« ΠροηγούμενηΣυνέχεια »
nouncing absolutely and for ever, the different governments of Europe the practice which she had had their minds fully awake to the reprobated?
awful emphasis of this denunciation ! * A conditional restoration of her 6. We adverted briefly in our culopies, France," we are told, last Number to the argument drawn “ would consider as a deep disgrace." from the case of Portugal; but we This is urged as a defence of the con- omilied to notice that of Spain. It duct of Great Britain in restoring to is said, that the renunciation of the France her colonies, without annex- slave irade by the French would ing to that restoration the condition have done liule for the cause of of abolishing the slave trade. But, humanity, while Spain and Portugal not to repeat that the voluntary were permitted to carry it on. Withabolition of the slave trade and out doubt, there is moch force in surely credit might have been taken this argument. But then, as we for its being a voluntary acı) would stated in our last Number, Portugal have been most highly honourable has already relinquished her right to France; if we look at other parts of trading for slaves on 1500 miles of the Treaty, we shall not find that of the coast of Africa, the very disthis fear of humiliating and degrad. trict where, having succeeded in ing her has had any thing like an nearly extinguishing the slave trade, uniform and consistent operation. We had begun to establish a beneDoes not France, in fact, feel herself ficial commerce, and to plant schools, humbled and degraded by our re- missions, &c. but where, now, the tention of the Mauritius, and by the slave trade is likely to revive in all its hard conditions under which her fury. As for Spain, although she settlements in India are restored to has not formally interdicted the her? No man can believe that these trade herself, yet it has been aboslipulations were voluntarily sub- lished by several of her South Amemitted to on the part of France: rican provinces ; by all, indeed, who nay, every man must believe that have had any material share in it; they were actually forced upon her. namely, the Caraccas, Buenos Ayres, The case admits of no other suppo- and Chili; and now it is only her sition. Not so in respect of the total islands of Cuba and Porto Rico abolition of the slave trade, sup- which may be considered as having posiog it to have been acceded io. an interest in its continuance. And There she might have appeared a even with respect to these islands, free agent, and might have acquired the trade wbich is carried on for fresh glory by every sacrifice she their supply proves to be not a bona made. And surely it will be ad- fide Spanish irade, but a trade dismitted, that, however momentous guised by the Spanish flag, and might be those Oriental interests actually belonging either 10 North which required the imposition on American or British subjects. A France of the conditions to wbich satisfactory proof of this fact is to we have alluded, there were interests be found in the circumstance, that liule less momentous, even in the although many vessels, we believe narrow view of a
mere worldly indeed all vessels, found trading for policy, for resisting the revival of slaves under the Spanish flag, have ber slave trade ;- but interests infi- been captured and condemned in pitely more important in the eyes our Admiralty Courts; yet none of of those who regard as invaluable them have been successfully rethe favour of Him by whom kings claimed. It is also a well-known fact, reign, and who, we are assured, will that previous to the abolition of this give pernianence to no throne of trade by Great Britain and the which righteousness is not the stay. United States of America, there were • Woe to him that buildeth a town no Spanish slave ships. Only one with blood, and establisheth a city ship wearing a Spanish flag is said by iniquity!" Would to God sbag to have appeared on the coast of Africa during the preceding centory: the great interests that are at stake, The Spaniards bought slaves indeed it did seem to os important both from other nations; but they them- that the real nature of the evils selves carried on no trade for slaves likely to flow from this article on the coast of Africa. This point shouid be fully understood; and that should be clearly understood, in the validity of the arguments which border to appreciate the extent of the have been urged in its defence mischief caused by the revival of the shoult be examined, as far as we French slave trade.
