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the Americans, ib.-Affair of the Chesapeake, 98.—Mr Erskine's negotiation with Mr Madison, ib.—Affair of the Little Belt and President, 100.—Measures of Congress, 101.—War declared, ib.--Invasion of Canada by General Hull, 103.--Armistice on the frontiers, 104.-Defeat of the Americans at Queenstown, ib.Third invasion of Canada, 105.-Successes of the Americans at sea, ib.—The Shannon and Chesapeake, 111.-Combats of lesser vessels, 113.Naval operations in Chesapeake Bay, ib.-Defeat of General Winchester, 114.--Capture of York, 115.-Repulse at Sackett's Harbour, 116.--Reduction of Fort George, ib.— The Americans defeated at Stony Creek, &c., 117.— Blockade of Fort George, and repulse of Proctor at Sandusky, ib.--Success of the British on Lake Champlain, and at Plattsburg, 118.-Action on Lake Erie, 119.—Disaster of General Proctor, ib.—Disaster on Lake Ontario, 120:Invasion of Canada, ib.Defence of Fort Michilmackinac, 121.-Evacuation of Fort George, ib.— Defeat of Hull, and burning of Buffalo, 122.-Capture of the Essex by the Phæbe, 123.—The Frolic taken by the Orpheus, and the Reindeer by the Wasp, 124.-Action between the President and the Endymion, ib.-Financial measures of the American government, 126.-Repeal of the Non-importation Act, ib. Symptoms of a breaking up of the Union, 127. -Storming of Fort Oswego, and failure at Sandy Creek, ib.-Capture of Fort Erie, and battle of Chippewa, 128.—Assault on Fort Erie, 130.-Operations in Chesapeake Bay, ib. - Battle of Bladensberg, 132.—Capture of Washington, ib.—Capture of Fort Washington and Alexandria, 133.–Victory of the British near Baltimore, 134.-Ěxpedition against Plattsburg, 135.Defeat of the British squadron, 137.-Sortie from Fort Erie, and its evacuation, 140.—Expedition against New Orleans, ib.Conclusion of peace at Ghent, 143.—Losses of the Americans during the war, 145.—Effects of the war on the manufacturing interests of Great Britain, 146.-Aggressive disposition of the Americans, 147.—Necessity of concentrating the British forces in such a war, 149.— Necessity of maintaining a superiority on the lakes, 150. -Errors of the British government, 151. —Danger from colonial defection, 152.—Principle of colonial government, 153.

CHAPTER XCII.-CONGRESS OF VIENNA, AND RETURN OF NAPOLEON

FROM ELBA.

Enthusiasm in Great Britain, 154.—Anticipations on the results of the Revolu.

tion, ib.Grant to the Duke of Wellington and his chief generals, 155. -Wellington's reception, 156.- Thanksgiving in St Paul's for peace, ib. Conquest of Norway by Sweden, 161.-Sketch of the Corn Laws, 162.- The bill carried, 166.-Difficulties which beset Louis XVIII., 168.–Formation of the Constitution, 169.—The Charter, ib.—Difficulties of the Restoration, 171—and embarrassments of Government, 172.-System of government which the Bourbons pursued, 173.—Errors of their civil administration, 174.Regulations regarding the army, 175.—The ministers of the Restoration, ib.—Financial difficulties, 177.—The Congress of Vienna, ib.-Alexander demands the whole of Poland, 178.–Views of Prussia on Saxony, 179.Views of England, France, and Austria, ib.—Military preparations, 180.Secret treaty between Austria, England, and France, ib.--The German Confederacy, 181.—The Kingdom of the Netherlands, 182.–Treaty between England and the Kingdom of the Netherlands, ib.—Affairs of Switzerland, 183 -and of Saxony, ib. -Acts for the free navigation of the Rhine, and the aboli. tion of the slave trade, ib. - Affairs of Italy, 184.-Measures of the Congress against Napoleon, 186.- Preparation of the allied powers, 187.-Settlement of the affairs of Poland, ib.—Situation of Napoleon at Elba, and conspiracy in France in his favour, 188.–Napoleon's correspondence with Murat. His life in Elba, 189.—He leaves Elba, 190.—His progress, 191.-Defection of Labedoyère, 192.—Measures taken at Paris, 195.–Soult's and Ney's protestations of fidelity, 196.—Dismissal of Soult, and failure of the Comte d'Artois at Lyons, 197.-Advance of Napoleon to Lyons, 198.—Treason of Ney, ib.-Defection of the army, 199.—Conduct of the court, 200.—The King retires to Ghent, 201.

