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t!hem,every one was accounted accursed who died on a tree. This serves to explain the difficult passage in Rom ix. 2, where the apostle wishes himself accursed after the manner of Christ; i. e. crucified, if happily he might by such a death save his countrymen. The preposition «.t: here made use of is used in the same sense, 2 Tim. i. 3. where it obviously signifies after the manner of.

ACEPHALI, such bishops as were exempt from the discipline and jurisdiction of their ordinary bishop or patriarch. It was also the denomination of certain sects; 1. of those who, in the affair of the council of Ephesus, refused to follow either St. Cyril or John of Antioch; 2. of certain heretics in the fifth century, who, at first, followed Peter Mongus, but afterwards abandoned him, upon his subscribing to the council of Chalcedon. they themselves adhering to the Eutychian heresy; and. 3. of the followers of Severus of Antioch, and of all, in general, who held out against the council of Chalcedon.

ACOEMETiE, or Acometi, an order of monks at Constantinople in the fifth century, whom the writers of that and the following ages called Ana/urru; that is. Watchers, because they performed divine service day and night without intermission. They divided themselves into three classes, who alternately succeeded one another, so that they kept up a perpetual course of worship. This practice they founded upon that passage—" pray without ceasing," 1 Thess. v. 17.

ACOLY l'HI, or Acoluthi, young people who, in the primitive times, aspired to the ministry, and for that

fiurpose continually attended the bishop, n the Romish church, Acolythi were of longer continuance; but their functions ■were different from those of their first institution. Their business was to light the tapers, carry the candlesticks and the incense pot, and prepare the wine and water. At Rome there were three kinds; 1. those who waited on the pope;

2. those who served in the churches.

3. and others, who, together with the deacons, officiated in other parts of the

'ACT OF FAITH {Auto da Fe,~) in the Komish church, is a solemn day held by the Inquisition for the punishment of heretics, and the absolution of the innocent accused. They usually contrive the Auto to fall on some great festival, that the execution may pass with the more awe; and it is always on a Sunday. The Auto da Fe may be called the last act of the Inquisitorial tragedy: it is a kind of

gaol-delivery, appointed as often as a competent number of prisoners in the Inquisition are convicted of heresy, either by their own voluntary or extorted confession, or on the evidence of certain witnesses. The process is this:—In the morning they are brought into a great hall, wliere they have certain habits put on, which they are to wear in the procession, and by which they know their doom. The procession is led up by Dominican friars, after which come the penitents, being all in black coats without sleeves, and barefooted, with a wax candle in their hands. These are followed by the penitents who have narrowly escaped being burnt, who over their black coats have flames painted, with their points turned downwards. Next come the negative and relapsed, who are to be burnt, having flames on their habits pointing upwards. After these come such as profess doctrines contrary to the faith of Rome, who, besides flames pointing upwards, have their picture painted on their breasts, with dogs, serpents, and devils, all openmouthed, about it. Each prisoner is attended with a familiar of the Inquisition; and those to be burnt have also a Jesuit on each hand, who are continually preaching to them to abjure. After the prisoners, comes a troop of familiars on horseback . and after them the Inquisitors, and other officers of the court, on mules: last of all, the Inquisitor-general on a white horse, led by two men with black hats and green hats-bands. A scaffold is erected big enough for two or three thousand people; a; one end of which are the prisoners, at the other the Inquisitors. After a sermon made up of encomiums of the Inquisition, and invectives against heretics, a priest ascends a desk near the scaffold, and,having taken the abjuration of the penitents, recites the final sentence of those who are to be put todeath, and delivers them to the secular arm, earnestly beseeching at the same time the secular power not to touch their blood, or fiut their lives in danger.' J! The prisoners, being thus in the hands of the civil magistrate, are presently loaded with chains, and carried first to the secular gaol, and from thence, in an hour or two, brought before the civil judge; who, after asking in what religion they intend to die, pronounces sentence on such as declare they die in the communion of the church of Rome, that they shall be first strangled, and then burnt to ashes; or such as die in any other faith, that they be burnt alive. Both are immediately carried to the Ribcra, the place B

