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Christmas. Christ's birthday, De- Circuit Court. A court held by a cember 25th.

judge or judges at different places Church. A place of Christian wor

or in a district. See, also, United ship; the whole body of Chris

States Circuit Court. tians.

Circuit Court of Appeals. See

United States Circuit Court of ApChurch building acts. English statutes for the extension of the

peals. church of England.

Circuitus est evitandus. Circuity is Church judicatory. An ecclesiasti to be avoided.

cal court with judicial powers. Circuitus est evitandus; et boni Church land. Land owned by a judices est lites dirimere, ne lis ex church or ecclesiastical body.

lite oriatur. Circuity of action is Church living. A benefice in an es to be avoided, and it is the duty tablished church.

of good judges to dismiss actions Church of England. The national

lest an action shall grow out of an church of England.

action. Church rate. A tax imposed upon Circuity of action. Indirectness of

a parish by the majority for remedy by unnecessary litigation. church maintenance.

Circular notes. Letters of credit, Church reeve. A churchwarden.

which see. Churchesset. A certain measure of

Circumduction. Annulment; avoidgrain paid to the church on St.

ance; cancellation. Martin's day. Church-scot. Customary obligations

Circumspecte agatis. An English

statute of 1285 limiting and regupaid to the parish priest; services

lating the jurisdiction of the ec. by a tenant of church lands.

clesiastical courts. Churchwarden. The manager of a church.

Circumstantial evidence. The proof

of such circumstances as either Church-writ. A writ issuing out of

necessarily or usually attend facts an ecclesiastical court.

sought to be proved. See 97 Am, Churl. One of the lowest classes of

St. Rep. 773, note. freemen.

Circumstantibus. Bystanders presCi. So; here.

ent in court. Ci bien. As well.

Circumvention. (Scotch) Fraud or Ci devant. Formerly.

deceit. Cibaria. (Civil Law) Food.

Cirliscus. A churl.-Spelman. Cinque Ports. Five ports on the Citacion. (Spanish) A court order

southern coast of England, Hast commanding the defendant to apings, Romney, Hythe, Dover and pear and defend. Sandwich.

Citatio. A citation. Cippi. The stocks.

Citatio ad reassumendam causam. Circa. About; concerning.

A citation directed to a dead Circuit. A judge's journey in hold- plaintiff's heir.

ing court in different places; the Citatio est de juri naturali. A sum, district of a judge so traveling. mons is of natural right. Law Dict.—5




Citation. A court order directing a

person to appear. Citationes non concedantur prius

quam exprimatur super qua re fieri debet citatio. Citations are not to be granted until it is shown concerning what matter the

citation ought to be made. Cite. To summon, to notify to ap

pear in court. Citizen. An inhabitant of a city in

England; in United States, one entitled to vote for members of Congress and other public offices and who is qualified for office. See

92 U. S. 542, 23 L. Ed. 588. City Court. A court having jurisdic

tion only within the city limits. Civil. As between citizens; private. Civil action. An action seeking re

compense for the violation of a

private right. Civil bill court. An Irish court with

jurisdiction similar to that of

county courts. Civil commotion. An insurrection. Civil contempt. Those which are

prosecuted to enforce the rights of private parties. See 21 Ann.

Cas. (U. S.) 897. Civil corporation. A private busi

ness corporation; a municipal cor.

poration. Civil damage acts. Statutes render

ing liquor sellers liable for conse

quences. Civil day. The mean solar day. Civil death. The cessation of all

one's legal rights and capacities.

See 6 Am. St. Rep. 380. Civil injury. A violation of one's

private right. Civil law. The Roman law ex

pounded by Justinian. Civil liability. Liability to a civil


Civil liberty. One's lawful liberty. Civil list. In England, the appro

priation for the royal family; in United States, general governmental expense, not including the

army and navy. Civil obligation. An enforceable

obligation. Civil officer. Any United States

federal appointee excepting army

and navy officers. Civil remedy. Redress by means of

a civil action. Civil responsibility. Same as Civil

liability. Civil rights. Rights which munici

pal law enforces at the instance of private persons to secure the enjoyment of their means of kappiness. See 51. N. J. L. 432, 14 Am.

