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Consignee. One to whom goods are
consigned. Consignment. The act of consign
ing goods to one for sale or cus
tody. Consignor. One sending goods on
consignment. Consilia multorum requiruntur in
magnis. The advice of many is
required in affairs of magnitude. Consiliarius. A counselor. Consilium, or dies consilii. A day
set for an argument or hearing. Consimili casu. A writ by which a
reversioner recovered land from
the alienee of a life tenant. Consistory. An ecclesiastical court. Consistory court. An ecclesiastical
court, also known as the Bishop's
Court, which see. Consolato del mare. A maritime
code in force in the Mediter
ranean, compiled about 1000 A.D. Consolidated fund. The combined
revenue of Great Britain and Ire
land. Consolidated orders. A compilation
of orders regulating English chan
cery practice in 1860. Consolidation of actions. The com
bining of two or more actions involving the same controversy into
one suit. See 1 Ala. 77. · Consolidation rule. A rule or order
for the consolidation of two or more actions in one. See 19 Wend.
(N. Y.) 63. Consols. Consolidated annuities, the
English Funded Debt. Consortio malorum me quoque malum
facit. The companionship of the
wicked makes me also wicked. Consortium. Conjugal fellowship
and society. See 150 N. Y. 176, 55 Am. St. Rep. 670, 34 L. R. A.
156, 44 N. E 773; also Ann. Cas.
1912B, 1120. Consortium vicinorum. Society of
one's neighbors. Conspiracy. A combination of two
or more persons to procure an unlawful object, or to procure a lawful object by unlawful means. See 159 Pa. St. 420, 39 Am. St. Rep. 686, 23 L. R. A. 135, 28 Atl.
190. Conspirators. Persons joining in a
conspiracy. Constable. A peace officer who
serves process in minor cases. Constablery. The jurisdiction of a
constable. Constablewick. The jurisdiction of
a constable. Constabulary. The constables of a
district. Constat. It is clear; a certificate
that certain matters appear of
record. See 2 N. C. 410. Constate. To verify or prove. Constating instruments. Documents
fixing the charter of a corporation.
See 37 N. J. Eq. 363. Constituent. An agent's principal. Constituere. To appoint; to estab
lish; to ordain. Constituted authorities. The exist
ing lawfully appointed officers of
the government. Consti Constitutio. A constitution; a stat
ute. Constitutio dotis. Establishment of
dower. Constitution. The fundamental law
governing a state. Constitution of the United States.
The fundamental law of the
1789. Constitutional. Consonant with the
Constitutional convention. A con. paid by another and such property
vention of delegates met to form will be held by the former in trust or amend à constitution.
for the latter. See 97 Cal. 575, 33 Constitutiones. Laws of the Roman
Am. St. Rep. 209, 21 L. R. A. 33,
32 Pac. 579. emperors.
Consuetudinary Constitutiones tempore posteriores
law. Law estab
lished by custom. potiores sunt his quae ipsas praecesserunt. Later laws prevail Consuetudo. A custom or usage. over those which preceded them.
Consuetudo contra rationem introConstitutions of Clarendon. English ducta, potius usurpatio quam con
statutes passed in 1164 limiting suetudo appellari debet. A custhe powers of the church.
tom introduced contrary to reason Constitutor. One promising to pay
ought rather to be called a usur
pation than a custom. another's debt. Constitutum. An agreement to pay
Consuetudo curiae. The custom of an existing debt.
the court. Constitutum esse eam domun unicui. Consuetudo debet esse certa; nam
que nostrum debere existimari, ubi incerta pro nullis habentur. A quisque sedes et tabulas haberet, custom should be certain, for unsuarumque rerum constitutionem certain things are held as nothing. fecisset. It is established that
Consuetudo debet esse certa. A custhe home of each of us is consid
tom ought to be certain. ered to be where he has his abode and his books and where he may Consuetudo est altera lex. Custom have made an establishment of his is another sort of law. business.
Consuetudo est optimus interpres Constraint. Duress; restraint.
legum. Custom is the best interConstructio legis non facit injuriam.
preter of law. The interpretation of the law Consuetudo et communis assuetudo works no wrong.
vincit legem non scriptam, si sit Construction. Interpretation; ex
specialis, et interpretatur legem planation.
scriptam, si lex sit generalis. CusConstruction, court of. See Court
tom and common usage override
the unwritten law, if it is special, of Construction.
and explain the written law, if the Constructive. Presumed; inferred;
law is general. imputed.
