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college of cardinals at Rome, and through them, the whole papal world are turning their efforts and revenues to this same object. We would recommend to our readers the “Proofs of a Foreign Conspiracy,” as placing this fact, we think, beyond question. Its author bas successfully proved the interest which is taken by Catholic princes, in the society of St. Leopold,—a society whose avowed object is the spread of the Roman Catholic religion in our country. Whether or not the original design of the institution was political, as the author of the proofs supposes, we do not feel so much prepared to say ; but, that it exercises important bearings on the political situation of our country, is, to our mind, perfectly clear. The political character of the Austrian government, of Metternich, of popery itself; the claims urged to divine right, plenitude of power, and infallibility; the repeated assertions of popish emissaries, that our government is too free to suit their final views, and that our institutions must be changed, are ably discussed in this little volume ; and enough at least, is said and shown, to lead Americans to watch with a vigilant eye, and, so far as practicable, to counteract the efforts of a power whose history is so identified with the history of despotism in the old world. We can quote but an extract or two, but we hope our readers will ponder them well.
• The Bishop of Baltimore, writing to the Austrian Society, laments the wretched state of the Catholic religion in Virginia, and as a proof of the difficulty it has to contend with, (a proof doubtless shocking to the pious docility of his Austrian readers,) he says:
“I sent to Richmond a zealous missionary, a native of America. He traveled through the whole of Virginia. The Protestants flocked on all sides to hear him, they offered him their churches, court-houses, and other public buildings, to preach in, wbich however is not at all surprising, for the people are divided into numerous sects, and know not what faith to embrace. In consequence of being spoiled by bad instruction, they will judge every thing themselves ; they, therefore, hear eagerly every new comer,” &c.
The Bishop, if he had the power, would of course change this “ bad instruction” for better, and, as in Catholic countries, would relieve them from the trouble of judging for themsclves. Thus the liberty of private judgment and freedom of opinion, guaranteed by our institutions, are avowedly an obstacle to the success of the Catholics. Is it not natural that Catholics should desire to remove this obstacle out of their way?
My Lord Bishop Flaget, of Bardstown, Kentucky, in a letter to his patrons abroad, has this plain hint at an ulterior political design, and that no less than the entire subversion of our republican government. Speaking of the difficulties and discouragements the Catholic missionaries have to contend with in converting the Indians, the last difficulty in the way
he says, is “their continual traffic among the whites, WHICH CANNOT BE HINDERED AS LONG AS THE REPUBLICAN GOVERN
MENT SHALL SUBSIST !" What is this but saying, that a republican government is unfavorable in its nature to the restrictions we deem necessary to the extension of the Catholic religion ; when the time shall come that the present government shall be subverted, which we are looking forward to, or hope for, we can then hinder this traffic?
Mr. Baraga, the German missionary in Michigan, seems impressed with the same conviction of the unhappy influence of a free government upon his attempts to make converts to the church of Rome. In giving an account of the refusal of some persons to have their children baptized, he lays the fault on this “ TOO FREE (allzu freien) GOVERNMENT.” In a more despotic government, in Italy or Austria, he would have been able to put in force compulsory baptism on these children.'
While these things are done by the agents and emissaries of Rome in our country, and in other lands, in reference to this subject, it is a fact, that a large number of persons, members of Protestant churches, but ignorant of the character of popery, and deceived by them, have been and are still aiding them extensively in erecting churches, and in supporting their colleges and schools. When these considerations are duly weighed, it must be admitted, that if England has much cause for apprehension, we have more. If among them there is here and there a manufacturing town crowded with immigrants, the loyal and degraded subjects of papal despotism; they approach us from all quarters, set in upon us " like a mist from the ocean,” and threaten to darken and subjugate our whole land.
We are persuaded, that there is no foe to civil freedom so untiring in his efforts, and so mighty in his resources, as the twosworded and triple-crowned man at Rome. And in turning our view to the spiritual kingdom of Christ, we are also confident, that no other obstacle is to be compared to popery, which lies like a body of death across the continent of Europe, extends its arms into both hemispheres, degrading into idolatry, or disgusting into infidelity, as far as its influence reaches. We think no country on earth has more to apprehend from the final struggle with this apostate body, than our own free land. This whole subject is to be presented to the American people. Whether it shall be done by the friends of truth, or by the Jesuits, is a question for Protestapts to answer.