St. Rep. 693, 17 Atl. 969. Civil rights act. A United States

statute of 1875 against prohibíting the use of public places on account

of race or color. Civil Rights Bill. A United States

statute of 1866, granting citizenship to native-born persons, in

cluding former slaves. Civil rights cases. Cases determin

ing the legal status of freedmen. See 100 U. S. 303, 25 L. Ed.

664. Civil service. The executive depart

ment of the government. Civil side. The civil department or

calendar of a court having also a

criminal department or calendar. Civil War. A war between citizens

of the same nation; the war of the Rebellion in the United States

which lasted from 1861–1865. Civilian. A scholar versed in the

Roman law. Civilis. Civil. Civiliter. Civilly.



Civiliter mortuus. Civilly dead. Clarendon, constitutions of. StatSee Civil death.

utes passed in the twelfth century

curbing the pope and the clergy. Civis. (Roman Law) A citizen.

See 4 Bl. Comm. 422. Civitas. A state.

Class legislation. Such as denies Claim. A demand of some matter as rights to one which are accorded of right made by one person upon

to others, or inflicts upon one a another to do or forbear. See 16 more severe penalty than is imPet. (U. S.) 615, 10 L. Ed. 1089. posed upon another in like case

offending. See 99 Mich. 151, 41 Claim in a service. (Scotch) A pe

Am. St. Rep. 589, 22 L. R. A. 696, tition by an heir to be served as

57 N. W. 1094. heir of the decedent.

Classification. The English chancery Claim of conusance. A claim of ex

practice of assigning litigants havclusive jurisdiction.

ing similar interests in the cause Claim of liberty. A suit or petition

to one solicitor, to save expense, to the crown, in the court of ex- Clause. Closed; sealed. chequer, to have liberties and Clause irritant. (Scotch) A clause franchises confirmed there by the

in a deed which limited the right attorney general.- Wharton.

of an absolute proprietor in enClaim, vi, furto aut precario. Claim

tails. by force, stealth or supplication. Clause of devolution. (Scotch) A

clause imposing some obligation Claimant. One who claims; in ad

contingent upon an event. miralty, one defending a suit against goods in which he claims

Clause of return. A clause by which an interest.

a right shall upon certain con

tingencies revert to the grantor. Claim-notice. A miner's posted notice of his claim to mining rights

Clause rolls. Same as Close rolls. on the land.

Clausula. A clause or part of a sen

tence. Clam. Secretly.

Clausula generalis de residuo non ea Clam delinquentes magis puniuntur

complectitur quae non ejusdem quam palam. Secret offenses are

sint generis cum iis quae speciatim punished more severely than open

dicta fuerant. A general clause ones.

of remainder does not include matClamea admittenda in itinere per

ters not of the same kind with attornatum. A writ commanding

those specially mentioned. the admission of an attorney to

Clausula generalis non refertur ad represent a claimant who was

expressa. A general clause does abroad.

not refer to matters expressly Clamor. A complaint; an outcry; a mentioned. claim.

Clausula quae abrogationem excludit Clap-stick. A watchman's alarm rato ab initio non valet. A clause

which forbids repeal is void from Clare constat. It clearly appears. the beginning. Claremethen. (Scotch) A warranty Clausulae inconsuetae semper in

of title in goods which had been ducunt suspicionem. Unaccustomstolen,

ed clauses always arouse suspicion.




Clausula vel dispositio inutilis per Clericus et agricola et mercator,

praesumptionem remotam vel tempore belli, ut oret, colat, et causam, ex post facto non fulcitur. commutet, pace fruuntur. ClergyA useless clause or disposition is men, farmers and merchants in not supported by a remote pre time of war enjoy peace so that sumption or by a subsequently they may preach, cultivate and occurring fact.

trade. Clausum. A clause; a close.

Clericus mercati. Clerk of the mar

ket. Clausum fregit. He broke the close. Clausura. An inclosure.

Clericus non connumeretur in duabus

ecclesiis. A clergyman should not Claves curiae. The keys of the court.

be appointed by two churches. Clean hands. Freedom from wrong. Clericus parochialis. A parish clerk. doing or intent.