Consuetudo ex certa causa rationConstructive contempt. An act com
abili usitata privat communem mitted out of court but tending
legem. Custom adopted from certo obstruct justice.
tain reasonable cause supersedes Constructive notice. Notice conclu the common law.
sively presumed. See 109. U. S. Consuetudo, licet sit magnae auctor504, 27 L. Ed. 1012, 3 Sup. Ct. Rep.
itatis, nunquam tamen praejudicat 357.
manifestae veritati. Custom, Constructive trust. Exists when though it may be high authority,
property is purchased in the name should never be prejudicial to of one, but the consideration is plain truth.
Consuetudo loci observanda est. The
custom of the locality should be
observed. Consuetudo manerii et loci obser
vanda est. The custom of the manor and the locality should be
observed. Consuetudo mercatorum. The cus
tom of merchants. Consuetudo neque injuria oriti, neque
tolli potest. A custom can neither spring from nor be overcome by a
wrongful act. Consuetudo non habitur in conse
quentiam. A custom should not
be turned into a consequence. Consuetudo non trahitur in conse
quentiam. Custom is not to be
drawn into consequence. Consuetudo praescripta et legitima
vincit legem. A prescriptive and
lawful custom prevails over law. Consuetudo regni Angliae est lex
Angliae. The custom of the Eng. lish kingdom is the law of Eng.
land. Conseutudo semel reprobata non
potest amplius induci. A custom once denied cannot be further in
voked. Consuetudo tollit communem legem.
Custom supersedes the common
Consular courts. Courts presided
over by a foreign consul. Consulatory response. A court's
opinion on a matter submitted. Consultation. See Writ of consulta:
tion. Consummate. To complete; to carry
out. Consummation of marriage. Com
pletion by sexual intercourse. See
75 Cal. 1, 16 Pac. 345. Contango. A broker's charge for
carrying over a customer's account
to the next settling day. Contek. Strife; contention. Contemner. One guilty of contempt. Contemplation of bankruptcy. An
intention to go through bankruptcy. See 3 McLean (U. S.), 587, Fed. Cas. No. 8888. Contemporanea expositio est optima
et fortissima in lege. A contemporaneous exposition is the best and most powerful in law. Contempt. Disobedience of court
orders or breach of decorum of a court. See 85 Cal. 603, 20 Am.
St. Rep. 248, 25 Pac. 256. Contempt of court. The willful dis
regard of a court's authority. See 11 Mont. 126, 28 Am. St. Rep. 451, 27 Pac. 336. Contemptibiliter. Contemptuously. Contenement. That which is neces
sarily appurtenant to a tenement. Contentious jurisdiction. Jurisdic
tion of causes between contend
ing parties. Conterminous. Having a common
boundary. Contestatio litis. An issue, joinder
of issue. Contestatio litis eget terminos con
tradictarios. An issue requires contradictory conclusions.
Consuetudo vincit communem legem.
Custom supersedes the common
law. Consuetudo volentes ducit: lex nol
entes trahit. Custom leads the
willing; law drags the unwilling. Consul. A government agent in a
foreign place to protect the citizens and trade of his country.
See 103 U. S. 261, 26 L. R. A. 539. Consular agent. An officer having
functions similar to a consul's but of lesser authority.
Context. Accompanying words of a
writing. Contiguous. Adjoining; adjacent;
touching. Continens. (Roman Law) Joined to
gether. Contingency. An event which may
happen. See 39 Barb. (N. Y.)
272. Contingency with double aspect. A
second remainder limited to take
effect in case the first one fails. Contingent damages. Damages
awarded on the trial of counts not demurred to before decision on the demurrer to other count or
counts. See 1 Strange, 431. Contingent estate. One wherein the
person who is to enjoy it, or the event upon which it is to arise, is uncertain. See 185 Pa. St. 179, 64 Am. St. Rep. 621, 39 Atl. 879; 64
Am. St. Rep. 658, note. Contingent fee. An attorney's fee made dependent upon the outcome
of the suit. Contingent legacy. A legacy de
pendent upon an uncertain event. Contingent remainder. One so con
ditioned upon an uncertain event. See 89 Mich. 428, 28 Am. St. Rep.