- have the means of examining them. Let it not, however, be thought, But having discharged what we from any thing we have said, have considered our duty in this that we undervalue the evils arising respect, we should think ourselves from the continuance of this trade guilty of the greatest injustice if we by Spain and Portugal. Very far did not state that the whole confrom it. Those evils are of a de. duct of bis Majesty's Ministers in scription which, we think, would relation to this question, since it has have fully justified our Government become the subject of public and even in requiring from them an en- parliamentary discussion, has been tire renunciation of this trade as the in the highest degree honourable to price of our alliance. But does this them. They have shewn a remarkeircumstance render it less a subject able measure of candour throughout ef deep regret and disappointment the whole of the discussions, and that a whole host of fresh evils have appeared actuated by a sincere should be let loose upon Africa, and desire to prevent as far as possible should visit even chat part of it the evils to be apprehended from: where the Portugueze slave trade the treaty. They have cordially had ceased to have any legal, and concurred in Addresses to the Prince the Spanish any practical, exist. Regent from both Houses of Parence ; but where the revival of it by Jiament, which have been'answered the French will have the effect also by ibe most gracious assurances on of reviving it by Portugal? Ouf his part, of employing his best hope was that the conduct of offices, both with France and at the France, instead of heaping fresh General Congress, to procure the miseries on Afriea, would have fur- total abolition of the 'slate trade. nished a new and powerful argu- In short, the whole tone of their ment with Spain and Portugal for proceedings in Parliament has been concurring in the total abolition. such as lo generate a strong hope,
The object of these remarks is by and even confidence, that much may no means to throw any censure on yet be done, if not to effect imme. his Majesty's miyisters, but to justify diately an universal abolition, at the view which we ourselves were least to secure that object ultimately led to take, in our last number, of this within the period mentioned in the article in the treaty. To his Majesty's treaty; and in the mean time to inipisters, 'we, in common wiih ihe obtain such modifications as shall country at large, are under the bighest 'very materially alleviate the evil. obligations; and although in his par- It cannot fail to strengthen their ticular instance we cannot but deeply hands in this great cause, that the deplore the engagements into which Parliament of Great Britain and the they have entered, we should gladly great body of the people are so have avoided, had it been possible, entirely united in sentiment respect every expression which might seem ing it." In Parliament, not one word: in the remotest degree to inculpaté 'has been heard, throughout the long then, until they should be at liberty, and warm discussions which have which they declare themselves not taken place upon it, in favour of the to be at present, to lay before trade iiself; it has been the subject Parliament all the reasons of their of universal and unreserved reprobaconduct. With a view, however, to tion. And as to the people, iba
deep interest which they take in but the King proposes the laws to either
the question is sufficiently evinced chamber, except in cases of taxation, which By the altogether unexampled ex
are addressed first to the Deputies, and, after 'tent of the petitions which they have being freely discussed, they must be vored addressed to both Houses of Parlia. by a majority of both Chambers. The
Chambers, however, may supplicate the ment, and which, numerous and
King to propose a law, provided both the numerously signed as they are, we
Chambers agree to do so. The nomination : believe, would have been doubled of llie Peers belongs to tlre king; their
but for an impression produced number is not limited, and they may be in many places that the early assur- either for life or hereditary: they have no ances of his Royal Highness the voice before 30 years of age. All the deliPrince Regent on this subject bad berations of the Peers are secret. The superseded their necessity.
Deputies are to be elected for hve years, and We again take our leave of this in such a manner that a fifth shall be renewed subject, with offering up our earnest
every year. None are eligible who have prayers to the Almighty Disposer of not reached the age of 40, and do not pay a
direct contribution of 1000 francs. The events, who bas in his hands the
Electors of these Deputies must not be under hearts of all men, that he would in
30 years of age, and must pay direct taxes cline tbe kings of the eartb, who have to the amount of 300 francs. The Presithemselves been such signal monu- dent of the Chamber is selected by the King ments of bis mercy, 10 extend their from five persons presented to him. The compassions to the wretched inhas sittings of the Chamber are public, fbut the bitants of the African Continent. demand of four members may form it into a And we are the more earnest in
secret sitting. No amendment can be made
in a law unless it is proposed in a Committee offering up this prayer, because we cannot believe that the thrones, committees. No tax can be raised but by
by the King, and also discussed in the which in so remarkable a mamer
the consent of both Houses, and the sanction have been re-erected, will prove of the king. The King cunvokes, and „very stable, if their possessors should prorogues the two Chambers; and may disresist the powerful appeal. which is solve that of tire Deputies, but he must in Dow made to their hamanity, and that case convoke another in three inbuths. justice.
