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COUNTY

COURT

ties.

County commissioners. The title of Court hand. The handwriting pethe governing body of many coun: culiar to English court records.

Court of admiralty. A court of civil County corporate. A county having and criminal jurisdiction in maria local government.

time cases. County court. A court whose juris- Court of ancient demesne. A court diction is within the county.

held by the king's bailiff for tenCounty palatine. A county wherein ants of the king's demesne.

the owner was practically a king. Court of appeals. A court in which County rate. A tax levy for county appeals from a lower court aro purposes.

heard. County seat. The seat of govern. Court of arbitration of the chamber ment of a county.

of commerce. A New York city County sessions. The general quarter court for disputes among mersessions of the peace.

chants. Coupons. Certificates attached to a

Court of arches. An appellate ecclebond, each representing an install

siastical court presided over by ment of interest, principal, or

the Dean of the Arches as the repboth, to be cut off by the holder

resentative of the Archbishop of and cashed by the obligee. See

Canterbury. 43 Me. 232.

Court of attachments. An ancient Coupon bond. An interest-bearing

English court for the trial of ofbond with coupons attached. See 114 U. S. 663, 29 L. Ed. 281, 5 Sup.

fenders against forest laws. Ct. Rep. 1098.

Court of augmentation. An old Cour de cassation. Court of Cassa

English court for the control of tion.

the funds and property of monas

teries. Course. A survey line run with a

Court of bankruptcy. A court havcompass or transit.

ing jurisdiction of bankruptcy proCourse of trade. The trend of busi

ceedings. ness; merchandise. Court. Persons officially assembled

Court of cassation. The highest under authority of law, for the

court of appeal in France. administration of justice. See 13

Court of chancery. A court of Colo. 525, 16 Am. St. Rep. 224, 10 equity. L. R. A. 790, 22 Pac. 820.

Court of chivalry. A court estabCourt for crown cases reserved. lished by Edward III.

Same as Court of Criminal Ap. Court of claims. A United States peal.

court for the investigation of Court for divorce and matrimonial claims against the United States.

causes. An English court estab- Court of commerce. A United lished under 20 & 21 Vict., c. 85, States court established in 1910 having jurisdiction in divorces and and having jurisdiction principally annulments of marriage,

in interstate commerce matters. Court for the relief of insolvent Court of common pleas. An English

debtors in England. A London court having jurisdiction in civi) bankruptcy court.

actions.

COURT

COURT

Court of convocation. An ecclesias.

tical court for the trial of religi

ous offenses. Court of criminal appeal. A court

composed of judges of the English superior courts which decided questions of law referred to it in

pending criminal cases. Court of equity. A court having ju

risdiction of equity suits. Court of exchequer. An English su

perior court with jurisdiction of matters of law and revenue. Court of exchequer chamber. An

English court with jurisdiction of appeals from the three superior

courts. Court of faculties. An English

ecclesiastical court granting li

censes, pew rights and the like. Court of hustings. An English city

court presided over by the mayor,

the recorder and the sheriffs. Court of inquiry. A court held for

a preliminary investigation of charges against a soldier or an

officer. Court of justiciary. The supreme

criminal court of Scotland. Court of king's bench. Formerly

the supreme English common-law court, now a department of the

High Court of Justice. Court of magistrates and freehold

ers. An abolished North Carolina criminal court for the trial of

colored persons. Court of nisi prius. An English

court held by two or more commissioners sent out from London

on a circuit to hold jury trials. Court of orphans. A court for the

care of orphans and their prop

erty. Court of oyer and terminer. A state

court for criminal cases.

Court of passage. An inferior court

of record held at Liverpool. Court of peculiars. A court from

which an appeal lay to the Court

of Arches, which see. Court of piepoudre. An English

court of record held by the stew

ard of each fair or market. Court of policies of insurance. An

English court for insurance cases, established about 1550 and abol.

ished in 1863. Court of probate. A court for the

probate of wills and the care of estates of decedents, minors and

lunatics. Court of quarter sessions of the

peace. A minor English court held quarterly in each county by

two justices of the peace. Court of queen's bench. Same as

Court of king's bench. Court of record. One whose acts

and proceedings are enrolled in parchment for a perpetual memorial and testimony. See 34 Cal.