310, 50 N. W. 1077. Contingent use. A use the vesting
of which is conditioned upon an uncertain event. See 4 N. J. L.
94. Continual claim. An attempted en
try by one entitled to possession made once each year and day to
keep alive his right. Continuance. Postponement; ad
journment. Continuando. A form of pleading
continued or repeated trespasses
in one action. See 2 Mass. 50. Continuing consideration. A consid.
eration partly executed.
continuous easement. An easement
enjoyed without any act of the dominant owner, as an easement of light and air. See 68 N. Y. 66,
23 Am. Rep. 149. Contra. Against; to the contrary. Contra bonos mores. Against good
morals. Contra forman collationis. A writ
by which a donor of lands to be held by religious service could re
cover it after wrongful alienation. Contra formam doni. Against the
form of the grant. Contra formam feoffamenti. A writ
whereby a tenant could resist the demanded performance of more services than the charter of his
ancestor required. Contra formam statuti in hoc casu nuper edicť et provis’. Against the form of the statute in such
case lately made and provided. Contra jus belli. Against the laws
of war. Contra jus commune. Against com
mon right. Contra legem facit qui id facit quod lex prohibet; in fraudem vero qui, salvis verbis legis, sententiam ejus circumvenit. He acts contrary to law who does what the law prohibits; but he acts in fraud of it who, the letter of the law being
inviolate, cheats the spirit of it. Contra legem terrae. Against the
law of the land. Contra negantem principia non est disputandum. It is useless to dispute with one who denies prin
ciples. Contra non valentem agere nulla cur
rit praescriptio. No prescription runs against one who is unable to act. Contra omnes gentes. Against all
Contra pacem. Against the peace. Contradict. To disprove testimony Contra pacem domini regis. Against
which has been received. the peace of our lord the king. Contradiction in terms. An expresContra proferentem. Against the
sion contradicting itself. offeror.
Contraescritura. (Spanish) An inContra tabulas. Contrary to the
strument executed secretly by parwill,
ties to a public contract to modify Contra veritatem lex nunquam ali
its terms. quid permittit. The law never al Contrafactio. Counterfeiting. lows anything contrary to the contrainte par corps. Arrest; im. truth.
prisonment for debt. Contraband of war. Goods which a Contraligatio. A counter-obligation. neutral cannot ship to a belliger
Contramandatio placiti. Extending ent without violating a treaty or
the time to plead. international law. See 4 Heisk.
Contraplacitum. A counter-plea. (Tenn.) 345. Contracausator. One guilty of
Contrapositio. A plea. crime.
Contrariorum contraria est ratio. Contract. An agreement between
The reason for contrary things is
contrary. two or more to do or not to do a particular thing. See 11 Pet.
Contrarotulator. (French) A con(U. S.) 420, 9 L. Ed. 773.
troller. Contract of beneficence. One bene
Contrat. (French) A contract. fiting only one of the parties. Contratenere. To withhold. Contract of record. A term some- Contravention. Violation; infrac
times applied to a judgment. See tion. 95 N. Y. 428.
Contrectare. To take. Contractio rei alienae animo furandi, Contrectatio rei alienae animo fur
est furtum. Larceny is the tak andi, est furtum. The taking of ing and carrying away of a thing the goods of another with intent with intent to steal.
to steal is larceny. Contractor. A party to a contract. Contrefaçon. (French) An infracContractus. A contract.
tion of a copyright Contractus bonae fidei. A Roman Contribution. Payment by co-obli
law contract subject to an equi gors of their several shares of liatable defense.
bility; a suit to compel such payContractus est quasi actus contra
ment. See 4 Johns. Ch. (N. Y.) actum. A contract is, as it were,
545. an act for an act.
Contributione facienda. See De conContractus ex turpi causa, vel contra
tributione facienda. bonos mores nullus est. A con- Contributory. One liable as a memtract with a base consideration or ber to contribute to the assets on against good morals is void.
the winding up of a company. Contractus legem ex conventione ac- Contributory negligence. Negli
cipiunt. Contracts take their law gence of a plaintiff contributing, from the agreement.
with the defendant's negligence,