those distresses that prisons should be so constructed occasioned to those objects, who looked up as to afford opportunities for employ- to him for protection. Domestic affections, Inent, and encouragement for in- very hardened persons are often observed dustry; and on this subject bis occasionally to feel. And though sensuality suggestions are very valuable. They and profligacy tend to deaden and destroy are founded on the nature of mar, them, yet, sometimes in the season of reflecand are fully sanctioned by expe- tion and retirement, and particularly in rience. The outline of his plan is situations where vicious habits cannot be this:
indulged, the strong feelings of a parent
have been seen, when scarcely any other * Appropriate to the criminals, the same
sentinient seemed capable of moving him, to hours of labour which a sober workman vo. luntarily assigns to himself. Be at pains to
overpower almost wholly the wretched critind those kinds of work which are both minal.” Pp. 45, 46. profitable and suited to the skill of indi. On the means of excluding vice viduals; and where skill in uselul arts is and disorder from prisons, the views wanting, let it be taught. Open an account of our author are equally soyod and for every criminal, and let him know, that, practical. Although it is above all after deducting the expense of his maintenance, the whole profits of his labour are his should be excluded from prisons, yet
things necessary ihat drunkenness own. Finally, let every convicted criminal know, that he must remain in confinement, in many cases the men whose duty till lie las paid, by his labour, the expense of it is to restrain have an interest in his toaintenance. By such means, the most encouraging excesses; the profit of powerful inducements to industry are pres the gaoler being in proportion to sented ; inducements of a rational kind, and the sale of liquors, and this in similar to those which are presented in direct opposition to the spirit and o dinary life; the hopes of gain, the incon- iptention of the Act of Parliament; venience of debt, the certainty of advantage proportioned to present exertions. Thus that it depends on the pleasure of
ch, however, is sp loosely framed, labour is volontarily ard cheerfully per the justices whether it shall be formed, habits of industry are encouraged, and expense to the public is saved, while enforced or not. After illustrating, some wealth is acquired, and the sweets of by some curious facis, the evils of the sober industry are experienced by the present system, Dr. Macgill proposes prinuin-Is." pp. 42. 43.
is that the prohibition to sell liquors in prison should be made absolute and thor on this important point are universal, and should extend not peculiarly deserving of attention. only to gaolers, but to all persons The minister appointed to instruct whatsoever; and that no strong them must labour, not only in public liquor of any kind should be als but in private, to convey sone idea lowed to any prisoner, except such of the first truths and obligations of as may be distributed by appoint- religion to minds sunk in gross ignoment, and at the expense of the rance and stupified by vice; to public, with his food. Thus, and soften the hardened heart ; lo a. thus alone, can the many dreadful waken the dormant faculties; to evils arising from this source be exercise the conscience to discern effectually prevented; and by this good and evil; to warm and cherish system the prevention becomes easy; into life better principles and better the opportunity and excuse for hopes; to excite ihe feeling and the abuse is taken away; and, if abuses prayer of peoitence; and to open should occur, they are easily de- iheir minds to the awful yet affecting tected. Dr. Macgill proposes also views of the Cospel. To this end å the complete suppression of gaming. judicious selection of books would and the discouragement of cuarse be greatly instrumental. Every and noisy mirth.
room should be furnisbed with a The next point to which Dr. Bible, and with tracts calculated 10 Macgill adverts, as connected with interest and inform the mind. the moral and religious interests of -" With many of these,” he adds, “ we are the prisoners, is that of furnishing happily furnished, beyond most othes na the prisoners with the means of en- tions, through the pious and benevolent joying the blessing of Divine Or. labours of persons distinguished for litera. dinances and religious instruction. ture and talents
, but who have not thought it “They, of all classes of men, re- un unworthy ernployment of their powers, lo quire the benefit of religious ordi- condescend, like their great Master, to the hances and instruction, whether you iustruction of the humble. Such are many view them as unfortunate or criminal, of the works of Baxter, or Wults, and of as involved in calamity or as under Doddridge. Such, also, are some of the the power of ignorance, error, and works of many excellent persons in the depravity.”