391, 94 Am. Dec. 742. Court of regard. A court for the ex

peditation of dogs. See 3 Bl. Comm.

71.

Court of sessions. The supreme civil

court of Scotland. Court of star-chamber. A court

which tried certain high crimes without a jury, abolished under

Charles I. Court of sweinmote. A court held by the freeholders of the forest

to try violations of forest laws. Court of the clerk of the market.

A court held at the time of a fair or market in England. Court of the coroner. A coroner's

i nquest. Court of the Duchy of Lancaster.

An equity court of special jurisdiction in cases involving lands

COURT

COVENANT

held of the king in right of the Courts Christian. Ecclesiastical Duchy of Lancaster.

courts. See 5 Rand. (Va.) 627, Court of the lord high steward. A

16 Am. Dec. 776. court for the trial of peers for

Courts of assize and nisi prius. felonies and other certain high Same as Court of nisi prius. crimes.

Courts of conscience, English Court of the lord high steward of

courts for the collection of small the universities.

debts. A court for the trial of indictments of Oxford and Courts of oyer and terminer and and Cambridge scholars and offi general gaol delivery. Same as cers.

Courts of assize and nisi prius. Court of the marshalsea. An Eng

Courts of requests, or courts of conlish court having jurisdiction of

science. See Courts of con. cases involving royal servants.

science.

Courts of survey. English and Court of the ordinary. A court pre

Welsh courts held under the Mersided over by an English bishop.

chants' Shipping Act of 1894. Court of the steward and marshal.

Courts of the Cinque ports. Courts A court for the trial of cases aris

of local jurisdiction held at the ing within twelve miles of the

Cinque ports. king's actual residence.

Courts of the counties palatine. Court of the steward of the king's Courts held in counties palatine.

household. An English court Courts of the two universities. which tried certain crimes com

Courts of local jurisdiction held mitted near the king's residence.

at Oxford and Cambridge. See 3 Court of wards and liveries. An ob Bl. Comm. 83.

solete English court for matters Cousin. (Old Eng.) Any peer of the

involving tenures in chivalry. degree of an earl. Court-baron. A court within a Cousinage. The relationship of

manor in which the tenants liti. cousins. gated and were tried.

Coustum. Toll; tribute. Courtesy. The life estate which a Couthutlaugh. The harborer of an

widower has in the real property outlaw. of which his wife was seised, if

Covenant. An agreement under seal they have had lawful issue able

between two or more parties, by to inherit. See 128 Am. St. Rep.

which some of them engage with 474, note.

the otbers, or some of them, that Court-lands. Lands retained by the some act has or has not, or shall lord for his family use.

or shall not be done. See 4 Court-leet. An old English court Whart. (Pa.) 68, 33 Am. Dec. 38.

presided over by the steward of Covenant against encumbrances. A the leet, having jurisdiction in covenant securing the grantee petty crimes and preliminary ex against claims of third parties in aminations.

the land. See 68 Ohio St. 450, 96 Court-martial. A military court for Am. St. Rep. 672, 67 N. E. 896.

the enforcement of military laws Covenant appurtenant. One which and regulations.

runs with the land. Law Dict.—7

97

COVENANT

CREDIT

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covenanter. Same as covenantor. Covenator. One who makes a

covenant. Covenants performed. A form of

plea in actions of covenant, used in Pennsylvania. See 15 Serg. &

R. (Pa.) 105. Coventry act. An English statute

against maiming by lying in wait. Covert. Protected, as feme covert,

a married woman. Covert-baron. A married woman. Coverture. The condition of a mar

ried woman. Covin. Fraud; deceit; collusion. Cowitch. A plant whose spines

cause violent itching in contact with the skin. See 2 Pears. (Pa.)

441.

Covenant for quiet enjoyment. A

covenant undertaking to protect the grantee's possession from third party claims. See 9 N. J.

L. 139. Covenant inherent. One directly re

lating to the grant. Covenant not to sue. An agreement

not to enforce an existing cause

of action. Covenant of right to convey. A

covenant asserting the grantor's right to convey. See 128 Ala. 267,

86 Am. St. Rep. 136, 29 South. 386. Covenant of seisin. An assurance

that the grantor has the very estate in quantity and quality which he purports to convey. See 125

Am. St. Rep. 443, note. Covenant of warranty. One by

which the grantor undertakes to warrant and defend the grantee's title. See 58 Conn. 109, 19 Atl. 519. Covenant real. A covenant binding

upon the heirs of the covenantor

upon their inheriting assets. Covenant running with land. A .covenant binding upon transferees of land. See 79 Ala. 569, 58 Am.