of execution, where there are as many stakes set up as there are prisoners to be burnt, with a quantity of dry furze about them. The stakes of the professed, that is, such as persist in the heresy, are about four yards high, having a small board towards the top for the prisoner to be seated on. The negative and relapsed being first strangled and burnt, the professed mount their stakes by a ladder, and the Jesuits, after several repeated exhortations to be reconciled to the church, part with them; telling them that they leave them to the devil, who is standing at their elbow, to receive their souls, and carry them ■with him to the flames of hell. On this a great shout is raised: and the cry is, "Let the dogs' beards be made!" which is done by th ursting flaming furzes fastened to long poles against their faces, till their faces an burnt to a coal, which is accompanied with the loudest acclamations of joy. At last, fire is set to the furze at the bottom of the stake, over which the profes-ed are chained so high, that the top of the flame seldom reaches higher than the seat they sit on; so that they rather.seem roasted than burnt. There cannot be a more lamentable >pectacle : the sufferers continually cry out, while they are able, " Pity, for the lo> e of God!" Yet it is beheld, by all s?xes anil ages, with transports of joy and satisfaction—t) merciful God! is this the benign, humane religion thou hast given to men i Surely not. If such were the genius of Christianity, then it would be no honour to be a Christian. Let us. however, rejoice that the time is coming when the demon of Persecution shall be banished out of this our world and the true spirit of benevolence and candour pervade the universe; when none shall hurt or destroy, but the earth be tilled with the knowledge of the Lord, as the waters cover the sea! See Ikqiiisitiojj.

ACTION FOR THE PULPIT— See Declamation.

AC IS OF THE APOSTLES, one of the sacred books of the New Testament containing the hisory of the infant church during the space of twenty nine or thirty years from the ascension of our Lord to the year of Christ 63. It was written by Luke, and addressed to 'J.'heophilus, the person to whom the evangelist had before dedicated his gospel. The style of this wotk, which was originally composed in Greek, is much purer than that of the other canonical writers. For the contents of tltis book we refer the reader to the book itself.

There have been several acts of the

apostles, such as the acts of Abdias, of Peter, of Paul, St. John the Evangelist, St. Andrew, St. Thomas. St. Philip, and St. Matthias; but they have been all proved to be spurious.

ACTS OF PILATE, a relation sent by Pilate to the Emperor Tiberius, concerning Jesus Christ, his death, resurrection, ascension, and the crimes of which he was convicted before him It was a custom among the Romans, that the pro-consuls and governors of provinces should draw up acts or memoirs of what happened in the course of their government, and send them to the emperor and senate. The genuine acts of Pilate were sent by him to Tiberius, who reported them to the senate , but they were rejected by that assembly, because not immediately addressed to them; as is testified by Tertullian, in his Apol. cap. 5, and 20,21. The heretics forged acts in imitation of them; but both the genuine and the spurious are now lost.

ADAMITES, a sect that sprang up in the second century. Epiphanius tells us, that they were called Adamites,from their pretending to be re-established in the state of innocence, such as Adam was at the moment of his creation, whence they ought to imitate him in going naked. They detested marriage; maintaining that the conjugal union would never have taken place upon earth, had sin been unknown. This obscure and ridiculous sect did not last long. It was, however, revived with additional absurdities in the twelfth century. About the beginning of ^the fifteenth century, these errors spread in Germany and Bohemia: it found also some partizans in Poland, Holland, and England They assembled in the night; and it is said, one of the fundamental maxims of their society was contained in the following verse:

Jura, perjura, secretum prodcre noli.

Swear, forswear, and reveal not the secret.

ADESSEN A RIANS, a branch of the Sacramentarians; so called from the Latin Jldesse, to be present because they believed the presence of Christ's body in the encharist, though in a manner different from the Romanists.

ADIAPHORISTS, a name given in the sixteenth century to the moderate Lutherans who adhered to the sentiments of Melancthon; and afterwards to those who subscribed the interim of Charles V. [SeelNTEKiM.] The word is of Greek origin («<fj*?o{oc.) and signifies indifference or lukewarmness

ADMIRATION is that passion of the mind which is excited by the discovery of any great excellence in an object. It has by some writers been used as synonymous with surprise and wonder; but it is evident they are not the same. Surprise refers to something unexpected ; wonder, to something great or strange: but admiration includes the idea of high esteem or respect. Thus, we say we admire a man's excellencies but we do not say that we are surprised at them. We wonder at an extraordinary object or event, but we do not always admire it.