The members of both Houses are to be free
from personal constraint, and can only be FRANCE
tried criminally (unless taken in the very The Constitution which has been finally fact) with the consent of their respective adopted for France differs in some material houses. The Ministers of State may be circumstances, from that which was hastily members of either house, and must be heard proposed to the acceptance of Louis the in both if they require it. The Chamber of XVIII., in the first moments of the Counter- Deputies may impeach ministers, who shall Revolution, and of which we gave an ac- be judged by the Chamber of Peers. The count in our Number for April. The civil Judges are appoimed by the King, and are equality of all Frenchnen, the liberig of all irremoveable. Trials are to be public, and forms of religiou (the ministers of the Ca- by jury. The King may parrion. The mic tholic religion, and of other Christian litary retain their rank, &c. The public worships, alone receiving salaries from the debt is guaranteed. The ancient nobility State), tbe inviolability of person aud sesume their titles; the new preserve theirs, property but by due course of law, the The King may confer new tiles. freedom of the press under restrictions to be Such is the outline of this new Constitu. hereafter fixed, and the abolition of the tion; and we are disposed to think, that it is conscription, are declared to be among the probably as free as the circumstances of public rights of Frenchmen. The executice France will adasit of. in regulating that power resides in the king: his person is part of it which refers to the press, and inviolable, but his ministers are responsible. which has been done by a subseqpent law, He is supreme head of the stale, commands the restrictions imposed on its freedom the forces, declares war, makes treaties, and are certainly far more rigid than would appoints to all offices without exception. be thought right in this country. All works The legislative power resides in the King, the containing less than thirty sheets, which Charuber of Peers, and the Chamber of of course include journals of every kind, Deputies of the Departments collectively, are previously subjected to a censorship.
In the present unseuled sla'e of France, a plenitude of its former power. The men who restriction less rigid might pussibly com- 80 gallantly slemmed the tide of foreign promise too much the public safety. usurpation are proscribed, imprisoned, and
An Exposée of ibe state of the nation exiled, or condemned to an ignominious has been laid before the Chamber of De- death, Spain seems to require the. purifying puties by the Minister of the Interior ; and fires of another revolution. it exhibits a melancholy picture of the dilapidaied condition of the French resources.
UNITED STATES. The particulars we wust defer till our next Nothing decisive has yet occured in this Number.
quarter. A large military and naval force SPAIN.
has been sent thither, and we may expect It is painful to turn our eyes to this soon 10 hear that the campaign has been country. The entire deliverance of it froin vigorously opened. The Essex American the Fiench yoke, and ille returu of Ferdi- frigate has been taken by the Phæbe, on nand VII. to his capital, seem to have only the coast of Chili.— The wegociations with facilitated the restoration of every abuse America are about to be opened at Ghent. which formerly existed in this country. The We earnestly wish that they may terminate Inquisition is reinstated with all its terrific in a solid peace.-We have lost one sloop allributes. The Church is restored to the of war, and the Americans another.
GREAT BRITAIN, 1. The last two months have proved a that kingdom, embracing the education of period of extraordinary festivity in this the lower classes, which should lay a soliat country. The presence of the allied So. fouudation on which to erect the fabric of vereigns and of many of those distinguished order, rational freedom, and social happiness. military commanders who liad fought and It is painful to contemplate the necessiiy conquered under their auspices; the spec- which is continually arising for the employfacles exhibited for their anzusement; the nient of military force to keep ihe passions eagerness of the population of the metro. of the populace within any bounds conpolis, swelled by an immense accession of sistent with the general safety. The subject numbers frons all parts of the kindom, to is one which deserves to engage the serious behold these interesting foreigners ; ite consideration of our ablest statesten, splendid illuminations which celebrated the 3. We have already briefly alluded to jeturn of peace, and the still wore splendid the trial and conviction of Lord Cochrane, exhibitions which are preparing for its Mr. C. Johnstone, and seven others, for a further celebration, bave given to the period conspiracy to defraud ibe public. No one, it of which we speak, a character of universal seems to us, can read the account given of joyousness and dissipation. Nor have these The trial, or the remarks made upou it in proceedings been confined to the metropolis. Parliament, and retain a doubt of the guikt Almost every village in the kingdom has had of the parties. Having been expelled its fele, and has celebrated, in concurrence from the House of Commons, the Electors with the aietropolis, the great events which of Westminster, without reading the trial or have changed the face of Europe. We mean hearing it read, but merely on the assertion not at presenl to disturb the general joy by of Lord Cochrane himself, came to au unaany discordant nole. We long, however, 10 nimous resolution, declaring bim innocent, see a speedy return of all classes to the sober, and pronouncing him to be a fit person to quict, and noiseless liabits of the family represent them in Parliament. He has accircle; and we should rejoice to find that cordingly been re-elected.—We have here a the distinguished mercies which have called good specimen of the nature of' wliat may forth such universal expressions of exulla. be called Mobocracy ; in other words, a livu had left that lasting feeling of gratitude government composed of the Electors of to the Giver of all good, which would lead Westminster. A man is found guilty, after men to adure lois Majesty, to submit to his a patient and solenın examination of his authority, and to overflow in acts of kindness whole case by a jury of his peers, acting on to their fellow-creatures,
