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Ira motus. Excited by anger or Irresistible force. Overwhelming passion.

force, as that of a mob. Ire ad largum. To go at large. Irresistible impulse. The absence of Irish gavelkind. Tenure by which sufficient mental power to choose

on the proprietor's death there between right and wrong. See 95 was a fresh division of all the Me. 467, 55 L. R. A. 373, 50 Atl.

lands in the district including his. 276. Irrecusable. Obligated contractually Irrevocable. That which cannot be without one's consent. See 8 Harv. recalled or revoked. Law Rev. 200.

Irrevocable license. One in the exIrregular deposit. A deposit where

ercise of which the licensee has in the equivalent and not the thing

made improvements or invested itself is to be returned.

capital. See 87 Cal. 126, 22 Am. Irregular heirs. (Civil Law) Those

St. Rey. 234, 11 L. R. A. 134, 25 who take by statute when there

Pac. 268, one connected with an are neither testamentary heirs nor interest or grant. See 22 Am. St. legal heirs. See Legal heir.

Rep. 238, note. Irregular indorsement. An indorse

Irrigation. Artificial watering of ment on a negotiable instrument

agricultural land. written above that of the payee, by which the indorser assumes

Irritancy. Becoming void. full liability. See 61 Vt. 106, 2 Irritant. Rendering void. L. R. A. 428, 17 Atl. 42.

Irritant clause. A condition the Irregular judgment. One contrary happening of which avoids the in

to the course and practice of the strument. courts, valid until vacated. See

Irritus. Ineffectual; void. 123 N. C. 19, 68 Am. St. Rep. 815, 31 S. E. 265.

Irrogare. To impose; to levy. .

Irrotulatio. An enrollment; a recIrregular process. Voidable process.

ord; a roll. See 2 Ind. 252.

Is cui cognoscitur. The cognizee. Irregularity. The failure to observe

See Fine of land. that particular course of proceeding which, conformable with the

Is qui cognoscit. The cognizor. See practice of the court, ought to

Fine of land. have been observed. See 86 Kan. Issint. Thus. 632, Ann. Cas. 1913C, 242, 52. L. Issuable. Creating an issue of fact

R. A. (N. S.) 1161, 121 Pac. 1094. in pleading. Irrelevant. Not. pertinent; without Issuable plea. A plea which goes to

relation to the matter in issue; the merits of the case. See 14 redundant. See 18 N. Y. 315, 72 N. J. L. 344. Am. Dec. 515.

Issuable terms. Terms of court at Irreparable injury. That which can which the issues were made up

not be measured by any known for the assizes. See 3 Bl. Comm. pecuniary standard. See 67 Md. 350. 44, 1 Am. St. Rep. 368, and note, Issue. Heirs of the body; lineal de8 Atl. 901.

scendants. See 105 Pa. St. 200, 51 Irrepleviable. Incapable of being Am. Rep. 197. A claim of law or replevied.

fact asserted in an action by one



party and denied by the other. positio. Let the reference always See 23 Wend. (N. Y.) 363.

be so made that the disposition Issue in fact. An issue of law pre may be valid.

sented by demurrer or an issue of Ita te Deus adjuvet. So help you fact made by a plea. See 27 W. God. Va. 456.

Ita utere tuo ut alienum non laedas. . Issue in law. An issue raising a

So use your own that you do not point or question of law to be de

destroy another's. termined by the court.

Item. Also; likewise; any particuIssue joined. An issue of fact

lar charge contained in an acreached by the parties in their

count; a word used to introduce a pleadings.

new clause in a will. Issue roll. A record upon which the Iter. A way; a right of way; the

issues were entered as soon as they journey of a judge on his circuit. were reached.

Iter est jus eundi, ambulandi homi. Issues. Rents and profits of realty.

·nis, non etiam jumentum agendi See 102 Pa. St. 235.

vel vehiculum. A way is a right Ita. Thus; so.

of going or walking by man and Ita est. It is thus; it is so.

not of driving a beast of burden Ita lex scripta est. Thus the law or a vehicle.

is written. See 58 Conn. 174, 7 Iteratio. A repetition. L. R. A. 693, 20 Atl. 440.

