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Dominic sent Gilbert de Fresney, with twelve of the brethren, into England, where they founded their first monastery at Oxford, in the year 1221, and soon after another at London. In the year 1276, the mayor and aldermen of the city of London gave them two whole streets, by the river Thames, where they erected a very commodious convent; whence that place is still called Blackfriars, from the name by which the Dominicans were called in England. St. Dominic ai first only took the habit of the regular canons; that is, a black cassock and rochet: but this he quitted, in 1219, for that which they have ever since worn, which, it is pretended, was shown by the Blessed Virgin herself to the beatified Renaud d'Orleans. This order has been diffused throughout the ■whole known world. They reckon three popes of this order, above sixty cardinals, several patriarchs, a hundred and fifty archbishops, and about eight hundred bishops, besides masters otthe sacred palace, whose office has been constantly discharged bv a religious of this order ever since St. Dominic, who held it under Honorius HI. in 1218.
Of all the monastic orders, none enjoyed a higher degree of power and authority than the Dominican friars, •whose credit was great, and their influence universal. But the measures they used in order to maintain and extend their authority -were so perfidious and cruel, that their influence began to decline towards the beginning of the sixteenth century. The tragic story of Jetzer, conducted at Bern, in 1509, for determining dn uninteresting dispute between them and the Franciscans, relating to the immaculate conctfition, will reflect indelible infamy on this order. In order to give the reader a view of the impious frauds which have sometimes been carried on in the church of Rome, we shall here insert an account of this stratagem.
The Franciscans maintained that the Virgin Mary was born without the blemish of original sin; the Dominicans asserted the contrary.
The doctrine of the Franciscans, in an age of darkness and superstition, could not but be popular; and hence the Dominicans lost ground from day to day. To support the credit of their order, they resolved, at a chapter held at Vimpsen, in the year 1504, to have recourse to fictitious visions and dreams, in which the people at that time had an easy faith; and they determined to make Bern the scene of their f
operations. A person named Jetzer, who was extremely >imple, and much inclined to austerities, and who had taken their habit as a lay-brother, was chosen as the instrument of the delusions they were contriving. One of the four Dominicans, who had undertaken the management of this plot, conveyed himself secretly into Jetzer's cell, and about midnight appeared to him in a horrid figure, surrounded with howling dogs, and seeming to blow fire from his nostrils, by the means of a box of combustibles which he held near his mouth. In this frightful form he approached Jetzer's bed, told him that he was the ghost of a Dominican, who had been killed at Paris, as a judgment of Heaven for laying aside his monastic habit; that he was condemned to purgatory for this crime; adding, at the same time, that by his means he might be rescued from his misery, which was beyond expression. This story, accompanied with horrible cries and howlings, frighted poor Jetzer out of the little wits he had, and engaged him to promise to do all that was in his power to deliver the Dominican from his torment. Upon this the impostor told him, that nothing but the most extraordinary mortifications, such as the disci/ilinc of the iv/iifl, performed during eight days by the whole monastery, and Jetzer's lying prostrate in the form of one crucified in the chapel during mass, could contribute to his deliverance. He added, that the performance of these mortifications would draw down upon Jetzer the peculiar protection of the Blevsed Virgin; and concluded by saying, that he would appear to him again, accompanied with two other spirits. Morning was no sooner come, than Jetzer gave an account of this apparition to the rest of the convent, who all unanimously advised him to undergo the discipline that was enjoined him, and every one consented to bear hK share of the task imposed. The deluded simpleton obeyed, and was admired as a saint by the multitudes that crowded about the convent; while the four friars that managed the imposture magnified, in the most pompous manner, the miracle of this apparition in their sermons, and in their discourses. The night after, the apparition was renewed with the addition of two impostors, dressed like devils, and Jetzer's faith was augmented by hearing from the spectre all the secrets of his life and thoughts, which the impostors had learned from his confessor. In this and some subsequent scenes (the detail of whose enormities, for the sake