ADMONI llON denotes a hint or advice given to another, whereby we reprove him for his fault, or remind him of his duty. Admonition was a part of the discipline much used in the ancient church: it was the first act or step towards the punishment or expulsion of delinquents. In case of private offences, it was performed according to the evangelical rule, firivately; in case of public oflence, ofienly before the church If either of these sufficed for the recovery of the fallen person, all farther proceedings, in a way of censure, ceased; if they did not, recourse was had to excommunication.—Tit. iii. 10. 1 Thess. v. 14. Eph. vi. 4.

ADONAI, one of the names of the Supreme Being in the Scriptures. The proper meaning of the word is "my Lord*," in the plural number; as Adoni is my Lord, in the singular. The Jews, who either out of respect or superstition do not pronounce the name of Jehovah, read Adonai in the room of it, as often as they meet with Jehovah in the Hebrew text. But the ancient Jews were not so scrupulous: nor is there any law which forbids them to pronounce the name of God.

ADON1STS, a party among divines and critics, who maintain that the Hebrew points ordinarily annexed to the consonants of the word Jehovah arc not the natural points belonging to that word, nor express the true pronunciation of it; but are the vowel points belonging to the words Adonai and Elohim, applied to the consonants of the ineffable name Jehovah, to warn the readers, that instead of the word Jehovah, which the Jews were forbid to pronounce, and the true pronunciation of which had long been unknown to them, they are always to read Adonai. They are opposed to Jehovists, of whom the principal are Drusius. Capellus, Buxtorf, Alting, and Reland.

AD> >PT1AN1STS, the followers of Felix of Urril and Epiland of Toledo who, towards the end of the eighth century, advanced the notion that Jesus

Christ in his human nature is the Son of God, not by nature, but by adoption.

ADOPTION, an act whereby any person receives another into his family, owns him for his son, and appoints him his heir. 2. S/tirieual adoption is an act of God's free grace, whereby we are received into the number, and have a right to all the privileges of the sons of God.—3. Glorious, is that in which the saints, being raised from the dead are at the last day solemnly owned to be the children of God and enter into the full possession of that inheritance provided for them, Rom. viii. 19. 23. Adoption is a word taken from the civil law, and was much in use among the Romans in the apostles' time; when it was a custom for persons who had no children of their own, and were possessed of an estate, to prevent its being divided, or descending to strangers, to make choice of such who were agreeable to them, and beloved by them, whom they took into this political relation of children; obliging them to take their name upon them, and to pay respect to them as though they were their natural parents, and engaging to deal with them as though they had been so; and accordingly to give them a right to their estates, as an inheritance. This new relation, founded in a mutual consent, is a bond of affection; and the privilege arising from thence is, that he who is in this sense a father, takes care of and provides for the person whom he adopts, as though he were his son by nature; and therefore civilians call it an act of legitimation, imitating nature, or supplying the place of it.

It is easy, then, to conceive the propriety of the term as used by the apostle in reference to this act, though it must be confessed there is some difference between civil and spiritual adoption. Civil adoption was allowed of and provided for the relief and comfort of those who had no children; but in spiritual adoption this reason does not appear. The Almighty was under no obligation to do this; for he had innumerable spirits whom he had created, besides his own Son, who had all the perfections of the divine nature, who was the object of his delight, and who is styled the heir of all things, Heb. i. 3. When men adopt, it is on account of some excellency in the persons who are adopted; thus Pharaoh's daughter adopted Moses because he was exceeding fair, Acts vii. -20,21; and Mordecai adopted Esther because she was his uncle's daughter, and exceeding fair. Est. ii, 7: but man has nothing in him that merits this divine act, Ezek.xvi. 5. In civil adoption, though the name of a son be given, the nature of a son may not; this relation mav noi necessarily be attended with any change of di•-position or temper. But in spiritual adoption we are made partakers of the divine nature, and a temper or disposition given us becoming the relationship we bear, Jer. iii. 19.