Correct information should be diffused. For its diffusion, we have been accustomed to rest our hopes upon the ordinary and established methods; and if the people awake to the subject, no other is needed. The atmosphere which pervades our country should be one of light; and it may and will be so, if the spirit that glowed in the breasts of the puritan and pilgrim sathers, can be rekindled in the bosoms of their descendants; or if all who are Protestants in name, show, that they are so in deed, and
in truth. The great fundamental truths involved in the controversy between Protestants and Romanists, should be known and made known. They have passed into comparative obscurity; they have been thrown into the distance, amid the attention to other things, and show but as pillars of cloud : yet, let the mind be turned to them again ; let the word of God be opened, and its solemn testimony be heard, and these great and glorious truths will come out from the distance, and shine like pillars of fire around Zion.
In accomplishing this result, there is work for every one of the ten thousand watchmen in our American Israel. For the accomplishment of this object, we suggest also, that the students who are now preparing for the ministry should qualify themselves with distinct reference to this warfare. Let them remember, that they are coming into a field, filled with wily Jesuits, and into contact with communities, in some instances already led away by their influence. Let them “put on the whole armor of God,” that when the conflict shall arrive, they may be the Wickliffes, and Luthers, and Melancthons, of another Reformation.
• We must make AN IMMEDIATE, A VIGOROUS, A UNITED, A PERSEVERING EFFORT TO SPREAD RELIGIOUS AND INTELLECTUAL CULTIVATION THROUGH EVERY PART OF OUR COUNTRY. village, nor a log-hut of the land should be overlooked. Where popery has put darkness, we must put light. Where popery has planted its crosses, its colleges, its churches, its chapels, its nunneries, Protestant patriotism must put side by side college for college, seminary for seminary, church for church. And the money must not be kept back. Does Austria send her tens of thousands to subjugate us to the principles of darkness? We must send our hundreds of thousands, aye our millions, if necessary, to redeem our children from the double bondage of spiritual and temporal slavery, and preserve to them American light and liberty.
But some one here asks, are not the Roman Catholics establishing schools and colleges, and seminaries of various kinds, in the destitute parts of the land? Are not they also zealous for education ? May we not safely assist them in their endeavors to enlighten the ignorant ? Enlighten the ignorant! Does popery enlighten the ignorant of Spain, of Portugal, of Italy, of Ireland, of South America, of Canada? What sort of instruction is that, in the latter country, for example, which leaves 78,000 out of 87,000 of its own grown-up scholars signers of a petition by their mark, unable to write their own names, and many of the remaining signers who write nothing but their names ? What sort of light is that which generates darkness ? Popery enlighten the ignorant! Popery is the natural enemy of GENERAL education. Do you ask for proof? It is overwhelming. Look at the intellectual condition of all the countries where popery is dominant. If popery is in favor of general education, why are the great mass of the people, in the papal countries I have named, the most ill-informed, mentally degraded beings of all the civilized world, arbitrarily shut out by law from all knowledge but that which makes them slaves to the tyranny of their oppressors ? No! look well to it! If
in this country is professing friendship to general knowledge, it is a feigned alliance. If it pretends to be in favor of educating the poor, it is a false pretense, it is only temporizing. It is conforming for the present, from policy, to the spirit of Protestantism around it, that it may forge its chains with less suspicion. If it is establishing schools, it is to make them prisons of the youthful intellect of the country. If the papists in Europe are really desirous of enlightening ignorant Americans, by establishing schools, let them make their first efforts among their brethren of the same faith in Canada and Mexico.'
