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Illustration of the Seat of War. Moucha and Castile: these mills add greatly to the beauty of the banks, and of the country.
There remajas one more of the principal roads worthy of detail, this is that from Placencia in Estremadura, to Salamanca, from south to north, and which has been the frequent route of our divisions from Badajos to Ciudad Rodrigo. This road is as follows:- From Placencia to Al Villar 12 English miles, Aldea Nueva del Camino 12, Banos 12, Calzada 8, Val-Verde 5, Val de la Casa-5, Los Palacios 8, Al Rerrocal 6, Salamanca 8.---Total 76 miles...
The greatest part of the road to Al Villar is very good, except the first four miles, which are bad. At the second mile there is a pass in the mountains, where is the image of a saint. From this place we see the spot where stood the stone on which was inscribed the words, Sultus Ambracensis. On this. hill are a considerable number of wild olive, oak, and other trees. The desai cent is a very bad road. The whole way to Banos is called the back of the Sierra, as between Al Villar and Placencia is a sierra or lofty chaio of mountains, which separates them. Al Villar is a pretty bamlet, surrounded with fruit trees in abundance, particularly chesnut. There are remaiôs of an aqueduct, and inscriptions on the houses, which prove this country to have been inhabited by the Romans.
Aldea Nueva is a considerable hamlet. From the declivity.of the mountain where this village is situated, to its top, there is a wood of chesnuts, which commands all the other villages, and which is a great resource to the poor. In entering Aldea Nueva (from the Salamanca side) there is a wellbuilt bridge, and another in leaving it; the latter is called the Maiden, and is over the Ambroz; farther on is another over a brook, where the ancient highway passed; it is called Romanilos, and was made by the Romans. We meet with the Roman highway in many places from Aldea del Camino to Banos. To the left is the village of.Orvas, situated on the side of one of the highest mountains of the country, and which is covered with snow the whole year round. The mountain, however, is richly wooded with fruit trees.
Banos is situated on a hill of that name, which separates Old Castile from Estremadara. The whole of the surrounding country is covered with olives, chesnuts, and vineyards, and is as beautiful as it is fertile.
Banos'is a lively place, having some wealth, and about three hundred families. The baths, from which it takes its name, are hot, sulphurous, and very salatary for rheumatisms. A part of the Roman dike still remains, and is on the extreme height of the bill. There are also some Roman mile stones, on which may be decyphered the numbers CXXXI. which no doubt expresses the number of miles from Merida to Banos (Vicus Cecilius.) From Banos the descent is very difficult and bad; having arrived at the bottoin,” you cross by a bridge over the river Cuerpo de Hombre, which directing its course by the west, flows into the Alagon. To the right are the passes of the mountains, wbieh, from Bejar, follow in succession with different names, Piedra-bite, Arenas, Puerto del Rico, &c. and all being branches of the
Itinerary from Petersburgh to Berlin.
Sierra d'Avila, and Sierra de Tablada, separate Estremadura and Leon from New and Old Castile.
To the left is Monte Mayor, and Pena Cabellera. - Banos has become very celebrated by the brave defence of the pass by the Lusitanian legion, under Sir Robert Wilson in the campaign of 1809.
The village called Calzada (the causeway) is well planned, for it is situated on the Roman highway, which we meet with at the entrance of the villages and follow upon in several places, in spite of the total neglect of it, and the lapse of ages. Before we reach Calzada, we meet with some mile-stones that have lost their Roman inscriptions; but farther un at Valverde there are several on which they are preserved. After passing Val de la Casa we cross á mountain covered with oaks, and soon after leave the mountains, and arrive at Los Palacios. From this place to Barrocal de Salvaterra the road differs but little from what precedes it; and by this road we shortly arrive at Salamanca, after having a grand distant vista of its towers.
PETERSBURGH TO BERLIN, THROUGH RIGA
AND POLISH LITHUANIA,
ON the evening of the 19th of Seplember 1604, after a visit of some weeks to Petersburgh, we left it for Berlin. The moon shone very bright. The little Russ driver, who sat on the shaft, sung merrily, and never ceased from his song till we reached Strelna, the first stage, where we proposed sleeping. Here, bowever, we could get no beds, and therefore were obliged to continue forwards. We travelled all night upon good roads, and arrived early the next morning (the 20th) to breakfast at Koskowa. All the post houses beyoud Strelua are kept by Germans. For each borse we paid two copecs (about a penny) a verst. The Russian verst is three quarters of an English mile. The female peasantry wear a fat bonnet of red silk and gold lace, a vest without sleeves, and cloth round their legs. The men wear sheep-skins with the wool inside. This part of Ingria formerly belonged to the Swedes.