their oaib, in the presence of judges whose 2. The disturbed state of some parts of knowledge and uprightuess are vuimpeachIrelaud has led to the necessity of enacting able. The Electors of Westn.inster, on the a fresh law for the preservation of the peace statement of Lord Cochrane; a statement in that quarter, by which the magistrales notoriously false in some of its parts, and are armed with extraordinary powers. We unsupported by proof in all; proceed to ardenly wish that a liberal and well-digested arraign the verdict of this jury, and 10 Course of policy might be adopted towards pronounce Lord Cuchrage au injured and an innocent man. Were such a system as fortitude which, in perilous tipes, when this to prevail, it is obvious there would be gloom and doubt had beset ordinary ninds, an end at once to all the securities we enjoy, stood, nevertheless, unshakeri ;---and that under our happy constitution, for property, ascendancy of character, which, uniting tho and even for lite itself.-We are glad to find energies of jealous and rival nations, enabled that the ignominious pari of the punishment you to wield, at will, the fate and fortunes to which Lord Cochrane and his accomplices of mighty empites. were sentenced, namely, the pillory, bas " For the repeated Thanks and Grants been remitted,
bestowed upon you by this House, in grali4. The Duke of Wellington has been re- tude for your many and eminent services, ceived on his return to Great Britain with you have thought fit tliis day to offer us the most distinguished honours. All classes your acknowledgments; but this nation of the conmunity hare vied with each other well knows that it is still largely your debtor, in testifying their respect and admiration of It owes to you the proud satisfaction, that, the hero who has been the grand instru- amidst the constellation of Illustrious Warment, in the hands of Divine Providence, of riors, who have recently visited our country, producing the happy results we have wit
we could present to them a Leader of our nessed, and wliose splendid achievements own, to whom all, by common acclamation, have shed unnumbered rays of glory around conceded the pre-eminence; and when the lois country. He appeared in person in the will of Ileaven, and the common destinies House of Commons to return liis acknowledge of our nature, shall have swept away the ments for the thanks they had couferred upon present generation, you will have left your him, and the rewards they had bestowed on great name an imperishable monument, exhis services. He was received with un- citing others to like deeds of glory, and bounded acclamations. The address of the serving at once to adorn, defend, and perpe. Speaker on the occasion was peculiarly im- tuare, the existenee of this country amongst pressive.
the ruling nations of the earli. “ My Lord,
-Since last I had the ho- “ It now remains only, that we congranour of addressing you from this place, a tulate your Grace upon the high and impurseries of eventful years has elapsed; but tant mission on which you are about to none without sorue mark and note of your proceed* ; and we doubt not, that the rising glory.
same splendid talents, so conspicuous in war, “ The military triumphs which your will maintain with equal authority, firmness, valour has achieved upon the banks of and temper, our national honour and interthe Douro and the Tagus, of the Ebro and ests in peace." the Garonne, bare called forth the spon- 5. The sum of 100,000!, has been voted taneous shouts of admiring nations. Those by Parliament for the relief of the German triumphs it is needless on this day to re- sufferers. count. Their names have been written by 6. The Congress will be opened at Vienna your conquering sword in the annals of about the end of September. Lord CastleEurope, and we shall land them down with reagh is to go thither on the part of this exultation to our children's children.
country. We place much confidence in his " It is noi, however, the grandeur of exertions in favour of Africa, backed as he military success which has alone fixed our will be by the principal sovereigns of admiration, or commanded our applause; it Europe, and carrying with liom the unanie has been that generous and lofty spiritmous sentiments of the British Parliament whicli inspired your troops with unbounded and the British Public. confidence, and taught them to know that the day of battle was always a day of vic- * The Duke of Wellington is about 10 tory; that inoral courage and enduring proceed as Ambassador to France.
SIR WILLIAMI DOLBEN. versity of Oxford during many Died, on the 201h of March, at successive Parliaments, and was a Bury St. Edmund's, in the 88th member of the House of Commons year of his age, Sir William Dole nearly fifty years. In public lile ben, Bart. of Finedon in Northamp- he was uniformly upright, active, tonsbire; who represented the Uaiand independent; warmly attached