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of measuring the works of the several artificers, relating to huilding, and what methods and customs are observed therein.

1st. OF CARPENTERS' WORK. The carpenter's works, which are measurable, are floor. ing, partitioning, and roofing, all which are measured by the square of 10 feet long, and 10 feet broad, so that the square contains 100 square feet.

3

6

1st. OF FLOORING. 1. If a floor be 57 feet 3 inches long, and 28 feet 6 incheg broad, how many squares of flooring are there in that rooms?

Ft. inc.
Multiply 67
Ву 28 6

1,00)16,31 7
Ans. 16,31

16 squares 31 feet: NOTE. Any parts under a foot are not counted. 2. Let a floor be 53 feet 6 inches long, and 47 ft. 9inte, broad, how many squares are contained in that floor

Ans. 25 squares 54 feet. 2nd. OF PARTITIOXING. 3. If a partition between rooms be in length 82 feet 6 inches, and in height 12 feet 3 inches, how many squares are contained therein ?

Ans. 10 squares 10 feet.

3d. OR ROOFING. It is a rule among workmen, that the flat of any house, and half the flat thereof, taken within the walls, is equal to the measure of the roof of the same house; but this is when the roof is true pitched for if the roof be more flat or steep than the true pitch, it will measure more or less accordingly,

4. If a house within the walls be 41 feet 6 inches long, and 18 feet 3 inches broad, how many squares of roofing will cover that house?

Ans. 12 squares 18 feet. Notr... There are other works about a building, done by the carpenter, which are measured by the foot, running measure, that is, by the number of feet in length only, as cornices, doors and cases, window-frames, guttering, lintels, skirtboards, &o. In the measuring of flooring, after you have mea. sured the whole toor, you must deduct out of it the well-holes for the stairs Rad obimnies; and in partitioning, for the doors, windows, &a except (by

agreement) they are to be included. In measuring of roofing, seldom any, reductions are made for the holes for the chimney-shafts, the vacancies for Lutheren lights and skylights, for they are more trouble to the workwar, than the stuff which would cover them is worth.

Ind. OF BRICKLAYERS' WORK. Phe principal is walling and chimney-work.

1st. Of WALLING. Bricklayers commonly measure their work by the rod square of 164 feet, so that one rol in length, and one in breadth, contain 272,25 square feet; but in some places the custom is to allow 18 feet to the rod, that is, 324 square

feet. In some places, the usual way is to measure by the rod of 21 feet long, and 3 feet high, that is, 63 square feet, and here they never regard the thickness of the wall; but the usual way is to moderate the price according to the thickness.

Commonly brick walls, that are measured by the rod, are to be reduced to a standard thickness of a brick and a half thick, (if not agreed on the contrary;) and to reduce a wall to standard thickness, this is the

Rule. Multiply the number of superficial feet, that are found to be contained in any wall, by the number of half.. bricks that wall is in thickness, and one-third part of that product shall be the content thereof in feet, reduced to the standard thickness of one brick and a half.

1. If a wall be 72 feet 6 inches long, and 19 feet 3 inches high, and 5bricks thick, how many rods of brickwork are contained in that wall, when reduced to standard thicknessi

Ans. 18 rods 3 qrs. 12 feet. NOTE. In reducing feet into rods, they usually reject the fractional parts, (,25) and divide by 272 instead of 272,25" square feet, a thing very insignifi.

dant.

2. If a wall be 245 feet 9 inches long, 16 feet 6 inches high, and 24 bricks thick, I demand how many rods of brickwork are contained in that wall, when reduced to standard thickness:

Ans. 24 rods 3 qrs. 24 feet.

To find proper divisors. Divide 3. (the number of half-bricks in 11,) by the number of half-bricks in the thickness, which will be a divisor that will give the answer in feet: but if you would have a divisor to bring the answer in rods at once, multiply 272,25 by the divisor round for feet, and the product will be a divisor which will give the answer in rods.

Let it be required to find a divisor proper to reduce a wall of 3 bricks thick, to a standard thickness of 13 bricks?

3 equal the number of half-bricks in 14 bricks thick.

6 equal the number of half-bricks in the given wall. Then 3 ; 6 =,5 which is a divisor that will give the answer in feet. Then multiply 272,25 by ,5 and the product is 136,125, the divisor, which will give the answer in rods, that is, as 136,125 is to the length of the wall, so is the height to the content in rods. Or, as ,5 is to the length, so is the height to the content in feet. After the same manner you may find divisors for any other thickness, which you will find to be as expressed in the following table.

The thickness of Divisors for the Divisors for bringing

the wall. answer in feet. the answer in rouls.

1 brick thiek
1. bricks thick
2 bricks thick
24 bricks thick
3 bricks thick
31 bricks thick
4 bricks thick

1,5
1,
,75
,6
,5

408,375
272,25
204,1875
163,35
136,125
116,659
102,0937

,4285

,375

To find how many bricks are necessary to build a house of

given dimensions. Rule. From the whole circumference of the wall, measured round on the outside, subtract four times the thickness; then multiply the remainder by the height, and that product by the thickness of the wall gives the solid content of the whole wall, which multiplied by the number of bricks contained in a solid foot, gives the answer.

