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General Contents of Vol. IV.

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EMBELLISHMENTS.

MILITARY CHRONICLE;

OR

BRITISH OFFICER's

MONTHLY REGISTER AND MENTOR,

FOR MAY, 1812.

EMBELLISHMENT.

Portrait of His ROYAL HIGHNESS THE DUKE OF YORK.

CONTENTS.

....

2

MILITARY BIOGRAPHY.

||Courts Martial ....

.Page 50

51 The DUKE of YORK ....... Page 1 Military Education and Schools

Arrears of Regimental Accounts... i 53 Memoir on the Operations in Estremadura, in 1811 Russian Army ...

56 Operations of Sir David Baird's Division

ELEMENTS OF THE ART OF WAR.

9 Journal of the Campaign of 1809.... 24 General Strategy

57 MILITARY CORRESPONDENCE.

LONDON GAZETTES. Journal of an Officer of the Royals

April 14-Dispatches from Lord Wel. in Spain

39

lington A Letter to the Officers of the Army 44

Miktary Promotions....

70 On Military Knowledge

47

April 24.-Extraordinary Gazette.Recruiting of the West India Regiments,

Taking of Badajoz

79

67

LONDON:

PRINTED BY AND FOR J. DAVIS, 38, ESSEX STREET, STRAND;

AND TO BE HAD OF ALL THE BOOKSELLERS.

1812.

TO CORRESPONDENTS.

We beg leave to return our thanks to the Correspondents who have favoured us with the articles inserted in this Number, and more particularly to J. P. and J. C. We should be infinitely obliged by the latter Gentleman if he would remit the remainder of bis Journal by the both of the month, as we have not enough remaining for an insertion.

The Eleventh Number of the Military and Historical Classics will be published on the 1st of next Month, and will conclude Arrian's Expedition of Alexander the Great. The joth Number is published this day, and New Editions of the first Numbers are ready for delivery, so that complete Sets may be had.

*** THE SUPPLEMENT to the Third Volume of the Military Chronicle is published this Day, Price 2s.6d. It contains the Life of Prince Eugene of Savoy, by himself, complete, a book selling in London for 7s. 6d. It is here presented to the Army for Half a Crown, reprinted from the first English Edition,

ROYAL MILITARY CHRONICLE.

MAY, 1812.

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH.

THE DUKE OF YORK.

AS the public Life of the Royal Family is so sufficiently known as to leave us nothing to say beyond the common-place within the reach of every one, we deem it unnecessary to add any memoir of His Royal Highness the Commander-in-Chief. We shall content ourselves, there fore, with expressing our satisfaction, in common with that of the

army, with the present system of the office of the Commander-in-Chief, and more particularly with the zeal and ability, with which his Royal Highness attends to the permanent amelioration of the condition of the solo diers by the support and recommendation of Dr. Bell's system of National Education. The best roots of true courage and disciplined obedience are in the feeling and knowledge of inoral and religious duty. And assuredly, the best security of our Constitution is in the honour and honesty, the attachment to liberty and law, of our soldiery. The milia tary character of the times, and the necessities which it has induced, have worn out those peculiar distinctions of our militia, to which we have been accustomed to look as the constitutional controul upon our standing armies. It has become necessary, therefore, to look for other checks, and these are no where to be found but in the improved knowledge, and therein the improved morals and feelings, of the arıny itself. We must conclude, therefore, with expressing our hopes, that within a few months there will not be a soldier in the English army, who will not be instructed, at least in reading, by the system of Dr. Bell. I have always attributed the evident superiority of the morals of the people of England (I am speaking of the great body of the people of England, the couutry people) to two very simple causes,--the parish churches, and the number and cheapness of our Free and Sunday Schools. It is in England ooly, in this free and happy country, that one day in seven the simple and sweet morality of the Christian Gospel is explained in their own native language, to the sons and daughters of our villages and hamlets; and it is in England only that the Bible, in the common tongue of the country, is put into the hands of all who can read, and is as necessary and as constant a part of the furniture of every decent cottage as the bed and the chair. What, therefore, is the sum of this it is VOL. IV. NO. 19.

B

Memoir of the Operations in Estremadura, in 1811.

briefly this, that every man has at his elbow a constant daily instructor; the purest morality, enforced in a language which comes home to the hearts and bosoms of all.

MEMOIR OF THE OPERATIONS IN ESTREMADURA, IN 1811.

AS the siege of Badajoz is the present object of public attention, and as it is probably the commencement of a new line of operation (i. e. to Seville, thence to Cadiz, and thence along the coast, in which case the army will be accompanied by a fleet on its flank), the following brief memoir of the former operations against this city may be of some interest to your military readers. It may enable them to form some judgment of what is now intended, and may be of use to them in understanding the campaign.

The first operation against Badajoz was in January, 1811, when Massena was at Santarem, and Lord Wellington opposite hiin at Cartaxo. Marshals Soult and Mortier were at Seville. Massena, who was then thinking of moving bis quarters, probably applied to the two Marshals to attempt a diversion in his favour, and they in consequence began their advance towards Badajoz. Mortier arrived at Ronquillo on the 3d of January, and continuing to advance into Estremadura, he formed a junction with the division under General Girard, at Guadalcanal. On the 9th he obtained possession of Merida, and the bridge over the Guadiana at that place. He then marched to Olivenca, which containing but a small garrison, and being badly provided with provisions, was taken possession of on the 23d.

The two Marshals now proceeded to invest Badajoz with their infantry. They pushed their cavalry forwards on the right bank of the Guadiana.

Lord Wellington was well aware of the value of this city, as well as of the designs of the eneiny in these, operations. He accordingly persuaded the Marquis Romana to march inmediately to its assistance. The Marqnis, however, dying at Cartaxo, January 23, 1811, retarded the advance of the troops, as General Mendizabel, who succeeded to the command of the Spanish army, immediately halted them. l'pon the recommendation, however, of Lord Wellingtou, Mendizabel again ordered his army to advance, and he joined it at Elvas on the morning of the 6th of February. Mortier, however, as if iu contempt of his enemy, continued his position in the neighbourhood of Badajoz, and began to break ground before that place on the left (or Seville side) of the Guadiana.

I have mentioned that Mortier had pushed his cavalry forwards to the right, or Elvas side of tlie Guadiana. 17 is cavalry fell back as the Spanish army advanced. They were attacked by the Spanish troops as they were pussing the Evora, and lost some few cattle and bag cage. In this affir, a Portuguese brigade under Brigadier-General Maddan behaved with great gallantry, but not being supported by the Spaniards, the enemy rallied, and obliged them to re-cross the Evora with a very considerable loss.

After some trifling operations, the Spanish General threw himself into the city, from whence he again withdrew his army on the 9th of February, and took up a position on the ridge of St. Christoval, which commanded a most extensive view in every direction. Notwithstanding

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