Our next stage was to Jarnburg, and the following one to Narva, which we reached about nine o'clock in the evening. We passed over the ground where Charles XII. of Sweden routed an army of 100,000 Muscovites, with only 8000 Swedes. We staid at Narva the whole of the following day.
We left it at seven the next morning, and entered the province of Livonia. The roads were excellent, and the country beautiful; our horses small, plump and strong; and above we were serenaded by larks singing in a cloudless sky. Qur drivers wore bats covered with oil-skin, and woollen gloves, and the Gero mao pipe began to smoke. At the post-house at Kleinprengen we saw the skins of several bears hanging up to dry, and conversed with a party of hun. lers wbo were going out to hunt that animal; the woods abound in them, as well as in wolves. Our jaded cattle, panting, and almost breathless, made Itinerary from Petersburgh to Berlin. a dead stand in t'he depth of a dark forest, the silence of which was only interrupted by the distant howling of bears. After some difficulty we again . got them forwards, and reached Rennapungen, our next stage. The following, day we passed through a most wild country, and reached Nonal to dinner.
After skating a small portion of the Piepas lake, which is about 60 miles broad, and 190 long, we arrived at Dorpt, which stands upon a small river, that runs into the lake. The town is extensive, has several good streets, and bandsome houses, and is celebrated for its university. Upon the summit of a hill that coinmands the town, are the remains of an ancient abbey, farmerly belonging to the Teutonie knights. The peasant women of this province wear large pewter breast buckles upon their handkerchiefs. The students of the university, who are numerous, wear a military helmet, bools, and spurs.
At Ultern, our next stage, we found that the governor of the province had ordered all the post horses for himself and suit. Some small towns had, become troublesoine, and he had gone to administer the usual Russian remedy-to flog some of the most refractory. We were detained all night owing to this incident. In all the post-houses is a tablet, framed and glazed, called the Taxe, on which is printed the settled price of provisions, horses, and carriages. Travelling still continued cheap, i.e. at the rate of ten-perce English for eight horses for an English mile. The roads, however, were dreadfully sandy; we could seldom go above three miles an hour. Patience, however, brought us to Riga, which much disappointed our expectation. Riga is a fortified town, and a place of great antiquity, but has absolutelynothing which excited or deserved observation.
On leaving Riga we crossed the Dwina, which penetrates a great way into Poland, and supplies all these parts with the natural treasure of that country. Part of the bridge over it, wbich is built of fir, floats upon the water, and part rests upon the sand in the shallows, the whole is level, and very longThe country to Nittau, which is 28 miles from Riga, is very beautiful and luxuriant. The bread, however, is intolerable, gritty, black, and sandy; this is the more intolerable, as Courland and Livonia are the graineries of the north. We reached Mittau, the capital of Courland, in the evening; the first object upon entering the town is the vast neglected palace of the late sovereign Dukes of Courland; it is built of brick, is stuccued with white, stands upon an eminence, and has not a tree or a shrub near-it. Mittau is a long, straggling, ill-built town, and most wretchedly pated. The Empress Cather sine obtained this province in a most disgraceful manner-a-la-mode de Napolcon--by insidiously exciting a dispute between the Courlanders and the duke, respecting a canal; she then invited the duke to Petersburgh, and scarcely had be passed the bridge of Mittau, before her emissaries procured a meeting of tbe Courland nobility, in which it was agreed to put the country under the care of the empress. Swords, indeed, were drawn, but the presence of the Russian general decided the matter, and the dilke heard of the revolution at Petersburgh, and was compelled to submit to it. His kingdom was gones and bis person in the hands of Catherine.
Itinerary from Petersburgh to Berlin. We departed from Mittau the next morning, and passed through the most enchanting forest scenery, composed of pines, aspins, oak, and nut trees; at some distance we saw a wolf cross the road. Upon quitting the luxuriant fields, and rich and cheerful peasantry of Courland, we entered the province of Polish Lithuania. The cottages had high sloping roofs; and rows of crosses, about fifteen feet high, were frequently planted along the road-side. After passing through Polangeu, the barrier town of Russia and Prussia, we reached Memel to a late dinner. Here we found an excellent inn. 'Memel is a large commercial town, lying on the shore of the Baltic, very wretchedly paved. In the citadel, which cominands an agreeable view of the town, we saw the prisons, which appeared to be wretched.