Itinera. Plural of Iter; circuits. Ita quod. So that.

Itinerant. Wandering; traveling; Ita semper fiat relatio ut valeat dis- one who roams or travels.




J. Abbreviation for "judge."

Jail liberties. Same as Gaol liberJ. A. Judge advocate.

ties. J. K. B. Justice of the king's Jail limits. Same as Gaol liberties. bench.

James I. King of England, 1603– J. P. Justice of the peace.

1625. J. Q. B. Justice of the queen's

James II. King of England, 1683– bench.

1689. Ja. Now; yet.

Jamunlingi, or Jamundilingi. FreeJac. James, King of England.

men who subjected themselves

and their property to service for Jacens. Lying down; in abeyance.

protection. Jacens haereditas. An inheritance

Janitor. A doorkeeper. in abeyance.

Javelour. A jailer. Jacet in ore. It lies in the mouth.

Jedburgh justice. Execution of a Jack Ketch. An English hangman

prisoner without trial. or executioner.

Jeddart justice. Same as JedJack of Lent. An effigy personify

burgh justice. ing Lent.

Jedwood justice. Same as JedJactitation. An involuntary con

burgh justice. vulsive muscular movement. See 46 La. Ann. 1189, 49 Am. St. Rep.

Jeofail or Jeofaile. A mistake or 348, 24 L. R. A. 589, 15 South.

error in a pleading 388. A false boast.

Jeofails, Statute of. See Statute of Jactitation of marriage. A false

Jeofails. boasting of one's marriage. See Jeopardy. One is in jeopardy when2 Bl. Comm. 93.

ever, upon a valid indictment, in Jactitation of tithes. A false boast.

a court of competent jurisdiction, ing of one's right to tithes.

and before a legally constituted

jury, his trial has been fairly enJactivus. Thrown away; lost.

tered upon. See 21 Am. Dec. 505, Jactura. Jettison; loss thereby.

note. See Jettison.

Jepardy. Same as Jeopardy. Jactus. Jettison, which see. See,

Jerguer. An English customs offialso, 51 U. S. 270, 13 L. Ed. 417.

cer. Jactus lapilli. Throwing down 4

Jet. Jettison, which see. stone, a symbolic act to bar the

Jetsam. Same as Jettison. acquisition of an adverse prescriptive right or title.

Jetsom. Same as Jettison. Jail. A prison; more especially Jetsome. Same as Jettison.

one for the incarceration of mis- Jettage. A tax laid on incoming demeanants and the detention of ships. persons awaiting trial for any Jettison. The throwing goods overcrime. See 89 N. C. 531.

board for the preservation of the Jail delivery. Same as Gaol deliv ship and cargo. See 86 Am. Dec. ery.

500, note.



Jetty. A sort of dam intended to deflect the current of a stream, so as to deepen the channel or form an eddy below, thereby extending the bank. See 48 Or. 444, 120 Am. St. Rep. 827, 7 L. R. A.

(N. S.) 344, 87 Pac. 151. Jeux de Bourse. Speculations. Jim Crow car. A street or railway

car for exclusive accommodation

of negroes. Jimmy. A burglar's prying-bar. JJ. Abbreviation for "judges." Jobber. One who buys from im

porters and sells to retailers. See

4 Sand. Ch. (N. Y.) 587. Jocalia. Jewels. Jocelet. A small farm. Jocus. A game of chance. Jocus partitus. An ancient means

of deciding a case by chance. John. · King of England, 1199–1216. John Doe. A fictitious name often

substituted in a proceeding for a

real one until it is ascertained. John Doe warrant. A warrant of

arrest which describes the defend

ant by a fictitious name. Join. To act jointly with another.

See 96 Tex. 341, 97 Am. St. Rep.

911, 72 S. W. 583. Joinder. To act jointly with; to

join. Joinder in demurrer. The formal

acceptance by the adverse party of the issue of law tendered by a

demurrer. Joinder in issue. The formal ac

ceptance of the tender of an issue

of fact. See Similiter. Joinder of actions. A consolida

tion or union of two or more

causes of action in one action. Joinder of causes of action. The

pleading of more than one cause of action in one declaration.