pp. 101–103. • Now is the time for this christian republic to show her moral energy. Europe is an anxious spectator of our contests, and is watching the success of this new trial of the strength of our boasted institutions. Oh! what a lesson, what an impressive lesson, might free America now read to Europe! what an example of the power of moral over physical government, can she give to the world, if she will but rouse herself in her moral might, to the grand effort which the occasion demands! * * *
Will American christians prepare themselves for this enterprise ? Will each sect awake to the feeling of its being a corps of the great christian army, marching under the command of no earthly leader, fighting with no earthly weapons, and against no earthly foe? Will they wake to the perception of the great truth, that while their great Captain allows each to act separately and independently within certain limits, it is he that commands in chief, and now orders all his soldiers, under whatever earthly banner enrolled, in united phalanx to go forward, forward in his single service. Which corps will first inarshal itself for action ? Which will be first in the field ? Which will press forward with most zeal for the honor of the advance, for the post of danger ? Which in the battle will be most in earnest to carry forward the standards of truth and plant them upon the battlements of papal darkness ? Will any shrink back for fear? Will any be deterred from unholy jealousy of its neighbor? Will any indulge in unchristian, ignoble suspicion of its brethren ? What cause have any for fear, or jealousy, or suspicion? This enterprise asks no sacrifice of sectarian principle it demands po surrender of conscientious predilection of each to its own modes and forms; but it does ask the sacrifice of petty prejudice ; it does demand the surrender of those miserable jealousies and envyings which more or less belong to some of every sect, when they learn the greater success of another, as if the victory of one were not the victory of all. And what are the weapons of this warfare? The bible, the tract, the infant-school, the Sunday-school, the common school for all classes, the academy for all classes, the college and university for all classes, a free press for the discussion of all questions. These, all these, are weapons of Protestantism, weapons unknown to popery! Yes, all unknown to genuine popery! Let no one be deceived by the popish apings of Protestant institutions. The popish seminary has little in common with the Protestant seminary but the name. It is but the sheep's
skin that covers the wolf's back; the teeth and the claws are not eve well concealed beneath. With the weapons we have named, and wit our education societies, theological seminaries, and missionary societies we need no new organization, no anti-popery union. But we must us our arms, and not rest satisfied with the possession of them. They mus be furbished anew, and we must prepare ourselves for a vigorous war fare. We must be stirring, if we mean indeed to be victorious. No a moment is to be lost. The enemy knows well the importance of the present instant. Hear what he says: “ We must make haste, the mo ments are precious.--IF THE PROTESTANT SECTS ARE BEFORE HAND WITH US, IT WILL BE DIFFICULT TO DESTROY THEIR IN FLUENCE.” Ought not this acknowledgment of the enemy to quick en and encourage to instant effort ? pp. 121–125.
Art. IV.-PHRENOLOGICAL IMPROVEMENTS IN MENTAL SCI
ENCE AND EDUCATION.
1. The Constitution of Man, considered in relation to External Objects. By GEORGE
Combe. Boston: Allen & Ticknor. 1833. 2. Mental Culture; or the Means of Developing the Human Faculties. By J.L.
LEVISON. Boston: Allen & Ticknor. 1834. 3. Necessity of Popular Education as a National Object; with Hints on the Treat
ment of Criminals, and Observations on Homicidal Insanity. By JAMES SIMF
son. New-York: Leavitt, Lord & Co. Boston: Crocker & Brewster. 1834. 4. Article of the Foreign Quarterly Rerier. By Rich. CHENEVIX, Esq., F. R. S.
With Notes. By J. G. SPURZHEIM, M. D. Boston: Marsh, Capen & Lyon, 1833. 6. Phrenology, or the Doctrine of the Mental Phenomena. By J. G. SPURZHEIM, M. D. Boston: Marsh, Capen & Lyon. 1832. IT may look
strange to many, to see an article of so little pretense as this, capped with such an array of title pages, and ushered in with so seemingly dreadful a note of preparation. It may, too, strike others, at first sight, that this group of books, if not an immodestly large, is at least, a motley and incoherent one; it being quite plain, that an article on phrenology and national education, must have about as much unity and mutual connection, as would a treatise on algebra and Latin grammar. The fact, however, is, that these books, " for substance of doctrine,” are all one. The treatises on phrenology run out their principles into education. The writers on education and mental culture, borrow their ground-work from phrenology. Both sets of writers belong to the same fraternity, and symbolize together. In this darling science they have an all-comprehensive badge of union. The purpose the fraternity, if we rightly interpret their writings, is, to re-cast in the phrenological mold, all feelings and principles, all modes of speaking and acting now in vogue. That this idea of theirs is deliberate and well-digested, not a wild dream or momentary