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Accusare nemo se debet, nisi coram · Deo. No one is bound to accuse
himself, unless before God. Accusation. A charge of the com
mission of a criminal offense. Accusator post rationabile tempus
non est audiendus, nisi se bene de omissione excusaverit. After lapse of a reasonable time, an accuser should not be heard unless he shall
well have explained his delay. Accused. One charged with having
commited a criminal offense. Achat or Achate. A purchase. Acherset. An old English corn measure, probably equivalent to
about eight bushels. Acknowledge. To make an acknowl.
edgment. Acknowledgment. A statement made
before, and certified by, a notary or other officer that a deed or other instrument was executed by the person making such state. ment; or a statement by a subscribing witness thus made and certified. See 15 Am. St. Rep.
Act of bankruptcy. An act by the
doing of which a debtor may be
declared a bankrupt. Act of commission. An act of posi.
tive motion as distinguished from
an omission. Act of God. An unusual force of
nature, as an earthquake or a tornado. See 22 Am. St. Rep. 403;
also 4 Ann. Cas. 128. Act of insolvency. An act by the
doing of which a debtor may be declared insolvent. See. 5 Biss.
504; Fed. Cas. No. 9051. Act of law. Operation of law.. Act of omission. The failure to per
form an act. Act of settlement. An English stat
ute affecting the royal succession. Act of supremacy. An English stat
ute establishing the supremacy of
the king over the church. Act of uniformity. A statute esA
tablishing uniform services in the
Church of England. Act on petition. An English summary proceeding in admiralty
cases. Acta diurna. Done on this day.
Daily records of transactions. Acta exteriora indicant interiora
secreta. One's outward acts show
his intent. Acta in uno judicio non probant in
alio nisi inter easdem personas. The proceedings in one action are not evidence in another unless it
is between the same parties. Acta publica. Matters of public
concern. Actio. An action at law; a right to
sue, Actio ad exhibendum. A Romar
law action to compel the production of goods in the defendant's
control. Actio bonae fidei. An action in good
faith. Actio commodati contraria. A
Roman law action by a borrower against a lender to enforce their contract.
Acknowledgment money. Money paid
to the new lord by a copy hold tenant on the death of the old
lord. Acquest. Newly acquired property. Acquets. That portion of one's prop
erty which he has not inherited. Acquiescence. Implied assent. Acquietandis plegiis. A writ under
which a surety could compel a creditor to release him when the
debt had been paid. Acquietantia. Acquittance; dis
charge. Acquietare. To acquit. Acquietatus. Acquitted. Acquired allegiance. The allegiance
of a naturalized citizen. Acquittal. Discharge; release; ex
oneration. Acquittance. A written discharge of
an obligation. See 31 Am. Rep. 679. Act. A thing done or established.
Actio communi dividundo. A Roman
law action seeking the division of
common property. Actio condictio indebitati. A Roman
law action to recover a payment made by mistake. Actio depositi contraria. A Roman
law action by a depositary against a depositor to enforce their con
tract. Actio depositi directa. An action by
the depositor against the depositary to recover the goods de
posited. Actio ex conducto. A Roman law
action by a bailor against a bailee
to recover goods hired. Actio ex contractu. An action
founded upon a contract. Actio ex delictu. An action founded
upon a tort. Actio familiae erciscundae. A
Roman law action seeking parti.
tion of an inheritance. Actio in factum. A Roman law ac
tion similar to an action on the
case at common law. Actio in rem. An action against a
thing; for the recovery of a thing or the establishment of a right
independent of contract. Actio judicati. A Roman law action
to enforce the payment of a judg. ment. Actio mandati. A Roman law action
founded upon a mandate. Actio mixta. An action against both
a person and his property. Actio nihil aliud est, quam perse
quendi, quod sibi debetur. An action is one's right to seek that
which is due him. Actio nominata. An action with a
name as distinguished from an ac
tion on the case.' Actio non. A statement in a special
plea that the plaintiff has no ac
tion. Actio non accrevit infra sex annos.
The action has not accrued within
six years. Actio non datur non damnificato. No
action is given to one not injured.
Actio non ulterius. The plaintiff
should not be allowed further to
pursue his action. Actio personalis. A personal action.
See Personal Action. Actio personalis moritur cum per
sona. A personal action dies with the person. See VII Eng. Ruling Cases, 543; also 9 L. R. A.