- Napoleon reaches Paris, ib.—Transports among the Imperial party, 202. CHAPTER XCIII.- HUNDRED DAYS : TO THE CLOSE OF THE BATTLE OF LIGNY. Dificulties of Napoleon, 202.-His appointments, 203.—Efforts of the Duke and

Duchess d'Angoulême, 204.—Treaties between the Allies, 206—and force at their disposal, 207.—Preparations of the British government, ib.—Finances and budget of Great Britain, 208.—Napoleon's military preparations, 209.-Fouché, Carnot, and other republicans, 210.–Financial measures of Napoleon, 212.Formation of a constitution, ib.-Murat advances to the Po, 214.-His overthrow, and restoration of the Bourbons to the throne of Naples, ib.-Louis XVIII. at Ghent. Chateaubriand and his writings, 215.—War in La Vendée, 1.- The Chamber of Deputies, 217.—The Champ de Mai at Paris, ib.-Napoleon sets out for the

army, 219.–Fouchés treachery, 220.–Napoleon's plan of the campaign, ib.-Wellington's plan of the campaign, 221.-Disposition of the French troops, and Napoleon's address to them, 222.-Positions and views of Wellington and Blucher, 223.—Preparations of the Allies, 225.—The French cross the frontier, 227.–Battle of Ligny, 229.—Battle of Quatre Bras, 233. -Retreat of the Prussians to Wavre, 236.—Retreat of Wellington to Waterloo, 31.-Conflict at Genappe, 238.-Results of the campaign, ib.

CHAPTER XCIV.-BATTLE OF WATERLOO. Night before the battle, 239.-Feelings of the soldiers, 240.—Description of

the field, ib.-Position of the French, 241.-Aspect of the French force, 242. -The troops on either side, 243.—Attack on Hougomont, 244.-Attack of & Erlon on the left centre, 245.-Charge of British horse under Ponsonby, 246.—Defeat of the brigade by the cuirassiers, ib.-Defeat of the French cuirassiers by Somerset's Horse-Guards, 247.—Progress of the battle on the British right, 248.-Lord Anglesea defeats an attack on the British right, ib. -Charge of cavalry in the centre, 249.-Capture of La Haye Sainte, 250.Arrival of Bulow's corps at Planchenoit, ib. - Grand attack of the Guard, 252. --Donzelot's attack, 253.—First attack of the Imperial Guard, 254.–Last attack of the Middle and Old Guard, 255—and general advance of the British, 256.--Success of the Prussians, 257.-Rout of the reserve of the Old Guard, ib. Immense effect of this advance, 258.—Defeat of the Old Guard, ib. Flight of Napoleon, 259.—Planchenoit carried by the Prussians, 260.–Wreck of the French army, ib.—Meeting of Wellington and Blucher, ib. -Loss of the Allies at Waterloo, 261.-Action of Grouchy at Wavre, 262.—Retreat of Grouchy, 263.-Reflections on the campaign of Waterloo, ib. Parallel between Napoleon and Wellington, 272. CHAPTER XCV.SECOND RESTORATION OF LOUIS, AND DEATH OF NAPOLEON. Flight of Napoleon, and his arrival at Paris, 275.-Measures to force the Em

peror to abdicate, 276.-Efforts of Wellington to prevent pillage, 277 Advance of the English and Prussians towards Paris, 278. -Scene in the Chamber of Peers, 279.–Attempts to defend Paris, 280.-Its capitulation, ib. -Entry of the English and Prussians into the French capital, 282—and of Louis XVIII, ib. Condition of Paris after the Restoration, 283.—The Bridge of Jena saved by Wellington, ib.-Napoleon delivers himself up to the English, 284.–Removal of Napoleon to St Helena, 285.-Restoration of the works of art, 286.—Abstinence from pillage by the allied sovereigns, ib. Extent of French pillage of objects of art under Napoleon, ib.—Their requi. sitions in money and kind, 287.-Forces of the Allies, ib.-Demands of the