Clerigos. (Spanish) Clergymen. Clear. To acquit; to justify; to ex Clerk. A clergyman; the miniscuse.

terial officer of a court. Clear days. Days intervening, ex- Clerk of arraigns. Clerk of the

clusive of the first day and the last central criminal court in England; one.

a deputy of the clerk of assize. Clearance. A port collector's permit Clerk of assize. The clerk of the

authorizing a ship's departure. justices of assize in their circuits. Clearing-house. A place where bank Clerk of court. The chief minisers daily settle their accounts.

terial officer of a court. Clementines. The collections of Clerk of enrollments. Formerly the canon law made by Pope Clement,

chief officer of the English en1311.

rollment office. . Cleptomania. Same as Kleptomania. Clerk of the house of commons. A

crown appointee in charge of the cleremonia. The clergy.

memorials and journals of the acts Clergy. Persons in ecclesiastical or

of the house of commons. ders; officers of the church; at one

Clerk of the peace. An officer who time, all persons who could read.

assisted justices of the peace in Clergyable. Entitled to benefit of

quarter sessions. clergy.

Clerk of the petty bag. A chancery Clerical error. A copyist's error; a

officer who enrolled the admission slip of the pen.

of solicitors and other officers. Clericale privilegium. Benefit of Clerk of the privy seal. Formerly clergy.

an officer who attended the lord Clerici de cancellaria. Clerks of privy seal. chancery.

Clerk of the signet. An officer who Clerici praenotarii. The six clerks attends the king's principal secrein chancery.

tary. Clerico admittendo. A writ com- Clerks of indictments. Clerks in manding the bishop to admit a the English central criminal court clerk to a living.

who prepare indictments. Clericus. A clerk; a clergyman; a Clerks of seats. Officers who atpriest.

tend to the clerical work in the



principal registry of the probate Coassignee. One of two or more

division of the English high court. persons to whom an assignment Clerkship. The service of an at

has been made. torney's clerk during his prepara- Coasting trade. Trade between tion for admission to the bar.

ports of the same country. Clerus. The clergy.

Cobelligerent. Allied in war. Client. The patron or employer of Co-bishop. A joint bishop. an attorney or solicitor.

Cocket. A custom-house seal; a Clifford's Inn. One of the inns of

certificate showing payment of chancery.

duties. Close Closed; sealed; a parcel of Cockpit. The meeting-room of the land.

English privy council at WestClose copies. Copies which might minster. be written with any number of

Code. A statutory embodiment of words on a sheet. Office copies

all the law pertaining to the subwere to contain only a prescribed

ject or subjects included. number of words on each sheet.

Code civil. The Code Napoleon, Bouv.

which see. Close port. A port inland on a

Code Napoleon. A codification of river.

French law in the reign of NapoClose rolls. English public records

leon I. of close writs and other instru

Codex. A code. ments.

Codicil. An addendum to a will Close writs. Writs not open or pat

after its execution. ent; writs addressed to the sheriff or other particular person or offi- Coemtio. Coemption. cer.

Coemption. The buying up of the Cloth. The clergy.

supply of a commodity for the Cloud on title. A defect in a chain

purpose of controlling prices; in

Roman law, a civil marriage in of title. See 42 Am. St. Rep. 378,

which money was paid on both note.

sides. Clough. A valley,

Coercion. Compulsion; constraint. Club. An unincorporated society.

Coexecutor. One of two or more Coadjutor. An assistant of a bishop

executors appointed to act jointly. or other prelate.

Cofferer of the queen's household. Coagent. An accomplice.

The chief officer of the royal Coadministrator. One of two or court. more administrators appointed to

Clogging. Cheating with loadert act jointly.

dice. Coadunatio. A conspiracy.

Cogitationis poenam nemo patitur. Coafforest. To turn into a forest

No one suffers punishment for his or to increase one.

thoughts. Sue 47 Or. 455, 8 Ann. Coal note. A sort of promissory Cas. 627, 4 L. R. A. (N. S.) 417,

note used at the port of London. 84 Pac. 82. Coalition. An alliance; a confed- Cognates. Maternal relatives. See eracy.

2 Bl. Comm. 235.

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