Much has been said as to the time of adoption. Some place it before regeneration, because it is supposed that we must be in the family before we can be partakers of the blessings of it. Bui it is difficult to conceive of one befove the other ; for although adoption may seem to precede regeneration in order of nature, vet not of time; they may be distinguished, but cannot be separated. "As many as received him, to them gave he power to become the sons of God. even to them that believe on his name," John i. 12. There is no adoption, says the great Charnock without regeneration. "Adoption," says the same author, "is not a mere relation; the privilege and the image of the sons of God go together. A state of adoption is never without a separation from defilement, 2 Cor. vi. 17, 18. 'I he new name in adoption is never given till the new creature be formed. 'As many as are led by the Spirit of God, they are thesonsof God.'liom.viii 14. Yet these arc to be distinguished. Regeneration, as a.physical act, gives us a likeness to God in our nature; adoption, as a legal act, gives us a right to an inheritance. Regeneration makes us formalin his sons, by conveying a principle 1 Pet. i. 23; adoption makes us relatively his sons, by conveying a power, John i. 12. By the one we are instated in the divine affection; by the other we are partakers of the divine nature."

The privileges of adoption are every tvay great and extensive. 1. It implies great honour. They have God's name put upon them, and are described as "his people, called by his name," 2 Chron. vii. 24- Eph iii. 15. They are no longer slaves to sin and the world; but, emancipated from its dreadful bondage, are raised to dignity and honour, Gal. iv. 7: 1 John iii. 1, 2.—2. Inexhaus tible provision and riches. They inherent all things, Rev. xxi. 7. All the blessings of a temporal kind that are for their good shall be given them. Psalm lxxxiv. 11. All the blessings of grace are treasured up in Jesus Christ for them, Eph. i. 3. All the blessings of glory shall be enjoyed by them. Col. i. 27. "All things are yours," says the

apostle, " whether Paul, or Apollos, or Cephas, or the world, or life, or death, or tilings present, or things to come, all are yours, 1 Cor. iii. 22.-3. Divine protection. "In the fear of the Lord is strong confidence, and his children shall have a place of refuge," Prov. xiv. 26. As the master of a family is engaged to defend and secure all under his roof, and committed to his care, so Jesus Christ is engaged to protect and defend his people. "They shall dwell in a peaceable habitation, and in sure dwellings and quiet resting places," Isa. xxxii. 18. Heb. l. 14.—4 Unspeakable felicity. They enjoy the most intimate communion with the Father, and with his Son Jesus Christ. I'hev have access to his throne at all times, and under all circumstances. They see divine wisdom regulating every affair, and rendering every thing subservient to their good. Ueb.xii. 6—11. The laws, the liberties, the privileges, the relations, the provisions, and the security of this family are all sources of happiness; but especially the presence, the approbation, and the goodness of CJod. as the governor thereof, afford joy unspeakable and full of glory, 1 Pet. l. 8. Prov. iii. 17. Heb. iv. 16.—5. Eurnal glory. In some cases, civil adoption might be made null and void, as among the Romans, when against the right or the pontifex, and without the decree of the college; but spiritual adoption, as it is divine as to its origin, so it is perpetual as to its duration. "The Son abideth in the hou -e for ever," John viii. 35. "The inheritance of the saints is incorruptible, undehled, and never fadeth away," 1 Pel. i. 4. "Now are we the sons of God, and it doth not yet appear what we shall be: but we know that when he shall appear, we shall be like him, for we shall see him as he is," 1 John iii. 2. In the present state we are as children at school; but in heaven we shall be as children at home, where we shall always behold the face of our heavenly Father, for ever celebrating his praises, admiring his perfections, and enjoying his presence. "So shall we he ever with ihe Lord." 1 Thess. iv. 17