EXAMPLE

How many bricks, 8 inches long, 4 inches broadl, and 24 inches thick, will build a house 44 feet long, 40 feet wide, and 20 feet high, the wall to be a foot thick?

Ans. 70848 bricks.

And. OF CHIMNIES. If you are to measure a chimney standing alone by itself, without any party-wall being adjoined, then girt it about for the length, and the height of the story is the breadth: the thickness must be the same as the jambs are of, provided that the chimney be wrought upright, from the mantel-tree to the ceiling, not deducting any thing for the vacancy between the floor, or hearth; and the mantel-tree, because of the gatherings of the breast and wings, to make room for the hearth in the next story.

If the chimney-back be a party-wall, and the wall be measured by itself, then you must measure the depth of the two jambs, and the length of the breast.for a length, and the height of the story for the breadth, at the same thickness your jambs were of.

When you measure chimney-shafts, (that part of the chimney above the roof,) girt them with a line round about the least place of them, for the length, and the height shall be your breadth. If they be 4 inch work, you must set down their thickness at one brickwork; but if they be wrought 9 inches thick, (as sometimes they are, when they stand high, and alone, above the roof.) you must account your thickness a brick and a half, in consideration of widths and pargetting, and trouble of scaffolding. It is customary in most places to allow double measure for chimnies.

Suppose you would find how many rods of brickwork are in a chimney three stories high, according to double measurement, which hath a double tunnel towards the top, and a double shaft. I first begin by giving you the dimensions.

Of the first story.-- The breastwall, and the two angles together, are 18 feet 9 inches, and the height of the square is 12 feet 6 inches.

Second story. The length of the breastwall and two angles are 14 feet 6 inches, and the height 9 feet.

Third story. The height is 7 feet, and the length of the breastwall and two angles are 10 feet 5 inches.

Shafts. The compass of the chimney-shafts is 13 feet 9 inches, and the height 6 feet 6 inches.

Fetters. The depth of the middle fetter, that parts the funnels, is 12 feet, and its wideness i foot 3 inches.

Rule. Find the content of each story separately, the fetter and shafts, and add the five products together; then double that surn, and you have the content in feet, which bring to rods by dividing 272,25, or 272, rejecting ,25 into the double sum, (as the work is allowed to be 1) brick work,) and you will have the answer, which is 3 rods Sqrs. 62 feet.

Nore. This is all the measure that can be allowed, when the chimney stands in a gavel or sidewall, in which case the back of the chimney, (here not measured,) is accounted part of the gavel: but if the chimnies stand by themselves, as all stacks of chimnies do, in such case it is all chimney-work, and therefore ought to be measured double on all sides.

3d. OF PLASTERERS' WORK. The plasterer's works are principally of two kinds, viz. First, works lathed or plastered, which they call ceiling; second, works rendered, which are of two kinds, viz. upos

brick walls, or between quarters, in the partition between rooms; all which are measured by the yard square, or square of 3 feet, which is 9 feet.

1st. OF CEILING. If a ceiling be 59 feet 9 inches long, and 24 feet 6 inches broad, how many yards doth that ceiling contain ?

Ans. 162,65 yards. 2nd. OF RENDERING. If the partitions between rooms be 141 feet 6 inches about, and 11 feet 3 inches high, how many yards are in those par. titions ?

Ans. 176,87 yards. NOTE. Painting is measured by the yard, if not agreed on otherwise.

4th. OF JOINERS' WORK. Joiners measure their work by the yard square; and in taking the height of any room, where there is a cornice about, and swelling panels, and mouldings, they with a string begin at the top, and girt over all the mouldings, which make the room to measure much higher than it is. For measuring about the room, they only take it as it is upon the floor.

If a room or wainscoting girt downwards, over the mould. ings, be 15 feet 9 inches high, and 126 feet 3 inches in compass, how many yards doth it contain:

Ans. 220 yards 8 feet. NOTE. I think it unnecessary to introduce painter's or glazier's work in this treatise, as they are of no use.

5th. OF MASONS' WORK. Masons measure their work sometimes by the foot solid, sometimes by the foot superficial, but generally by the rod, that is, 16 ft. 6inc, long, 1 foot high, and 1 ft. 6 inc. thick.

EXAMPLES.

1. If a wall be 97 feet 5 inches long, 18 feet 3 inches high, and 2 feet 3 inches thick, how many solid feet are contained in that wall ?

Ans. 4000 feet 2 inches. 2. If a wall be 107 feet 9 inches long, and 20 feet 6 inches high, how many superficial feet are contained in that wall?

Ans. 2208,875 feet. 3. If a wall be 40 feet long, 20 feet high, and 2 feet thick, how many rods of mason-work are contained in said wall?

16,6 x 1,6 = 24,9 = 24,75
40 x 20 x 2 = 1600 • 24,75 = 64,64 rods, answer.

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