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County commissioners. The title of Court hand. The handwriting pethe governing body of many coun: culiar to English court records.
Court of admiralty. A court of civil County corporate. A county having and criminal jurisdiction in maria local government.
time cases. County court. A court whose juris- Court of ancient demesne. A court diction is within the county.
held by the king's bailiff for tenCounty palatine. A county wherein ants of the king's demesne.
the owner was practically a king. Court of appeals. A court in which County rate. A tax levy for county appeals from a lower court aro purposes.
heard. County seat. The seat of govern. Court of arbitration of the chamber ment of a county.
of commerce. A New York city County sessions. The general quarter court for disputes among mersessions of the peace.
chants. Coupons. Certificates attached to a
Court of arches. An appellate ecclebond, each representing an install
siastical court presided over by ment of interest, principal, or
the Dean of the Arches as the repboth, to be cut off by the holder
resentative of the Archbishop of and cashed by the obligee. See
Canterbury. 43 Me. 232.
Court of attachments. An ancient Coupon bond. An interest-bearing
English court for the trial of ofbond with coupons attached. See 114 U. S. 663, 29 L. Ed. 281, 5 Sup.
fenders against forest laws. Ct. Rep. 1098.
Court of augmentation. An old Cour de cassation. Court of Cassa
English court for the control of tion.
the funds and property of monas
teries. Course. A survey line run with a
Court of bankruptcy. A court havcompass or transit.
ing jurisdiction of bankruptcy proCourse of trade. The trend of busi
ceedings. ness; merchandise. Court. Persons officially assembled
Court of cassation. The highest under authority of law, for the
court of appeal in France. administration of justice. See 13
Court of chancery. A court of Colo. 525, 16 Am. St. Rep. 224, 10 equity. L. R. A. 790, 22 Pac. 820.
Court of chivalry. A court estabCourt for crown cases reserved. lished by Edward III.
Same as Court of Criminal Ap. Court of claims. A United States peal.
court for the investigation of Court for divorce and matrimonial claims against the United States.
causes. An English court estab- Court of commerce. A United lished under 20 & 21 Vict., c. 85, States court established in 1910 having jurisdiction in divorces and and having jurisdiction principally annulments of marriage,
in interstate commerce matters. Court for the relief of insolvent Court of common pleas. An English
debtors in England. A London court having jurisdiction in civi) bankruptcy court.
Court of convocation. An ecclesias.
tical court for the trial of religi
ous offenses. Court of criminal appeal. A court
composed of judges of the English superior courts which decided questions of law referred to it in
pending criminal cases. Court of equity. A court having ju
risdiction of equity suits. Court of exchequer. An English su
perior court with jurisdiction of matters of law and revenue. Court of exchequer chamber. An
English court with jurisdiction of appeals from the three superior
courts. Court of faculties. An English
ecclesiastical court granting li
censes, pew rights and the like. Court of hustings. An English city
court presided over by the mayor,
the recorder and the sheriffs. Court of inquiry. A court held for
a preliminary investigation of charges against a soldier or an
officer. Court of justiciary. The supreme
criminal court of Scotland. Court of king's bench. Formerly
the supreme English common-law court, now a department of the
High Court of Justice. Court of magistrates and freehold
ers. An abolished North Carolina criminal court for the trial of
colored persons. Court of nisi prius. An English
court held by two or more commissioners sent out from London
on a circuit to hold jury trials. Court of orphans. A court for the
care of orphans and their prop
erty. Court of oyer and terminer. A state
court for criminal cases.
Court of passage. An inferior court
of record held at Liverpool. Court of peculiars. A court from
which an appeal lay to the Court
of Arches, which see. Court of piepoudre. An English
court of record held by the stew
ard of each fair or market. Court of policies of insurance. An
English court for insurance cases, established about 1550 and abol.
ished in 1863. Court of probate. A court for the
probate of wills and the care of estates of decedents, minors and
lunatics. Court of quarter sessions of the
peace. A minor English court held quarterly in each county by
two justices of the peace. Court of queen's bench. Same as
Court of king's bench. Court of record. One whose acts
and proceedings are enrolled in parchment for a perpetual memorial and testimony. See 34 Cal.