The evidences of adoption are, 1. Renunciation of all former dependencies. When a child is adopted, he relinquisher the object of his pa-1 confidence, and submits himself to the will and pleasure of the adopter; so thej who are brought into the family of God, will evidence it by giving up every other object so far as it interferes with the will and glory of their heavenly Father. "Ephraim shall say, What have I to do any more -with idols?" Hos. xiv. 8. "Other lords have had dominion over us; but by thee only will we make mention of thy name." Is. xxvi. 13. Matt. xiii. 45, 46 Phil. iii. 8.-2. Affection, lhis may not always apply to civil adoption, but it always does to spiritual- The children of God feel a refard for him above every other object. lb own excellency, his unspeakable goodness to them his promises of future blessings, are all grounds of • he strongest love "Whom have I in heaven but thee? and there is none upon earth that I desire besides thee." Psalm Ixxiii. 25. "Thou art my portion, saith my soul, therefore will I hope in thee." Lam. iii. 24. Luke vii. 47. Ps. xviii. 1.—3. Access to God with a holy boldness. They who are children by adoption are supposed to have the same liberty of access as those who are children by nature; so those who are partakers of the blessings of spiritual adoption will prove it by a reverential, yet familiar address to the Father of spirits: they will confess their unworthiness, acknowledge their dependence, and implore the mercy and favour of God. "Because ye are sons, God hath sent forth the Spirit of his Son into your hearts, crying, Abba, Father." Gal. iv. 6. "Through Jesus Christ we have access by one Spirit unto the Father." Eph. ii. 18. Having such a privilege, they " come boldly to the throne of grace, that they may obtain mercy and find grace to help in time of need Heb.iv.16.—4. Obedience.Those who are adopted into a family must obey the laws of that family; so believers prove themselves adopted by their obedience to the word and ordinances of God. "Ye are my friends, if ye do whatsoever I command you." John. xV. 14. '" Whoso keepeth his -word, in him verily is the love of God perfected: hereby know we that we are in him. He that saith he abide h in him, ought himself also to walk even as he walked." 1 John ii. 4, 5.-5. Patient yetjoyfulerpectationollhcinheritancx. In civil adoption, indeed, an inheritance is not always certain; but in spiritu.il adoption it is. " In them who, by patient continuance in well doing, seek for glory, and honour, and immortality, eternal life." Rom. ii. 7. "We look not at the thing' which are seen, but a; the things which are not seen for thr things which are seen are temporal, but the things which are not seen are eternal ."' 2 Cor. iv 18. Rom. vi. 2,5. Heb. xi. 26, 27. From the consideration of the whole of this doctrine, we may learn that adoption is an act of free grace

through Jesus Christ. Eph. i. 5. Applied to believers by the Holy Spirit, Gal. iv. 6. Rom. viii. 15, 16. A blessing of the greatest importance, 1 John iii. 1, and lays us under an inviolable obligation of submission, lleb. xii.9; imitation, Eph. v. 1; and dependence, Matt. vi. 32. See Rulgley's and Gill's Body of Div. art. Adoption; Charnocks Work's, vol. ii. p. 32—72; FlaveCs Work's vol ii. p. 601; Brown's System of JVat. and Rev. Religion, p. 442;

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AJ> )RATION, the act of rendering divine honours, including in it reverence, esteem audio1e: this is called supreme, or absolute. The word is compounded, oforf, 'to," and os, oris. " mouth ;"and literally signifies to apply the hand to the mouth, "to kiss the hand;" this being in the eastern countries, one of the great marks of respect and submission. See Job xxxi. 26, 27. The attitude of adoration, however, we find has not been confined to this mode; standing, kneeling, uncovering the head, prostration, bowing, lifting up the eyes to heaven, or sometimes fixing them upon the earth with the body bending forward; sitting with the under parts of the thighs resting on the heels, have all been used, as expressive of veneration and esteem. Whatever be the form, however, it must be remembered that adoration, as au act of wot ship, is due to God alone, Matt. iv. 10. Acts x. 25, 26. Rev. xix. 10. There is, 2. what may be called adoration human, or paying homage or respect topersons of great rank and dignity. This has been performed by bowing, bending the knee, falling on the face. The practice of ado-aion may be said to be still subsisting in England, in the ceremony of kissing the king's or queen's hand, and in serving them at table, both being performed kneeling on one knee. There is also, 3. adoration relative, which consists in worship paid to an object as belonging to or representative of another. In tliia sense the Romanistsprofessto adore the cross not simply or immediately, but in respect of Jesus Christ, whom they sup

Cose to be on it. lhis is generally, O'.vever, considered by protestants, as coming little short of idolatry. See Idolatry.

ADVKRSARY.one who sets himself in opposition to another: one of the nanes of Satan. See Satan.

ADVERSITY, a state which is opposite to our wishes, and the cause of sorrow It stands opposed to prosperity. See Affliction ADULTER Y.anunlawful commerce

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