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crown in getting it established. Its doctrines arc Calvinistic. See article Pre s
CHURCHWARDENS,officers chosen yearly, cither by the consent of the minister, or of the parishioners, or of both. Their business is to look to the church, church-yard, and to observe the behaviour of the parishioners; to levy a .shilling forfeiture on all such as do not go to church on Sundays, and to keep persons orderly in church-time, Sec.
CHURCH-YARD, apiece of ground adjoining to the church, set apart for the interment of the dead. In the church of Rome, church-yards are consecrated with great solemnity. If a church-yard which has been thus consecrated shall afterwards be polluted by any indecent action, or profaned by the burial of an infidel, an heretic, an excommunicated or unbaptized person, it must be reconciled; and the ceremony of the reconciliation is performed with the same | solemnity as that of the consecration! See Consecratiom.
C1RCONCELLIONES, a species of fanatics; so called because they were continually rambling round the houses j in the country. They took their rise | among the lionatists, in the reign of | the emperor Constantine. It is incredible what ravages and cruelties they! committed in A trie a, through a long series of years. They were illiterate j savage peasants, who understood only! the Punic language. Intoxicated with a barbarous zeal, they renounced agriculture, professed continence, and assumed the title of " Vindicators of justice, and protectors of the oppressed." To accomplish their mission, they enfranchized slaves, scoured the roads, forced masters to alight from their chariots, and run before their slaves, whom they obliged to mount in their place; and discharged debtors, killing the creditors if they refused to cancel their bonds. But the chief objects of their cruelty were the Catholics, and especially those who had renounced Donation). At first they used no swords, because God had forbidden the use of one to Peter: but they were armed with clubs, which they called the clubs iflsratl,an<.\ which they handled insuch a manner as to break a man's bones without killing him immediately,so that he languished a long time, and then died. When they took away a man's life at once, they looked upon it as a favour. They became less scrupulous afterwards, and made use of all sorts of arms. Their shout was Praise be to
God. These words in their mouth' were the signal of slaughter more terrible than the roaring of a lion. They had invented an unheard-of punishment, which was to cover with lime, diluted with vinegar, the eyes of those unhappy wretches whom they had crushed with blows and covered with wounds, and to abandon them in that condition Never was a stronger proof what horrors superstition can beget in minds destitute of knowledge and humanity. These brutes, who had made a vow of chastity, gave themselves up to wine, and all sorts of impurities; running about with women and young girls as drunk as themselves, whom they called sacred virgins, and who often carried proof of their incontinence. Their chief took the name of chief of the saints. After having glutted themselves with blood, they turned their rage upon themselves, and sought death with the same fury with which they gave it to others. Some scrambled up to the tops i of rocks, and cast themselves down headlong in multitudes; others burned themselves, or threw themselves into the sea. Those who proposed to acquire the title of martyrs, published it long before; upon which they were feasted and fattened like oxen for the slaughter; after these preparations they set out to be destroyed. Sometimes they gave money to those whom they met, and threatened to murder them i: they did not make them martyrs. Theodoret gives an account of a stout young man, who meedng with a troop of these fanatics, consented to kill them, provided he might bind them first; and having by this means put it out of their power to defend themselves, whipped them as long as he was able, and then left them tied in that manner. Their bishops pretended to blame them, but in reality made use of them to intimidate such as might be tempted to forsake their sect; they even honoured them as saints. They were not, however, able to govern those furious monsters; and more than once found themselves under a necessity of abandoning them, and even of imploring the assistance of the secular power against them. The counts Ursacius and Taurinus were employed to quell them ; they destroyed a great number of them, of whom the Donatists made as many martyrs. Ursacius, who was a Catholic, and a religious man, having lost his life in an engagement with the harbarians, the Donatists did not fail to triumph in his ! death, as an effect of the vengeance of I heaven. Africa was the theatre of these bloody scenes during a great part of Constnntine's life.