(N. S.) 1078. Actio praescriptis verbis. A Roman
law action founded upon usage or
precedent. Actio pro socio. A Roman law ac
tion by one partner against the others to enforce their partnership
agreement. Actio redhibitoria. A Roman law
action by the vendee to rescind a
sale. Actio rescissoria. A Roman law ac
tion to recover property lost by
prescription. Actio stricti juris. An action in which the court followed the let
ter of the law. Actio utilis. An action brought by
the holder of the legal title in be
half of the beneficiary thereof. Actio venditi. A Roman law action
by the buyer of goods against the seller to enforce the contract of
sale. Actio vulgaris. A Roman law term
for a common action. Action. A proceeding before a court
of law to establish one party's right against another. See 37
N. H. 457. Action in personam. A personal ac
tion. Action in rem. An action for the
recovery of a thing or to establish a right or title independent of contract. See 44 Ohio St. 613, 10
N. E. 160. Action of assize. A real action for
the recovery of land of which the plaintiff's ancestor had been dis.
seised. Action of book debt. An action
based upon a book account. Action on the case. A common-law
remedy for injury consequentially ACTIONABLE
resulting to the person, property or reputation, from the commission of a tort, in cases where trespass will not lie. Same as “Trespass on the Case,” and “Case.” See 18 Johns. (N. Y.) 257, 9 Am. Dec.
210. Actionable. That for which an ac
tion lies. Actionable per se. Actionable with
out proof of special damage. Actionum genera maxime sunt ser
vanda. The kinds of actions
should be particularly preserved. Active trust. One in which active
duties are to be performed by the trustee with reference to the conveyance, evidencing an intention that the primary use of the property shall be in the trustee. See
62 L. R. A. 380. Acton Burnell. An old English stat
ute named from the place where it was passed and provided a proce
dure for the collection of debts. Actor. A Roman law term denoting a pleader or advocate; the plaintiff
in an action. Actor qui contra regulam quid ad
duxit non est audiendus. An advocate should not be heard who
argues contrary to law. Actor sequitur forum rei. The plain
tiff follows the forum of the thing in controversy. See 32 L. R. A.
236. Actore non probante reus absolvitur.
A defendant is exonerated by the failure of the prosecution to prove its case. See 31 L. R. A. (N. S.)
1166. Actrix. A female plaintiff. Acts of sederunt. Certain rules of
court made by judges of the
Scotch court of session. Actual compulsion. Unlawfully and
forcibly compelling one to do an act. Actual damages. Amount of loss or
injury, as distinguished from puni
tive or exemplary damages. Actuarius. The author of a statute. Actuary. The manager of a com
Actum legitimi non recipiunt modum.
Lawful acts admit of no qualifica
tion. Actus. A right of way. Actus curiae neminem gravabit.
The act of the court shall oppress no one. Actus Dei nemini facit injuriam.
An act of God does not violate anyone's legal right. See 2 L. R.
A. 544. Actus inceptus cujus perfectio pendet
ex voluntate partium, revocari potest; si autem pendet ex voluntate tertiae personae, vel ex contingenti, revocari non potest. An act the completion of which depends upon the will of the parties may be revoked, but if it depends upon the will of third parties or upon a contingency, it cannot be
revoked. Actus judicarius coram non judice
irritus habetur; de ministeriali autem a quocunque provenit ratum esto. A judicial act by one not a judge is void; a ministerial act from whomsoever it proceed is
valid. Actus legis nemini est damnosus.
An act of the law shall not harm
anyone.. Actus legitimi non recipiunt modum.
Acts required by law do not admit
of qualification. Actus me invito factus, non est meus
actus. An act done by me against my will is not mine. Actus non facit reum, nisi mens sit
rea. No act is a crime unless there be criminal intent. See 25
L. R. A. (N. S.) 661. Actus repugnus non potest in esse
produci. A repugnant act is of no
effect. Actus servi in iis quibus opera ejus
communiter adhibita est, actus domini habetur. The act of a servant in the sort of work in which he is generally employed is that
of the master. Acya. Hate; malice.
Ad. At; to; before; near; for; of;
until; within. Ad abundantiorem cautelam. For
greater caution. Ad admittendum clericum. A writ
by which a bishop was required to admit and institute the clerk of the party who has been success. ful in a contest for an office. See
3 Bl. Comm. 250. Ad aliud examen. To another tri.
bunal. Ad aluim diem. At another day. Ad assisas capiendas. At the sum. moning of the assizes. See 3 Bl.
Comm, 185. Ad audiendum et terminandum. To
hear and determine. , Ad barram. At the bar. Ad captum vulgi. By common un
derstanding. Ad colligendum bona defuncti. For
the collection of the goods of the
decedent. Ad communem legem. An old writ
by which a reversioner could se
cure land from the alienee of the . deceased life tenant. Ad comparendum. To appear. Ad compotum reddendum. To render
an account. Ad curiam. Before or to the court. Ad custagia. At the costs. Ad custum. At the cost. Ad damnum. To the damage. Ad damnum clause. That part of a
declaration which sets forth the amount of the plaintiff's damage.
