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AVOIRDUPOIS WEIGHT. lbs. oz. dr.

cwt. gr. lbs. oz. dr. From 7 98

91 3 18 12 15 Take 1 11 9

19 2 21 13 12

ton. cwt.qr. lbs. oz. dr. From 702

3 1

12 Take 391

0 3 24 13 12

ton. cwt. gr. 168. 9765

12 1 18 1987 16 3 27

APOTHECARIES' WEIGHT. {be. oz. dr. sc. gr.

168. oz. dr. sc. gr. From 974 10 2 2 19

371 9 7 2 19 Take 7900 7 1 14

107 11 6 0 12

lbs. oz. dr. sc. gr. From 537 11 6 1 10 Ta 191 7 0 2 19

108. oz. dr. sc. gr.
704 1 0 1 1
298 11 7 2 19

yds. gr. na. From 9 3 2 Take 7 1 2

CLOTH MEASURE.
yds. gr. na.

E.E qr. na.
102 1 0

76

E.Fl. gr. na.

3 2 74 3 2

19 3 2

86 1 0 17 2 S

bu. pk. qt. From 75 3 7 Take 57 0 6

DRY MEASURE.

bu. pk. qt. pt.
107 0 1 1
72 3 7 0

bu. pk qt. pt. 843 1 7 0 190 2 6 1

LIQUID MEASURE. gal gt. pt. gill. hhd. gal.qt. pt. From 76 3 1 0

87 52 S 1 Take 54 0 1 3 16 49 2 0

T. hhd. gal. qt. pt. 6 3 393 1 2 1 57 30

yde. ft. in. From 37 2 11 Take 16 7

LONG MEASURE.

mile. fur pole.
72 7 30
37 0 32

lea. m. fur. po:
8 27 26
1 0 6 27

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Questions to exercise Subtraction. 1. From fifty-four thousand and twenty-six, take nine thousand two hundred and fifty-four. Ans. 44772.

2. Subtract one from a million, and tell how many remains.

Ans. 999999. 3. How much is six hundred and ten more than four hun. dred and five ?

Ans. 205. 4. What is the difference between twice twenty-five, and twice five, and twenty?

Ans. 20.

5. My grandfather gave me 1000 dollars, (said Charles to John,) out of which I paid 600 dollars for a plantation, 39 dolls. 371 cts. for building a farmhouse, 75 dolls. 87} cts. apiece for two horses, and 12 dolls. 62} cts. for six sheep. How much money has Charles now?

Ans. 196 dollars 25 cents. 6. From Washington, (Guernsey county, Ohio,) to Pittsburgh, is 124 miles: now, if a wagon travels four days from Washington towards Pittsburgh, at the rate of 17 miles 4 furlongs each day, how far will it be from Pittsburgh on the fourth evening?

Ans. 54 miles. 7. A merchant bought 24 barrels of whiskey for 192 dolls. and sold ten barrels for 90 dolls, and one barrel he retailed for 10 dolls. 37 cts. How many barrels has he remaining on hand, and what do they stand him?

Ans. 13 barrels-91 dolls. 62} cts. 8. Bought a piece of cloth, containing 52 yards, for 71 dollars, and sold 19 yds. 3 qrs. 2 na. for 40 dolls. 12} cts. How many yards have I unsold, and how much does that quantity stand me?

Ans. 32 yds. 2 na.-30 dolls. 87} cts. 9. Thomas received from his uncle, 219 dolls. 50 cts. and bost 100 dollars 62 cents by gambling. How much has he remaining?

Ans. 118 dolls. 87 } cts. 10. Bought 2 miles 7 furlongs 37 rods of the national turnpike road to make, and sold 1 mile 5 furlongs 39 rods. How much have I yet on hand ?-Ans. 1 mile 1 furlong 38 rods.

11. I received, for the rent of my plantation, of different sorts of grain, 287 bushels 3 pecks, and sold 83 bush. 2 pks. feed to my horses, 54 bush. 1 pk. and consumed in my house, 21 bush. 3 pks. How many bushels remain unsold

Ans. 128 bushels 1 peck. 12. Received from Wheeling, 2 tons 19 cwt. 1 qr. 14 lbs. of iron, and sold i ton 17 cwt. 3 qrs. 27 lbs. What weight remains unsold ?