CISTERCIANS, a religious order founded by St. Robert, a Benedictine, in the eleventh century. They became so powerful, that they governed almost all Europe both in spirituals and temporals. Cardinal de Vetri, describing their observances, says, they neither wore skins nor shirts, nor ever ate flesh, except in sickness; and abtained from fish, eggs, milk and cheese: they lay upon straw beds in tunics and cowls; they rose at midnight to prayers; they spent the day in labour, reading, and prayers; and in all their exercises observed a continual silence.
CLEMENCY denotes much the same as mercy. It is most generally used in speaking of the forgiveness exercised by princes. It is the result, indeed, of a disposition which ought to be cultivated by all ranks, though its effects cannot be equally conspicuous.
Clemency is not only the privilege, the honour, and the duty of a prince, but it is also his security, and better than all his garrisons, forts, and guards, to preserve himself and his dominions in safety. That prince is truly royal -who masters himself, looks upon all injuries as below him, and governs by equity "and reason, not by passion or caprice. David, king of Israel, appears in no instance greater or more amiable than m sparing the life of his persecutor Saul, when it was in his power.
CLERGY (from the Greek word K>.»5«, heritage,) in the general sense of the word, as used by us, signifies the body of ecclesiastics of the Christian church, in contradistinction to the laity: but strictly speaking and according to Scripture, it means the church.— "When Joshua," as one observes, "divided the Holy Land by lot among the Israelites, it pleased God to provide for a thirteenth part of them, called Levites, by assigning them a personal estate equivalent to that provision made by real estate, which was allotted to each of the other twelve parts. In conformity to the style of the transaction, the Levites were called God's lot, inheritance, or clergy. This style, however, is not always used by the Old Testament writers. Sometimes they call all the nutions God's lot, Deut. xxxii. 9. Ps lxxviii. 71. Ps. xxviti. 9, 8cc. The New Testament writers adopt this term, and apply it to the whole Christian church, 1 Pet. v. 3 Thus it is the chinch distinguished from the world, and not one part ot the church as distinguished from another part." The
word clergy, however, among us, always refers to ecclesiastics.
'the clergy originally consisted of bishops, priests, and deacons; but in the third century many inferior orders were appointed; such as sub-deacons, acoluthists, readers, 8cc. The clergy of the church of Rome are divided into regular and secular. The regular consists of those monks or religious who have taken upon them holy orders of the priesthood: in their respective monasteries. The secular clergy are those who are not of any religious order, and have the care and direction of parishes. The Protestant clergy are all secular. For archbishops, bishops, deans, &c. 8cc. see those articles.
The clergy have large privileges allowed them by our municipal laws, and had formerly much greater, which were abridged at the reformation, on account of the ill use which the popish clergy had endeavoured to make of them; for the laws having exempted them from almost every personal duty, they attempted a total exemption from every secular tie. The personal exemptions, indeed, for the most part, continue. A clergyman cannot be compelled to serve on a jury, nor to appear at a court leet, which almost every other person is obliged to do; but it a layman be summoned on a jury, and before the trial takes orders, he shall notwithstanding appear, and be sworn. Neither can he be chosen to any temporal office; as bailiff, reeve, constable, or the like, in regard to his own continual attendance on the sacred function. During his attendance on divine service, he is privileged from arrests in civil suits. In cases of felony also, a clerk in orders shall have the benefit of clergy, without being branded in the hand, and may likewise have it more than once; in both which cases he is distinguished from a layman.
Bmrfit of Clergy was a privilege whereby a clergyman claimed to Be delivered to his ordinary to purge himself of felony, and which anciently was allowed only to those who were in orders; but, by the statute of 18th Eliz., every man to whom the benefit of clergy is granted, though not in orders, is put to read at the bar, after he is found guilty, and convicted of felony, and so burnt in the hand; and set free for the first time, if the ordinary or deputy standing by do say, Legit ut clericus: ntherw^e he shall suffer death- As the clergy have their privileges, so they have also their disabilities, on account of their spiritual avocations, Clergymen are incapable of sitting in the house of commons; and by statute 21 Henry VIII. c. 13. are no- in general allowed to take any lands or tenements to farm, upon pain of 10/. per month, and total avoidance of the lease; no* upon like pain to keep any tap-house or brewhouse; nor engage in any trade, nor sell any merchandise, under forfeiture of the treble value; which prohibition is consonant to the canon law.
