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RULE. Multiply the market value of £1 by the amount named in the bill.

2. What is the cost in gold of a bill on Glasgow for £1760 16 s. 6 d., exchange at $4.875?

3. £290 2 s. 6d.

Baltimore, Jan. 5, 1877. At sight of this first of exchange (second and third of same tenor and date unpaid) pay to the order of Henry Preston, two hundred and ninety pounds, two shillings, and six pence, value received, and charge the same to

HIRAM AYRES & Co. To Smith Bros. & Co., London.

Find the cost of the above bill in currency, exchange at $4.87, gold 1091.

CASE II.
To find the face of a bill on England.

1. I have $1039.91 to remit to London; for what number of pounds sterling must a bill be drawn, exchange at $4.87, gold 1061?

ANALYSIS.—$1039.91 • 1.061 =$976.44, value in gold. 976.44 = 4.87 = 200.5.

£200.5= £200 10 s., the amount for which the bill must be drawn.

RULE. Divide the value in gold of the given amount by the market value of £1.

2. A merchant in Louisville gave $1000 in gold for a bill on London, exchange at $4.864; what was the face of the bill?

3. A bill on Liverpool cost $3000 in currency; what number of pounds sterling did it call for, exchange at $1.86, gold 1081?

Exchange on other countries is calculated in a similar manner to exchange on England, substituting the value of the coin used as the basis of exchange, in place of the value of a pound sterling.

4. What is the cost in gold of a bill on Geneva for 2500 francs, exchange at 5.17 francs to the dollar?

THE METRIC SYSTEM. The Metric System is a decimal system of weights and measures, and derives its name from the meter which is the unit of the system.

Note. The metric system originated in France, and was finally made obligatory in that country in 1841. In 1866 its use in the United States was authorized by Act of Congress.

The length of the meter was intended to be one tenmillionth of the distance from the equator to either pole, measured at the level of the sea; but it is in reality a trifle less.

The higher denominations of any measure, obtained by multiplication of the unit, are named by prefixing to the name of the unit of that measure, the Greek numerals Deka, 10, Hecto, 100, Kilo, 1000, or Myria, 10000.

The lower denominations of any measure, obtained by division of the unit, are named by prefixing to the name of the unit of that measure, the Latin numerals Deci, dos Centi, Ido, or Milli, Tobo

ABBREVIATIONS. The name of each leading unit is abbreviated by writing its first letter after the number denoting the given quantity; 11.=1 liter, 5 m. = 5 meters, etc. The Greek names of the higher orders of units are abbreviated in capitals; Hg. = Hektogram, Kg. = Kilogram, etc. The Latin names of the lower orders of units are abbreviated in small letters; ds. = decistere, mm. = millimeter, etc. In square measure and cubic measure, sq. and cu. = square and cubic respectively; 5 sq. Dm. = 5 square Dekameters; 9 cu. dm.= 9 cubic decimeters.

MEASURES OF LENGTH. The unit of length is the Meter. 10 Millimeters = 1 Centimeter = .3937079 inches. 10 Centimeters = 1 Decimeter = 3.937079 " 10 Decimeters = 1 METER = 39.37079 " 10 Meters = 1 Dekameter = 393.7079 10 Dekameters = 1 Hektometer = 3937.079 10 Hektometers= 1 Kilometer = 39370.79 " 10 Kilometers = 1 Myriameter=393707.9 "

Note.-The Meter is used in the same manner as our yard, and the Kilometer as our mile.

MEASURES OF SURFACE. The unit for measuring ordinary surfaces is the Square Meter; for measuring land, the Are or square dekameter.

100 Sq. Millimeters = 1 Sq. Centimeter= .155 sq. in. 100 Sq. Centimeters= 1 Sq. Decimeter = 15.5 " 100 Sq. Decimeters = 1 SQ. METER = 1550" 100 Centiares (sq. meters)= 1 ARE = 119.6 sq.yd. 100 Ares

= 1 Hektare = 2.471 acres.

MEASURES OF CAPACITY. The unit of wood measure is the Stere; it is equal to the Cubic Meter, the unit for other measurements of solids. 1000 Cu. Millimeters = 1 Cu. Centimeter= .061 cu.in. 1000 Cu. Centimeters = 1 Cu. Decimeter = 61.027 " 1000 Cu. Decimeters = 1 CU. METER = 35.316 cu. ft.

10 Decisteres = 1 STERE (cu. meter) = 35.316 cu. ft. 10 Steres = 1 Dekastere = 13.080 cu.yd.

The unit of dry measure and of liquid measure is the Liter, which is equal to a cubic decimeter.

DRY MEASURE. LIQUID MEASURE. 10 Milliliters =1 Centiliter =0.6102 cu.in. or 0.338 fl.oz. 10 Centiliters =1 Deciliter =6.1022 6 " 0.845 gi. 10 Deciliters =1 LITER = 0.908 qt. “1.0567 qt. 10 Liters =1 Dekaliter = 9.08“ “2.6417 gal. 10 Dekaliters =1 Hektoliter=2.8375 bu. “ 26.417 “ 10 Hektoliters=1 Kiloliter =28.375 “ 264.17 " 10 Kiloliters =1 Myrialiter =283.75 “ “2641.7 «

MEASURES OF WEIGHT. The unit of weight is the Gram. 10 Milligrams = 1 Centigram = 0.1543 grains. 10 Centigrams = 1 Decigram = 1.5432 « 10 Decigrams = 1 GRAM = 15.432 " 10 Grams = 1 Dekagram = 0.3527 oz. Avoir. 10 Dekagrams = 1 Hektogram = 3.527 “ “ 10 Hektograms= 1 Kilogram = 2.2046 lb. “ 10 Kilograms = 1 Myriagram = 22.046 " 10 Myriagrams=1 Quintal = 220.46 « 10 Quintals = 1 Tonneau = 2204.6 “

Value of Denominate Numbers in Terms of

the Metric System.

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Note.- As the denominations in the Metric System change their names in accordance with the decimal system, the same quantity may be readily expressed in terms of any of its denominations by a mere change of the decimal point. Thus, 1.6 Kilometers may be written .16 Myriameter, or as 16 Hektometers, 160 Dekameters, etc.; it may also be read as 1 Kilometer 6 Hektometers.

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