We waited at Memel two days, in hourly expectation of the wind changing that we might proceed to Koningsberg by water, instead of wading over a tract of mountainous sand, 80 English miles long, and vot niore than three in breadth, in its broadest part, called the Curische Haff, that runs up withiui balf a mile of Memel; and divides the Baltic from an immense space of water on the side of Curische Haff, wbich extends from Meniel nearly to Koningsberg. As the wind, however, still continued adverse, we at length set off on the Curische Haff, and with much difficulty arrived at the first post-house, which lay in the centre of mountains of sand. Here we got into a boat, and proceeded for the next stage. We set sail with a favourable breeze, which died away after we had proceeded seven English nules, when we put into a creek before a few little wretched fisbing huts, under the roof of which, with cocks, hens, ducks, and dogs, we passed an uncomfortable night. In the morning we could obtain no post-borses; the wind was aguinst us, and at least eight English nules lay between us and the post-house. I walked out to look at the scenery around, and ascended a sandy bill; fromí the top on one side lay the Baltic sea, on the other the lake which had borne as thus far; and before and bebind a line of sand mountains, many of them a hundred feet high. In a valley below.us stood two wretched horses, almost skeletons, scarcely making any shadow in the sun. The region bad no other appearance than that of the domain of famine. A short lime afterwards the wind changed, and we enibarked; the wind freshened into a gale, and the rain poured down most famously. It was ten o'clock at night when we reached the post house at Nidden; and after supping, were shown into a large gloomy room, where we had to sleep, amidst tourteen sleeping damsels, lying with their clothes on. We slept soundly, as did likewise the ladies.
The country became more pleasant as we approached Koningsberg, the inns bad better accommodations, and we procured excellent potatves 10 our dinners and suppers. This vegetable bas been introduced into the north of Europe about 20 years. On the 10th of October we reached Komnysberg. This city was first founded in 1255, and is very extensive, having fourteen parishes; the streets are narrow, ill-paved, and have no fool-path. The women are delightiully handsome, but wear great thick boots, aud a black: ribbon tied in a bow, in the front of their cap... The trade of this city is very considerable, a thousand vessels annually sail in and out of its parts. The
Itinerary from Petersburgh to Berlin.
siver Pregel, which is here very shallow, was crowded with market boats, filled with fish, butter, bread, plunibs, and pears. After staying here two days, we continued our journey, and reached Frauenberg, where we stopped the carriage at the foot of an almost perpendicular hill, crowned with a monastery, containing the tomb of Copernicus. It was dusk as we ascended for the purpose of visiting this place; the ascent presented a noble view of the beautiful country around, and immediately on one side of us a wide spreading beach and the sea.
We reached Elbing to breakfast, a very neat town, having a very considerable commerce, and a people comfortable in their circumstances. The fruit and vegetable sellers carry their articles in little pails, suspended at the end of a curved stick, like the milk women of London. The houses are sin. gular, but as they resemble those of Dantzie, one description will answer.
The post from Elbing to Marienburg is 19 Englisb miles, a tremendous long stage; indeed an autumnal day's journey upon such roads. The road was ornamented, I suppose they call it, by long rows of pollards. It was evening when we reached Marienburg, a town once celebrated as the principal residence of the knights of the Teutonic order: it is now a small towu.
We were thirteen hours in reaching Dantzic from Marienburg, a distance of 30 English miles. We passed through a country abounding in corn fields, in one of which we counted nine bustards, each larger than a turkey. After passing several monasteries, beautifully embosomed in trees; and the suburbs of Dantzic, extending nearly two English miles, we reached the drawbridge, and the capital of Pomerellia in the evening. Nothing can exceed the fantastic appearance of the houses; they are very lofty, bave vast sloping soofs, tbe fronts of wbich are surmounted with lions, angels, and griffins The windows are very large and square, and the outsides of the houses are painted in brown or green colours. The streets are beautifully embellished with some noble chesnut and walnut trees. The Vistula, the largest river in Poland, after springing from Mount Crasseck, on the confines of Silesia, crosses Poland and Prussia, washes the walls of Dantzic, and falls into the Baltic.
From Dautzic to Berlin we travelled by the vehicle of the country, called the Stuhlwaggan. Although the red leaves of autumn were falling in showers from the trees, the country appeared very picturesque and rich. On the road every Prussian was at once equipped for his bed and for a ball, by having his bead, adorned with a cocked hat and a night cap under it. The Prussian farm-bouses are either tiled, or very neatly thatched; the country was well Cultivated, and the farmers looked rich, respectable, and perfectly English. .
The road to Berlin has in one respect a great advantage, there is a constant and rapid succession of towns and villages, but no scattered cottages. Upon every acclivity the traveller commands six or seven shires rising from little clumps of trees. We frequently passed through the most beautiful avenues of majestic bak, stately lindens, and graceful beech and birch trees. I found the ions, however, very poor, and at Pinnow we had to sleep on beds of straw. At length, after some alternate amusement and suffering, we reached Berlin, the place of our rest, and present destination.