The number of clergy in England and Wales amount, according to the best calculation, to 18,000. The revenues of the clergy were formerly considerable, but since the reformation they are comparatively small, at least those of the inferior clergy. See the Bishofi of LandaJjT's Valuation of the Church and University Revenues; or, Cove on the Revenues of the Church, 1797,2d edition; Burnett's Hist, of his own Timt-s, conclusion. See article MiMister.
CLERK: 1. A word originally used to denote a learned man, or man of letters; but now is the common appellation by which clergymen distinguish themselves in signing any deed or instrument.—2. Also theperson who reads the responses of the congregation in the church, or gives out the hymns at a meeting.
COCCEIANS.adenomination which arose in the seventeenth century; so called from John Cocceius, professor of divinity in the University of Leyden He represented the whole history of the Old Testament as a mirrror, which held forth an accurate view of the transactions and events that were to happen in the church under the dispensation of the New Testament, and unto the end of the world. He maintained that by far the greatest part of the ancient prophecies foretold Christ's ministry and mediation, and the rise, progress, and revolutions of the church, not only under the figure of persons and transactions, but in a literal manner, and by the very sense of the words used in these predictions; and laid it down as a fundamental rule of interpretation, that the words and phrases of Scripture are to be understood in every sense of which they arc susceptible, or, in other words, that they signify in effect every thing that they can possibly signify.
Cocceius also taught, that the covenant made between God and the Jewish nation, by the ministry of Moses, was of the same nature as the new covenant, obtained by the mediation of Jesus Christ. In consequence of this general principle, he maintained that the ten
commandments were promulgated by Moses, not as a rule ot obedience, but as a representation of the covenant of grace—that when the Jews had provoked the Deity by their various transgressions, particularly by the worship of the golden calf, the severe and servile yoke of the ceremonial law was added to the decalogue, as a punishment inflicted on them by the Supreme Being in his righteous displeasure—that this yoke, which was painful in itself, became doubly so on account of its tvpical signification; since it admonished the Israelites from day today of the imperfection and uncertainty of their state, filled them with anxiety, and was a perpetual proof that they had merited the righteous displeasure of God, and could not expect before the coming of the Messiah the entire remission of their iniquities—that indeed good men, even under the Mosaic dispensation, were immediately after death made partakers of everlasting glory; but that they were nevertheless, during the whole course of their lives, far removed from that firm hope and assurance of salvation, which rejoices the faithful under the dispensation of the Gospel—and that their anxiety flowed naturally from this consideration, that their sins, though they remained unpunished, were not pardoned; because Chris' had not as yet offered himself up a sacrifice to the rather, to make an entire atonement for them.
CCENOBITE, one who lives in a convent, or in community, under a certain rule; in opposition to a hermit, who lives in solitude. Cassian makes this difference between a convent and a monastery, that the latter may be applied to the residence of a single religious or recluse , whereas the convent implies coenobites, or numbers of religious living in common. Fleury speaks of three kinds of monks in Egypt; anachorets, who live in solitude; cenobUes, who continue to live in community; and sarabaites, who are a kind of monkserrant, that stroll from place to place. He refers the institution of coenobites to the time of the apostles, and makes it a kind of imitation of the ordinary lives of the faithful at Jerusalem; though St. Pachomius is ordinarily owned to be the institutor of the coenobite life, as being the first who gave a rule to any community.
C( )LLECT, a short prayer. In the liturgy of the church of England, and the mass of the Romanists, it denotes a praver accommodated to any particular day', occasion, or the like. In general, all the prayers in each office arc called collects, either because the priest speaks in the name of the whole assembly, -whose sentiments and desires he sums tip by the word "Oremus." "Let us pray," or because those prayers are offered when the people are assembled together. The popes Gelasius and Gregory arc said to have been the first who established collects. Dr Despence, of Paris, wrote a treatise on collects, their origin, antiquity, &c.