Joinder of issue. Joinder in issue,

which see. Joinder of offenses. The charging Toind

of more than one offense in an in

dictment or information. Joinder of parties. The joining of

persons as coplaintiffs or code

fendants. Joint. United; sharing an interest; • sharing liability. Joint action. An action maintained · or defended by two or more. Joint adventure. A business enter

prise shared by two or more. Joint and several bond. A bond in

which the obligors are bound both jointly and individually for the

full amount. Joint bond. A bond in which the

obligors are only liable in combination and not severally. See 25 R. I. 289, 105 Am. St. Rep. 890, 63

L. R. A. (R. I.) 235, 55 Atl. 750. Joint contract. A contract in which

either the promisors or the prom

isees are jointly bound. Joint creditors. Creditors who can

only enforce their claims by

joining together. Joint debtors. Persons jointly lia·ble. See 51 Ohio St. 462, 38 N. E.

381. Joint executor. Same as Coexecu

tor. Joint fiat. A fiat in bankruptcy

against partners. See Fiat 11 · bankruptcy. Joint fine. A fine imposed upon

two or more jointly. Joint heir. Same as Coheir. Joint indictment. An indictment

against two or more parties to the

crime charged. Joint lives. A period ending upon

the death of anyone of the persons named.



Joint tenancy. An estate held by Jour en banc. A day in bank. See

two or more persons jointly, so In bank. that during the lives of all they

Journal. A day-book; a book for are equally entitled to the enjoy.

record of daily transactions; a ment of the land, or its equiva

log-book of a ship. lent in rents and profits; but on the death of one, his share vests Journée. A court day. in the survivor or survivors until Journey. A day's travel; a travelthere is but one survivor, when ing from place to place. See 53 the estate is his in severalty, Ala. 521, 25 Am. Rep. 652. See 135 Ind. 178, 41 Am. St. Rep.. 422, 22 L. R. A. 42, 34 N. E. 999.

Journeyman. A day laborer. Joint tenants. The co-owners of a

Journeys account. An old English

writ issued to revive an abated joint tenancy.

one. See 8 Cranch (U. S.), 84, Joint trespassers. Persons uniting 3 L. Ed. 496. in a trespass.

Journey-work. Work by the day. Joint trustees. Joint holders of a trust.

Jubere. To order. Joint will. One executed jointly Jubilacion. (Spanish) An officer's

by several owners as a means of retirement, keeping title and saltransferring their several titles to ary. one devisee. See 136 Am. St. Judaismus. The Jewish religion. Rep. 593, note.

Judex. A judge. Jointress. A wife upon whom a Judex a quo. A judge from whom,

jointure has been settled. See i. e., from whose court, a cause Jointure

has been removed. Joint-stock bank. A joint-stock com- Judex ad quem. A judge to whom, pany engaged in banking.

i. e., to whose court, a cause has Joint-stock company. An associa been removed.

tion of individuals for profit, with Judex aequitatem semper spectare a common capital contributed by

debet. A judge ought always to them, commonly divided into

regard equity. shares of which each holds one or

Judex ante oculos aequitatem semmore, transferable by the owner,

per habere debet. A judge ought the business being under the con.

always to have equity before his trol of their selected directors.

eyes. See 80 Tex. 261, 26 Am. St. Rep.

Judex bonus nihil ex arbitrio suo 735, 16 S. W. 43.

faciat, nec propositione domestiJoint-stock corporation. A corpora

cae voluntatis, sed juxta leges et tion whose capital is divided into

jura pronunciet. A good judge shares.

should do nothing from his own Jointure. An antenuptial settle

choice, nor from a prompting of ment upon a husband and wife

his private wish, but he should jointly or upon the wife alone to adjudge according to laws and take effect at his death. See 67

justice. Hun, 329, 22 N. Y. Supp. 299.

Judex damnatur cum nocens absolviJointuress. Same as Jointress.

tur. A judge is condemned when Jour. A day.

a guilty man is acquitted.

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