See 75 Conn. 650, 55 Atl. 177. Ad defendendum. To defend. Ad diem. At a day. Ad ea quae frequentius accidunt jura
adaptantur. Laws are adapted to those cases which more commonly
occur. Ad effectum sequentem. To the fol
lowing effect. Ad exhaereditationem. To disin.
heritance. Ad exitum. At the end; at issue. Ad factum praestandum. A Scotch
law obligation of a very binding
nature. Ad fidem. An allegiance.
Ad filum aquae. To the thread or
center of the stream. Ad filum viae. To the thread or
center of the way. Ad finem. To the end. Ad finem litis. To the end of the
litigation. Ad firmam. To farm. Ad gaolas deliberandas. To make a
jail delivery. Ad gravamen. To the damage. Ad hominem. To the man; personal. Ad hunc diem. At this day. Ad idem. To the same effect. Ad inde requisitus. From thence re
quired. Ad infinitum. Without end. Ad inquirendum. A writ command
ing an inquiry or investigation. Ad instantiam. At the instance. Ad interim. In the meantime. Ad judicum. To judgment. Ad jungendum auxilium. To join in
aid. Ad jura regis. A writ by one hold
ing a living from the king directed against those seeking to deprive
him of it. Ad largum. At large. Ad litem. During the pendency of
the action. Ad lucrandum vel perdendum. For
profit or loss. Ad majoram cautelam. For greater
caution. Ad manum. At hand. Ad medium filum aquae. To the
center or thread of the stream Ad medium filum viae. To the center
or thread of the way. Ad melius inquirendum. A writ or
dering a further inquest. Ad mordendum assuetus. Accus
tomed to bite. Ad nocumentum. To the nuisance. Ad officium justiciariorium spectat,
unicuique coram eis placitanti justitiam exhibere. Judges are expected to show justice to everyone
who pleads before them. Ad ostium ecclesiae. At the church
door. Ad proximum antecedens fiat relatio,
nisi impediatur sententia. Refer
ence should be made to the matter next preceding unless the meaning
is thereby destroyed. Ad quaestionem facti non respondent judices. Judges do not pass upon
on questions of fact. See 26 L. R. A.
289. Ad quaestiones juris respondent judi
ces; ad quaestiones facti respondent juratores. Judges answer questions of law; jurors answer questions of fact. See XX Eng.
Ruling Cases, 630. Ad quaestiones facti non respondent
judices; ad quaestiones legis non respondent juratores. Judges do not answer questions of fact; jurors do not answer questions of law. See XX Eng. Ruling Cases, 630. Ad quem. To which. Ad quod curia concordavit. To
which the court agreed. Ad quod damnum. A writ under
which a license from the king was
obtained. See 2 Bl. Comm. 271. Ad quod non fuit responsum. To
which there was no answer. Ad rationem ponere. To cite to ap
pear. Ad recte docendum oportet, primum
inquirere nomina, quia rerum cognitio a nominibus rerum dependet. For the proper understanding of a thing, it is well first to inquire into the names, because a knowl. edge of things depends upon their
names. Ad rem. Against the thing. Ad reparationem et sustentationem.
For repair and keeping in order. Ad respondendum. To answer. Ad satisfaciendum. To satisfy. Ad sectam. At the suit of. Abbre
viated “ads." Ad terminum annorum. For a term
of years. Ad terminum qui praeteriit. A writ
which the lessor could use to secure possession when refused by the lessee after the expiration of his lease.
Ad tristem partem strenua est sus
picio. Suspicion rests heavily on
the unfortunate side. Ad tunc et ibidem. Then and there. Ad ultimam vim terminorum. To the
extreme limit of the terms. Ad unguem. Perfectly. Ad usum et commodum. For use and
benefit. Ad valorem. According to value. Ad ventrem inspiciendum. A writ
for the examination of a woman to determine the question of her
pregnancy. Ad vitam aut culpam. For or dur
ing good behavior. Ad voluntatem domini. At the will
of the master. Addicere. To condemn. Additio probat minoritatem. Exag
geration indicates inferiority. Addition. Some title or description
written after a man's name for certainty of identification. See 1 Met. (Mass.) 151. Additional. Added, supplemental,
coming by way of addition. See
Ann. Cas. 1912C, 1007. Additions. A separate building con
nected to a main one by a passageway held to be an addition thereto.
See 3 L. R. A. (N. S.) 156. Address. The designation of the
court in a bill in equity. Adeem. To effect an ademption. Ademption. The avoidance of a
legacy by an act of the testator. See 95 Am. St. Rep. 343. deprimes. First. Adequate provocation. Conduct
which so excites a man's passion as practically to enthrall his rea
s'on. See 71 Am. St. Rep. 553. Aderere. In arrears. Adesouth. Underneath. Adherence. A Scotch action to re
store marital rights. Adiratus. Lost; strayed. Aditus. A right of entrance. Adjacent Land separated by a dis
tance of fifty-five feet is not ad
jacent. See Ann. Cas. 1913B, 167. Adjective law. Law regulating pro