COLLEGIANS, or Collegiants, a sect formed among the Arminiansand Anabaptists in Holland, about the beginning of the seventeenth century; so called because of their colleges or meetings twice every week, where every one, females excepted, has the same liberty of expounding the Scripture, praying, &c. They are said to be all either Arians or Socinians: they never communicate in the college, but meet twice a year, from all parts of Holland, at Khinsberg (whence they are also called Rhinsberghers,) a village two miles from Leyden, where they communicate together; admitting every one that presents himself, professing his faith in the divinity of the Holy Scriptures, and resolution to live suitably to their precepts and doctrines, without regard 10 his sect or opinion. They have no particular ministers, but each officiates as he is disposed. They baptize by immersion.
COMMENTARY, an exposition; book of annotations or remarks. There are some people so wise in their own conceit, and think human helps of so little worth, that they despise commentaries on the Scriptures altogether; but ■every student or preacher whose business is to explain the sacred oracles, to make known the mind of God to others, to settle cases of conscience, to oppose the sophistry of sceptics, and to confound the arguments of infidels, would do well to avail himself of the most judicious, clear, copious, critical, and sound commentaries on the Bible. Nor can I suppose that commentaries can be useless to the common people, for though a spirit of serious enquiry, with a little good sense, will go a great way in understanding the Bible, yet as the language is often figurative as allusions are made to ancient customs, and some parts require more investigation than many common Christians nave time for, a plain exposition certainly must be useful. Expositions of the Bible, how.ever, may be made a bad use of. He who takes the ifisc dixit of a commentator, without ever examining whether
the meaning given comport with the text i he who gives himself no trouble to investigate the Scripture for himself, but takes occasion to be indolent, because others have laboured for him, surely does wrong. Nor can it be said that those preachers use them properly, who, in making their sermons, form their plans from the commentator before they have thought upon the text. Perhaps the best way is to follow our own talents; first, by prayer, study and attention to form our scheme, and then to examine the opinions of others concerning it. We will here present the reader with a view of some of those commentaries which are the most generally approved. And 1st. in my opinion, Henry takes the lead for common utility. The sprightly notes the just inferences, the original thoughts, and the warm applications to the conscience, makes this work justly admired. It is true that there arc some expressions which do not agree with the evangelic system : but, as the late Mr. Ryland observes, "Tis impossible for a person of piety and taste to read him without wishing to be shut out from all the world to read Aim through without one moment's interruption." Mr. Henry did not live to complete this work. He went as far as the end of Acts. Romans was done by Dr. Evans; the 1st Corinthians, Sam. Brown; 2d Corinthians, Dr. Mayo; Galatians, Mr. Bayes; Ephesians, Mr. Boswell; Philippians, Mr. Harris -, Colossians, Mr. Harris; 1 and 2 Thessalonians, Mr. Mayo; 1 and 2 Timothy, Mr. Atkinson; Titus, Jer. Smith , Philemon, Mr. Mottcrshead; Hebrews, Mr. Tong; James, Mr. Wright; 1 Peter, Mr. Hill; 2 Peter, Mr. Morril; 1.2, and 3 John, Mr. Reynolds; Jude, Mr. Billingsley; and Revelations by Mr, Tong.
2. Pooli Synopsis Criticorum, 5 folio volumes. This is a valuable work, and ought to be in the possession of every student: it is much esteemed abroad, three editions of it having been published on the continent.
3. Poole's Annotations, a rich and useful work. These were printed at London in 1685. in two volumes, folio. Poole did not complete this work himself. Mr. Jackson, of Moulsey, is the author of the annotations on the 59th and 60th chap, of Isaiah. Dr. Collings drew up the notes on the rest of Isaiah, Jeremiah, and Lamentations, as also those on the four Evangelists, the two epistles to the Corinthians, and that to the Galatians. Those to Timothy, Titus, Philemon, and the Revelation, Ezekiel, and the minor Prophets, -were done by Mr. Hurst, Daniel by Mr. Cooper; the Apts by Mr. Vinke; the epistle to the Romans by Mr. Mayo; the Ephesians, Mr. Veale; the Pnilippians and Colossians, Mr. Adams j the Hebrews, Mr. Obadiah Hughes; the epistle of St James, the two of St. Peter, and that of Jude, by Mr. Veale; the three epistles of St John by Mr. Howe.