allied powers, 288.—The treaty, ib.-Review of the British troops, 289.- Review of the Russians, ib.— Trial and execution of Labedoyère and Ney, and condemnation and escape of Lavalette, 290.—Execution of Murat, 293. - Difficulties of the government of the Restoration, 294.-Losses of France under the Empire, 295—and prosperity during the Restoration, 296.-Character of Louis XVIII., ib.—Character of Fouché, 298.—Effects of the French Revolution, 299.—Effects of the confiscation of the church property, 300.—Destruction of the old landed aristocracy, 301.-Subdivision of the land of France, 303.—Deterioration of French agriculture, ib.—Condition of the French people, 305.—General social and domestic results of the Revolution in France, 309.—Picture of France since 1830, 310.-Successes of England in the war, 312.—Her internal growth and prosperity, 314.-Historical sketch of London, 317.—How has this vast dominion arisen, 319.—The British colonial system, 322.-System of paper currency, 324.— The establishment of the Protestant religion, 326.—Principles on which the war was conducted by Great Britain, 327.-Present evils which threaten the British empire, 329.—-Changes in our social policy since the peace—the currency system, 330.— The reciprocity system, 331.—The Reform Bill, 332.—Analogy between Great Britain and the Roman empire, 335.—Napoleon at St Helena, 337.-His death, 338. -His interment at St Helena, ib.-Removal of his remains, 339.

CHAPTER XCVI.—CONCLUDING REFLECTIONS. Importance of historical review to mankind, 340.- Alternation of progress and

decline in human affairs, 341.-General progress of mankind, 342.—Expectations of the world at the breaking out of the French Revolution, 344.— Disappointment of these expectations, 345.-Re-establishment of military government by Louis Philippe, 346.- Expectations from American equality, 347.—The French Revolution of 1848, 348.—Demonstration of the warlike tendency of republics, 352.-Apparent consistency of Christianity with popular principles, ib.-Causes of the hostility of democracy to it, 353.-Corruption of all classes, ib.—Monarchical government, 354.–Aristocratic government, 355.— Powers of Democracy, ib. — Its evils, 356.—Error in supposing that some institutions are fit for all men, ib. — Democratic evils less generally complained of than aristocratic, 357. - Speedy destruction of all democratic communities, ib. — Prevalence of virtuous opinions in a rightly organised community, 362. --- Rapid corruption of opinion in democratic states, ib.— Necessity of long possession of power to restrain its excesses, 363.-Cause of the cruelty of democracy, 365.- Effects of a democratic constitution in giving an ascendancy to towns, 367.—Contention of aristocracy and democracy in all free states, 368.—Increased principle of vitality in modern nations, 370.- Final cause of war, ib.-Necessity of war for the purification of mankind, 372.-Selfishness at the commencement of the French Revolution, 373.—Generous deeds of all classes and nations during the war, ib.-Physical conformation of Asia, 374.-Continual regeneration of the Asiatic tribes, 375.—Democracy the great moving power among mankind, 376.-Aristocracy the controlling and reguTating power, _378. — Agency of those counteracting forces in separate societies, ib.—True system of representative government, 379.-Action and reaction in the European communities, 380.--The Revocation of the Edict of Nantes the remote cause of the French Revolution, 381.- Ultimate changes which threaten to destroy the vital principle, 382.-Substitution of the government of functionaries for that of property, ib.—Sin of the Reformation, 384.-Sin of the French Revolution, ib. - Example this affords of moral retribution, 385.-Effect of the French Revolution on the spread of the Christian religion, 386.--Simuitaneous rise of steam-navigation, 358.General conclusion, ib.—APPENDIX, 391.

HISTORY OF EUROPE.

CHAPTER LXXXIX.

RESTORATION OF THE BOURBONS, AND CONCLUSION OF THE WAR.

APRIL 1- JULY 30, 1814.