391, 94 Am. Dec. 742. Court of regard. A court for the ex
peditation of dogs. See 3 Bl. Comm.
Court of sessions. The supreme civil
court of Scotland. Court of star-chamber. A court
which tried certain high crimes without a jury, abolished under
Charles I. Court of sweinmote. A court held by the freeholders of the forest
to try violations of forest laws. Court of the clerk of the market.
A court held at the time of a fair or market in England. Court of the coroner. A coroner's
i nquest. Court of the Duchy of Lancaster.
An equity court of special jurisdiction in cases involving lands
held of the king in right of the Courts Christian. Ecclesiastical Duchy of Lancaster.
courts. See 5 Rand. (Va.) 627, Court of the lord high steward. A
16 Am. Dec. 776. court for the trial of peers for
Courts of assize and nisi prius. felonies and other certain high Same as Court of nisi prius. crimes.
Courts of conscience, English Court of the lord high steward of
courts for the collection of small the universities.
debts. A court for the trial of indictments of Oxford and Courts of oyer and terminer and and Cambridge scholars and offi general gaol delivery. Same as cers.
Courts of assize and nisi prius. Court of the marshalsea. An Eng
Courts of requests, or courts of conlish court having jurisdiction of
science. See Courts of con. cases involving royal servants.
Courts of survey. English and Court of the ordinary. A court pre
Welsh courts held under the Mersided over by an English bishop.
chants' Shipping Act of 1894. Court of the steward and marshal.
Courts of the Cinque ports. Courts A court for the trial of cases aris
of local jurisdiction held at the ing within twelve miles of the
Cinque ports. king's actual residence.
Courts of the counties palatine. Court of the steward of the king's Courts held in counties palatine.
household. An English court Courts of the two universities. which tried certain crimes com
Courts of local jurisdiction held mitted near the king's residence.
at Oxford and Cambridge. See 3 Court of wards and liveries. An ob Bl. Comm. 83.
solete English court for matters Cousin. (Old Eng.) Any peer of the
involving tenures in chivalry. degree of an earl. Court-baron. A court within a Cousinage. The relationship of
manor in which the tenants liti. cousins. gated and were tried.
Coustum. Toll; tribute. Courtesy. The life estate which a Couthutlaugh. The harborer of an
widower has in the real property outlaw. of which his wife was seised, if
Covenant. An agreement under seal they have had lawful issue able
between two or more parties, by to inherit. See 128 Am. St. Rep.
which some of them engage with 474, note.
the otbers, or some of them, that Court-lands. Lands retained by the some act has or has not, or shall lord for his family use.
or shall not be done. See 4 Court-leet. An old English court Whart. (Pa.) 68, 33 Am. Dec. 38.
presided over by the steward of Covenant against encumbrances. A the leet, having jurisdiction in covenant securing the grantee petty crimes and preliminary ex against claims of third parties in aminations.
the land. See 68 Ohio St. 450, 96 Court-martial. A military court for Am. St. Rep. 672, 67 N. E. 896.
the enforcement of military laws Covenant appurtenant. One which and regulations.
runs with the land. Law Dict.—7
covenanter. Same as covenantor. Covenator. One who makes a
covenant. Covenants performed. A form of
plea in actions of covenant, used in Pennsylvania. See 15 Serg. &
R. (Pa.) 105. Coventry act. An English statute
against maiming by lying in wait. Covert. Protected, as feme covert,
a married woman. Covert-baron. A married woman. Coverture. The condition of a mar
ried woman. Covin. Fraud; deceit; collusion. Cowitch. A plant whose spines
cause violent itching in contact with the skin. See 2 Pears. (Pa.)
Covenant for quiet enjoyment. A
covenant undertaking to protect the grantee's possession from third party claims. See 9 N. J.
L. 139. Covenant inherent. One directly re
lating to the grant. Covenant not to sue. An agreement
not to enforce an existing cause
of action. Covenant of right to convey. A
covenant asserting the grantor's right to convey. See 128 Ala. 267,
86 Am. St. Rep. 136, 29 South. 386. Covenant of seisin. An assurance
that the grantor has the very estate in quantity and quality which he purports to convey. See 125
Am. St. Rep. 443, note. Covenant of warranty. One by
which the grantor undertakes to warrant and defend the grantee's title. See 58 Conn. 109, 19 Atl. 519. Covenant real. A covenant binding
upon the heirs of the covenantor
upon their inheriting assets. Covenant running with land. A .covenant binding upon transferees of land. See 79 Ala. 569, 58 Am.