4. Or. Gill's, in 9 vol. quarto, is an immense work ; and though it contain a good deal of repetition and extraneous matter, there is certainly a vast fund of information together with evangelical sentiment.
5. Brown's Self-interpreting Bible, in 2 vols, quarto. Its chief excellencies are the marginal references, which are exceedingly useful to preachers; and the close, plain, and practical improvement to each chapter.
6. Scott's Exposition is truly excellent. It abounds with practical remarks, and the last edition contains the marginal references. The improvements are also very useful for families.
7. Dr. Adam Clarke's commentary. with critical notes, and marginal references, possess considerable merit, and will be found a valuable treasure for the Biblical student.
On the JVem Testament.
1. Burkitt contains many ingenious observations, fine turns, natural plans, and pungent addresses to the conscience. There are some expressions, however, that grate upon the ear of the evangelical Christian.
2. Guyse's Paraphrase is deservedly held in high estimation for sound doctrine, fair explication, and just sentiment.
3. Doddridge's Family Expositor. The criticisms in this work render it valuable. It must be owned that the doctor laboured to come as near as possible to the true sense of the text.
4. Bezsc Annotationes, in quibus ratio interpretationis redditur; accessit etiam J. Camerarii in novem fcedus commentarius, fol. Cantab. 1642, contains, besides the old Latin version, Beza's own version; and in the side margin is given a summary of the passage, and in the argumentative parts the connexion.
5. Wolfii Curz Philoiogicx, & Criticx, in Omnes Libros, Nov. Test. 5 vols. 4to. 1739, Hamb. Basil, 1741. This is in a great measure a compilation after the manner of Poole's Synopsis, but interspevsed with his own critical animadversions.
6. Bengelii Gnomon Nov. Test. 4to. Tubing*:, 1759, and Ulmse, 1763, con
tains an instructive preface, a perspicuous analysis of each book, with short notes It is a perfect contrast to that of Wolfius.
7. Raphelii Annotationes in S. Scripturam, &c. is an attempt to illustrate the Holy Scriptures from the classical Greek historians, Xenophon, Polybius, Arrian, and Herodotus.
8. Hammond's Paraphrase and Annota'ions upon all the books of the New Testament, folio.
9. Whitby's Paraphrase and Commentary on New Test. 2. vols. fol.
10. Wesley's Explanatory Notes, 4to. or 3 vols. 12mo. Of different translations, see article Bible.
Commentator* on Select Parts.
1. Ainsworth on the Pentateuch, Psalms, and Song of Solomon.
2. Patrick's Commentaries on the Historical Parts of the Holy Scriptures, 3 vols.
3. Lightfoot's Works, 2 vol. fol. contain a chronicle of the times, and the order of the text of the Old Testament.
The harmony, chronicled, and order of the New Testament; the harmony of the four Evangelists; a commentary on the Acts Horx Hebraicx, &c. on the four Evangelists, Acts, and 1, Corinthians.
4. Chrysostomi Opera, 8 vols. fol. contain expositions of various parts.
5. Calvini Opera Omnia, 9 vols, contain commentaries on the Pentateuch, Joshua, homilies on Samuel, sermons on Job, commentaries, on Psalms, Isaiah, Evangelists, Acts, Paul's epistles, and the other catholic epistles; and prxlectiones on Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Daniel, and the Minor Prophets.
6. I.owth on the Prophets.
7. Pocock on some of the Minor Prophets.
8. Locke on Paul's epistles.
9. Hutcheson on the Smaller Prophets.
10. Newcome on Ezekiel and Minor Prophets.
11. Macknight's Harmony of the Gospel, and Literal Translation of all the Apostolical Epistles, with Commentary' and Notes.
12. Campbell's Translation of the Gospels, with Notes and Dissertations On Select Books.
On Ruth: Macgowan, Lawson.
On Job: l.Caryfi,2 vols, fol.—2. Hutchinson, 1669, fol.—3. Peters's Critical Dissertation on Book of Job.—4. Chapellou.
On the Psalms: 1. Molleri Enarr Psalm. foL 1619.—2. Hammond's Paraphrase—3. Amesii Lectiones in Omne*