present day. The works of Aliss More, in
this view, ought particularly to be memion" When we consider the temporal evils of ed; wbo, iu that valuable collection, called a state of ignorance and depravity, the im. the Cheap Repository, has blended instrucportance of religion and virtue to the present tion with entertainment; and in such a happiness of individuals and of nations, we manner, as is intelligible, and interesting to may perceive strong motives for spreading the poor and illiterate, yet, may please and and maintaining among men of every class, improve the most enlightened and refined.”' the knowledge and the power of the Gospel. p. 67. But when we look forward to eternity; Dr. Macgill concludes this head eunsider the future consequences of sin, the with some valuable observations on salvation provided by God, and by means the importance of order and equitaof such infnite magnitude, the accumulated ble discipline, directed by wise and evil which may be incurred, the perfection known rules, in the conduct of and the bliss which may be obtained; and with these consider the spiric and the prisons; and he exemplifies his own character required in the followers of Hiin views on this subject by transcribing who came to save the lost, and call sinners a part of the rules of the couply to repentance; we must feel the obligation gaols of Lancaster and Berks, which of furnishing to unfortunate prisoners, the appear to be very admirably framed. blessings of religious ordinances and instruc- The best plans, however, will prove tion, to be of the first.importance, enforced, unavailing without a constant and by every consideration which is nost sacred vigilant superintendence. Much in the estimation of Christians.”, p. 61. *** will depend on the judicious choice
The recommendations of our aue of a head gaoler and his servants, Opportunities must often arise of are regularly carried on; " nor have cluding the vigilance of magistrales; active and benevolent citizens ever and opportunities of doing good been wanting to accomplish them niost also frequently occur lo such with ability and success.” persons. The very manner and This great work, however, in or. example of a good man are calcu der to be properly conducted, should Jared to operate beneficially on the be made a national concern, avd most hardened. Persans of so- with this view, annual reports should briety, integrity, fortitude, prudence, be made to Parliament of tbe statie and intelligence, joined to a humane and circumstances of every prison in and religious spirit, should there the kingdom; and the result of the fore be selected for this important whole, after having been exaniined office. And to facilitate such ap by a Committee, taid, with their pointments, the odium attached to observations, on the table of both keepers of prisons should be re- Houses. The advantages arising moved; the very name of gaoler from the experience of one part of should be changed for that of the kingdom, would thus be made governor; respectable salaries should known and communicated to anbe annexed to this otlice, and indeed other. The subject would be kept to all the offices; and fees of every continually in the view of the pubkind should be abolished. A super- fit; nor woold evils, sbocking to intendance of a still higher nature humanity, be allowed by wise and must, however, be provided, in good men to exist in their neighorder to prevent abuses, and secure boorhood, without means being em. the good management of prisons; ployed to remedy and remove them. and this superiotendance must be No general or effecwal remedy, how, vigilant and regular. In addition ever, will ever be adopted, without to the watchful inspection of the legislatire interference. « The powe magistrates themselves, Dr. Macgill er of the nation alone has energy to proposes that they should appoint overturn and sweep away those inan inspector, without a salary, veterate abuses, 'which have so long whose reward should be the con- and generally prevailed; to introfidence of his fellow-citizens, and duce a system worthy of a free and the opportuully atforded him of Christian country; to set it in opedoing good; and whore duty it ration, and to render it universally should be to visit the prison at all effectual.” hours, and to inspect every part of We have thus laid before our its economy. Besides this, there readers a succinct view of the inler. may be a yearly Jist of thirty or esting pamphlet of Dr. Macgill.; forty visitors; one of whom, in turn, and we have no hesitation in saying, shail visit the prison every day, and that we think he bas earned great mark his report in a book provided credit by the good sense, benevo. for the purpose; and on each Salur. lence, and piety which have guided day the seven visitors of the week him in this effort to succour the may meet the inspector, for the wretched and reform the vicious. At purpose of conferring on the reports the same time we think it possible, of the weók, and taking 'such mea- that Dr. Macgill may not be aware sures as circumstances may require. of the extent to which the beneficial The "rouble attending this plan reforms he has suggested have been would be small, excepting to the already carnied in many of our coun inspector; but we agree, with Dr. ty igauls. In some of them, as in: Macgill, that many excellent men those of Gloucester, Lancaster, &c. might be found in tvery oity and there is scarcely any thing left for county in Britain both able and hutounity roodesite. Not only bas willing to undertake the task. In the plan on which they are conGlasgow plans of a similar nature strecued been iframed with a sciupulous attention to all the sugges food, not limited in quantity, but iions of the benevolent Howard, but adequate to each man's desire. the vigilance with which all its move- “ 2d. To keep them clad in a meats are watched and controuled, state of tightness and neatness, supereflects on the magistracy a portion rior to what is usual even in the most of his praise. The acknowledged improved
prisons. success however, in so inany in- « 3d. To keep them supplied with stances, of the improved system so separate beds and bedding compe. strongly recommended by Dr. Mac- tent to their situations, and in a state gill, furnishes, it must be admitted, of cleanliness scarcely any where the most powerful motive, as well as conjoined with liberty. argument for its oviversal and au- " 4th. To insure them a sufficient iboritative adoption; and for the supply of artificial warmth and light perpetual and wakeful superinten- whenever the season renders it nedance of our grand national inquest, cessary, and thereby save the necesby means of the proposed reports, sity of taking them prematurely over these receptacles of misery and from their work at such seasons (as crime, about to become, we trust, in other places), as weli as preservthrough such superintendance, the ing them from suffering by the in means of very largely contributing clemehcy of the weather. in diminish the general amount of “ 5th. To keep constantly from both these evils.
them, in conformity to the practice Bat, besides the dne regulation of so happily received, every kind of bur, prisons, there ig another large strong and spirituous liquors, unless question on which Dr. Macgill has when ordered in the way of menot entered, but which is closely dicine. connected with it; we mean, the best ** 6th. To maintain them in a state mode of employing and reforming of inviolable, though mitigated, som convicrs. Our readers have probably clusion, in assorted companies, with beard of a proposal on this subject, out any of those opportunities of which was submitted to the Lords promiscuous association, which in of the Treasury, about fifteen or other places disturb, if not destroy, twenty years ago, by Jeremy Ben. whatever good effect can have been tham, Esq. That gentleman bad expected from occasional solitude. turned his thoughts to the Penitenti- «: 7th. To give them interest in ary system from its origin; and had their work, by allowing them a share contrived a building in which any in the produce. number of persons might be kept, "8th. To convert the prison into within the reach of being inspected, a school, and, by extended applicadarioy every moment of their lives. tion of the principle of the Sunday He proposed to be himself at the Schools, to return its inhabitanis expense of etecting and fitting up a into tbe world instructed, at least as building of this kind, where he well as in ordinary schools, in the would maintain and employ all the most useful branches of vulgar convicts now confined on board the learning, as well as in some trade of bulks or transported to Botany Bay, occupation, whereby they may afterat 25 per cent less than it now costs wards earn their livelihood. government to do so, dedacting also: "9th. To pay a penal sun for the average value of the labour per erery escape, with or without any formed by them ; merely on the terms default of his, irresistible violence of his receiving the produce of their from without excepted, and tbig laboar. On these terms he engaged without employing irons on any oc. as follows:
casion, or in any shape. “ ist. To furnisl the prisoners ** Toth. To provide them with spiwith a constant supply of wholesome ritual and medical assistants, cone.