Ans. 1 ton 1 cwt. 1 qr. 15 lbs. 13. Bought a hogshead containing one gross* bottles of wine, and sold to Thos. Cash, threescore and seven bottles, to Richard Paywell, two dozen and four bottles, and broke in the carriage two bottles, and having company one even: ing, we drank eighteen bottles. How many bottles remain ?

Ans. 29 bottles. 14. What sum of money taken from 900 dolls. will leave 314 cents behind ?

Ans. 899 dolls. 684 cts.

* A gross is 12 dozen, or 144; a score is 20; a dozen is 12, and a half dozen is 6.

15. Lodged in the bank two thousand dollars, and receive ed, at several times, nine hundred and ninety-nine dollars ninety-nine cents. How much of my money is there yet?

Ans. 1000 dollars 1 cent. 16. War between England and America declared, June 18th, 1812, and a treaty of peace at Ghent was signed the 24th Dec. 1814. How long did the war last?

Ans. 2 years 6 months 6 days. 17. From Washington, (G. C. Ohio,) to Baltimore, iš said to be 324 miles 6 furlongs, and from here to Wheeling, 39 miles 7 furlongs. How many miles from Wheeling to Baltimore?

Ans. 284 miles 7 furlongs. 18. My daughter, Mary Jane Connolly, will be 18 years of age on 23d Feb. 1844. What year was she born in?

Ans. 230 Feb. 1826. 19. A silversmith bought 20 lbs. 7 oz. 9 dwt. of silver, and wrought up 12 lbs. 11 oz. 10 dwt. 12 grs. How much has he left ?

Ans. 7 lbs. 7 oz. 18 dwt. 12 grs. 20. A physician bought 9 lbs. 10 oz. 7 drs. 2 scr. of medicine, and has sold 5 lbs. 8 oz. 6 drs. 1 scr.

What quantity has he yet on hand ?

Aps. 4lbs. 2 oz. i dr. 1 scr.

MULTIPLICATION

Is a short way of performing the addition of several equal numbers, of the same denomination, into one sum.

The sum to be multiplied is called the multiplicand; the sum multiplied by is the multiplier; the amount produced is called the product. The multiplicand and multiplier are often called factors, and the product the rectangle.

RULE. Place the multiplicand at top, and the multiplier in the under line, in such a manner, that units will stand under units, tens under tens, &c. Then multiply them from right to left, setting down the units' figure of each particular product, and carry 1 for every 10, as in addition of whole numbers, and you will have the product, or answer.

When the multiplier consists of more figures than one, there must be made as many products as there are figures contained in the multiplier; and the first figure of every particular product must be placed exactly under its multiplier. Then add the several products, (as they stand,) together, and their sum will be the total product.

When there are ciphers at the right hand of either or both factors, omit them, until you add up the several products; then place the ciphers, so omitted, on the right hand of the total sum, or product.

When 11 or 12 occurs, you may multiply by them at once, or separately. When any number between 12 and 20 occurs, then multiply by the units of the multiplier; and as you multiply, add to the product of each single figure, that of the multiplicand, which stands next on the right hand.

When ciphers are placed between the significant figures in the multiplier, they must be omitted in the operation, regard being had to the first figure of every particular product, as before.

When the multiplier is such a number, that any two figures multiplied together will make that multiplier, it is. shorter to multiply the given number by one of those figures, and that product by the other, as 6 times 7 is 42, or 5 times 9 is 45. To multiply by 10, 100, 1000, &c. annex all the ciphers in the multiplier to the multiplicand, and it

To prove Multiplication, cast the '9's out of the multiplicand, and set the excess in the left fork of a cross; then cast the 9's out of the multiplier, and set that excess in the right fork of the same cross; then multiply the two excesses together, and cast the 9's out of their product, and set the excess in the upper fork of the cross; and, lastly, cast the. 9's out of the total product, and set the excess in the bottom of the cross. If the top and bottom excesses are alike, the question is right.

The pupil ought to observe the preceding directions with care: by so doing, he will reap benefit, not only of these, but what is to follow.

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