2 AugfB61

1. NAPOLEON was now overthrown : ment, which would be acceptable to its but a duty of no small difficulty inhabitants. Nor were the inclinations awaited the allied sovereigns in de- of the allied sovereigns less at variance liberating upon who was to be ac- on the subject. Alexander had more knowledged as his successor. In truth, than once repudiated the idea of a it was a question of the most delicate crusade for the restoration of the kind; and there was not a little danger Bourbon line ; Austria naturally and that the alliance, which had been held openly inclined to a regency, of which together with such difficulty during Marie Louise might be the head; while, the vicissitudes of war, would be although the English ministers in pribroken up in determining what use vate inclined to the ancient race, yet was to be made of its victory. Not no official act implicating the nation only political principles and passions of had hitherto taken place; and, followthe most profound, but family interests ing the principles of their constitution, of the strongest kind, were at issue in and the uniform principles of their the determination that was about to be government during the war, they too taken. It was of the last importance deprecated the idea of any forcible to avoid rendering the war a national interference in the internal affairs of one in France, and to continue to hold France. it out as directed, as in reality it was, 2. When the review was concluded, solely against the violence and in- and the troops were dividing into small jestice of the Revolution. But how parties to reach the quarters assigned was this to be done if a dynasty which them in the barracks and suburbs of they had proscribed, and which was the city, Alexander alighted at the possibly still unpopular, was forced hotel of M. Talleyrand, where the upon an unwilling people? The allied leading members of the senate, and the sovereigns had uniformly declared, that most distinguished characters of the they would wait for some manifesta- capital, were assembled. The fact of tion of public opinion in France, but his taking up his residence there sufDone such had hitherto been generally ficiently evinced the part which the evinced ; and it would soon be neces- arch-diplomatist had taken in the meaary to take some decided measure sures which had preceded, and was to shile yet in uncertainty as to the race take in the negotiations which followed. of sovereigns, or the species of govern- The meeting was of a very various charVOL XLL.

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acter, and exhibited a strange example no indications of such a disposition. of the manner in which the most oppo- Alexander then turned to Talleyrand, site parties are thrown together in the and asked him how he proposed to later stages of a revolution. On the arrive at his object. Talleyrand reside of the Royalists there were the plied, by means of the constituted auBaron Louis and M. de Pradt, the well. thorities: that he would answer for the known and acute archbishop of Malines, senate, and that their example would the Duke de Dalberg, Bourrienne, for be speedily followed by all France. merly Napoleon's private secretary, and 4. Alexander then asked the Abbé de the senator Bournonville ; and these, Pradt and Baron Louis their opinion ; with the King of Prussia, Prince and prefaced it by declaring, in the Schwartzenberg, Prince Lichtenstein, most energetic terms, “ that the RusCount Nesselrode, and Count Pozzo di sian Emperor was not the author of the Borgo, constituted this memorable as- war; that Napoleon had, without a semblage. Their proceedings are well cause, invaded his dominions; that it worth recounting; the fate of the was neither a thirst for conquest nor world depended upon their delibera- the lust of dominion which had tions.

brought him to Paris, but the neces3. Alexander opened the discussion sity of self-preservation ; that he had by stating that there were three courses done all in his power to spare that to adopt : either to make peace with capital, and would have been inconNapoleon, taking the necessary se- solable if he had failed in that object; curities against him; to establish a finally, that he was not the enemy of regency; or to recall the house of France, but of Napoleon, and all who Bourbon. Upon these momentous were hostile to its liberties.” In these questions he requested the opinion of sentiments the King of Prussia and the meeting, protesting that the only Prince Schwartzenberg expressed their wish of the allied sovereigns was to entire concurrence; and then the consult the wishes of France, and Abbé de Pradt and Baron Louis desecure the peace of the world. Talley- clared that they were Royalists ;_" that rand immediately rose, and strongly the great majority of the French urged that the two former projects nation were of the same opinion ; were altogether inadmissible ; and that that it was the knowledge of negotiathere could be no peace in Europe tions going on at Châtillon with Nawhile Napoleon, or any of his dynasty, poleon, that alone had hitherto pre. were on the throne. He concluded vented this opinion from manifesting that the only course was to adopt the itself ; but that, now they were conthird, which would be generally accluded, Paris would readily declare itceptable, and which offered the only self, and the whole of France would imway of escaping from the evils by mediately follow its example.” “Sire," which they were surrounded. He resumed Talleyrand, " there are but added, under the mild rule of a race two courses open to us : Buonaparte or of princes who had learned wisdom in Louis XVIII. Buonaparte, if you can misfortune, all the guarantees which --but you cannot; for you are not could be desired would be obtained for alone. What would they give you in durable freedom. To this proposition his place? A soldier? We want no it was replied by Schwartzenberg, that more of them. If we wanted one, no indications of indifference to the we would keep the one we already Emperor had been witnessed by the have : he is the first in the world. army in its passage through France; After him, any one that could be of that the declarations in favour of the fered us would not have ten votes in Bourbons had been few and far be- his favour. I repeat it, Sire! any tween; and that the heroic resistance attempt except for Buonaparte or of the national guards at Fère-Champe- Louis XVIII. is but an intrigue." noise, many of whom had been only “ Well, then," said Alexander, “ I dea few days before at the plough, gave | clare that I will no longer treat with

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