Rep. 623. Covenant to convey. One by which
the maker agrees to convey cer
tain property. Covenant to stand seised to uses.
One by which a land owner covenants that he will hold the land
for another's use. Covenantee. One to whom perform
ance of a covenant is due.
Cranage. License to use a wharf
crane. Crassa. Gross. Crastinum, or crastino. To-morrow;
the next day. Crave. To demand; to dun. Craven, cravent, or cravant. A word used as an admission of defeat by a champion in battle. See
3 Bl. Comm. 340. Creamus. We create. Creance. Collateral security; pledge. Creancer, or creansor. A creditor. Credentials. Documents or evi
dences of authority. Credibility. Capacity for being be
lieved or credited. Credible. Competent. See 9 Pick.
(Mass.) 350, 20 Am. Dec. 481. Credible witness. One, who being
competent to give evidence, is worthy of belief. See 27 Tex. App. 47, 11 Am. St. Rep. 180, 10
S. W. 749. Credit. Reputation for veracity or
Crédit foncier. An association en Crime. A public offense; a wrong
gaged in lending money on real against the public; includes every estate.
offense. See 24 How. (U. S.) 66,. Creditor. One who has a definite de
16 L. Ed. 717. mand against the estate, or a Crime against nature. A crime emcause of action capable of adjust bracing both bestiality and sodment and liquidation. See 118
omy. See 10 Ind. 355, 71 Am. Am. St. Rep. (Pa.) 909.
Dec. 331. Creditors' bill. A bill whereby a Crimen. A crime.
creditor seeks to recover out of Crimen falsi. The crime of falsify. some equity not liable to execu
ing, including perjury, forgery and tion sale at law. See 52 Ill. 98.
the like. See 194 Ill. 108, 88 Am. Creditors in solido. Joint creditors. St. Rep. 134, 62 N. E. 546. Creditorum appellatione non hi tan- Crimen falsi dicitur, cum quis illici
tum accipiuntur qui pecuniam tur, cui non fuerit ad haec data crediderunt, sed omnes quibus ex auctoritas, de sigillo regis rapto qualibet causa debetur. By the vel invento brevia, cartasve conterm “creditors" is understood signaverit. The crime of falsify. not only those who have lent
ing applies to one to whom the money but all to whom a debt is authority has not been given who owing from any cause.
has signed writs or charters with Credo. I believe.
the king's seal, stolen or found. Creek. A small seacoast town hav
Crimen furti. Larceny. ing no customs office.
Crimen incendii. Arson. Crementum comitatus. The increase Crimen laesae majestatis. High of the county.
treason. Crepare oculum. To put out an eye. Crimen laesae majestatis omnia alla Crepusculum Twilight.
crimina excedit quoad poenam. Crescente malitia crescere debet et
The punishment for high treason
exceeds that of all other crimes. poena. Punishment ought to be increased as malice increases.
Crimen omnia ex se nata vitiat. Cressant. Growing.
Crime vitiates everything born of
it. See 64 Kan. 216, 91 Am. St. Cresser. To grow.
Rep. 216, 56 L. R. A. 275, 67 Pac. Cretio. The period during which an 537. heir might decide to take or reject
Crimen raptus. Rape. his inheritance.
Crimen roberiae. Robbery. Crew. A ship's company. See 3
Crimen trahit personam. A crime Sumn. (U. S.) 209, Fed. Cas. No.
draws the person with it. See 3 16,740.
Denio (N. Y.), 190, 45 Am. Dec. Cribler. To argue.
468. Crie de pays. Hue and cry.
Crimina morte extinguuntur. Crimes Criez la peez. Rehearse the concord. are extinguished by death.
One of the formalities in levying Criminal. Pertaining to crime; pun. a fine.
ishable as a crime. Crier. To proclaim.
Criminal act. Any act punishable Crim. con. Criminal conversation. as a crime.