Rep. 623. Covenant to convey. One by which

the maker agrees to convey cer

tain property. Covenant to stand seised to uses.

One by which a land owner covenants that he will hold the land

for another's use. Covenantee. One to whom perform

ance of a covenant is due.

Cranage. License to use a wharf

crane. Crassa. Gross. Crastinum, or crastino. To-morrow;

the next day. Crave. To demand; to dun. Craven, cravent, or cravant. A word used as an admission of defeat by a champion in battle. See

3 Bl. Comm. 340. Creamus. We create. Creance. Collateral security; pledge. Creancer, or creansor. A creditor. Credentials. Documents or evi

dences of authority. Credibility. Capacity for being be

lieved or credited. Credible. Competent. See 9 Pick.

(Mass.) 350, 20 Am. Dec. 481. Credible witness. One, who being

competent to give evidence, is worthy of belief. See 27 Tex. App. 47, 11 Am. St. Rep. 180, 10

S. W. 749. Credit. Reputation for veracity or

integrity.

CREDIT

CRIMINAL

Crédit foncier. An association en Crime. A public offense; a wrong

gaged in lending money on real against the public; includes every estate.

offense. See 24 How. (U. S.) 66,. Creditor. One who has a definite de

16 L. Ed. 717. mand against the estate, or a Crime against nature. A crime emcause of action capable of adjust bracing both bestiality and sodment and liquidation. See 118

omy. See 10 Ind. 355, 71 Am. Am. St. Rep. (Pa.) 909.

Dec. 331. Creditors' bill. A bill whereby a Crimen. A crime.

creditor seeks to recover out of Crimen falsi. The crime of falsify. some equity not liable to execu

ing, including perjury, forgery and tion sale at law. See 52 Ill. 98.

the like. See 194 Ill. 108, 88 Am. Creditors in solido. Joint creditors. St. Rep. 134, 62 N. E. 546. Creditorum appellatione non hi tan- Crimen falsi dicitur, cum quis illici

tum accipiuntur qui pecuniam tur, cui non fuerit ad haec data crediderunt, sed omnes quibus ex auctoritas, de sigillo regis rapto qualibet causa debetur. By the vel invento brevia, cartasve conterm “creditors" is understood signaverit. The crime of falsify. not only those who have lent

ing applies to one to whom the money but all to whom a debt is authority has not been given who owing from any cause.

has signed writs or charters with Credo. I believe.

the king's seal, stolen or found. Creek. A small seacoast town hav

Crimen furti. Larceny. ing no customs office.

Crimen incendii. Arson. Crementum comitatus. The increase Crimen laesae majestatis. High of the county.

treason. Crepare oculum. To put out an eye. Crimen laesae majestatis omnia alla Crepusculum Twilight.

crimina excedit quoad poenam. Crescente malitia crescere debet et

The punishment for high treason

exceeds that of all other crimes. poena. Punishment ought to be increased as malice increases.

Crimen omnia ex se nata vitiat. Cressant. Growing.

Crime vitiates everything born of

it. See 64 Kan. 216, 91 Am. St. Cresser. To grow.

Rep. 216, 56 L. R. A. 275, 67 Pac. Cretio. The period during which an 537. heir might decide to take or reject

Crimen raptus. Rape. his inheritance.

Crimen roberiae. Robbery. Crew. A ship's company. See 3

Crimen trahit personam. A crime Sumn. (U. S.) 209, Fed. Cas. No.

draws the person with it. See 3 16,740.

Denio (N. Y.), 190, 45 Am. Dec. Cribler. To argue.

468. Crie de pays. Hue and cry.

Crimina morte extinguuntur. Crimes Criez la peez. Rehearse the concord. are extinguished by death.

One of the formalities in levying Criminal. Pertaining to crime; pun. a fine.

ishable as a crime. Crier. To proclaim.

Criminal act. Any act punishable Crim. con. Criminal conversation. as a crime.

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