of brevity, we shall here omit) the impostor talked much to Jetzer of the Dominican order, which he said was peculiarly dear to the Blessed Virgin: ne added, that the Virgin knew herself to be conceived in original sin, that the doctors who taught the contrary were in purgatory, that the Blessed Virgin abhorred the Franciscans for making her equal with her Son; and that the town of Bern would be destroyed for harbouring such plagues within her walls In one of these apparitions Jetzer imagined that the voice of the spectre resembled that of the prior of the convent, and he was not mistaken; but, not suspecting a fraud, he gave little attention to this. 1 he prior appeared in various forms, sometimes in that of St. Barbara, at others in that of St. Bernard: at length he assumed that of the Virgin Mary, and, for that purpose, clothed himself in the habits that were employed to adorn the statue of the Virgin in the great festivals. The little images, that on these days are set on the altars, were made use of for angels, which, being tied to a cord that passed through a pulley over Jetzer's head, rose up and down, and danced about the pretended Virgin to increase the delusion. The Virgin, thus equipped, addressed a long discourse to Jetzer, in which, among other things, she iold him that she was conceived in original sin, though she had remained but a short time under that blemish. She gave him, as a miraculous proof of her presence, a host, or consecrated wafer, which turned from white to red in a moment; and after various visits, in which the greatest enormities were transacted, the Virgin-prior told Jetzer that she would give him the most affecting and undoubted marks of her Son's love, by imprinting on him the Jive wounds that
Sierced Jesus on the cross, as she had one before to St. Lucia and St. Catharine. Accordingly she took his hand by force, and struck a large nail through it, which threw the poor dupe into the I greatest torment. 1 ne next night this masculine virgin brought, as he pretended, some of the linen in which Christ had been buried, to soften the wound; and gave Jetzer a soporific draught, which had in it the blood of an unbaptized child, some grains of incense and of consecrated salt, some quicksilver, the hairs of the eye-brows of a child; all which, with some stupifying and poisonous ingredients, were mingled together by the prior with magic ceremonies, and a solemn dedication of himself to the devil in hope of
his succour. The draught threw the poor wretch into a sort of lethargy, during which the monks imprinted on his body the other four wounds of Christ in such a manner that he felt no pain. When he awakened, he found, to his unspeakable joy, those impressions on his body, and came at last to fancy himself a representative of Christ in the various parts of his passion. He was, in this state, exposed to the admiring multitude on the principal altar of the convent, to the great mortification of the Franciscans. The Dominicans gave him some other draughts, that threw him into convulsions; which were followed by a pipe into the mouths of two images, one of Mary, and another of the child Jesus, the former of which had tears painted upon its cheeks in a lively manner. The little Jesus asked his mother, by means of this voice (which was that of the prior's,) why she wept? and she answered, that her tears were owing to the impious manner in which the | Franciscans attributed to her the honour that was due to him, in saying that she was conceived and born without sin.
The apparitions, false prodigies and abominable stratagems of these Dominicans were repeated every night; and the matter was at length so grossly over-acted, that, simple as Jetzer was, he at last discovered it, and had almost killed the prior, who appeared to him one night in the form of the Virgin with a crown on her head. The Dominicans fearing, by this discovery, to lose the fruits of their imposture, thought the best method would be to own the whole matter to Jetzer, and to engage him, by the most seducing promises of opulence and glory, to carry on the cheat. Jetzer was persuaded, or at least appeared to be so. But the Dominicans suspecting that he was not entirely gained over, resolved to poison him; but his constitution was so vigorous, that, though they gave him poison five several times, he was not destroyed by it. One day they sent him a loaf prepared with some spices, which, growing green in a day or two, he threw a piece of it to a wolfs whelps that were in the monastery, and it killed them immediately. At another time they poisoned the host, or consecrated wafer; but, as he vomited it up soon after he had swallowed it, he escaped once more. In short, there were no means of securing him, which the most detestable impiety and barbarity could invent, that they did not put in practice: till finding, at last, an opportunity of getting out of the
convent, he threw himself into the hands of the magistrates, to whom he made a full discovery of this infernal plot. The affair being brought to Rome, commissaries were sent from thence to examine the matter; and the whole cheat being fully proved, the four friars were solemnly degraded from their priesthood, and were burnt alive on the last day of May, 1309, Jetzer died some time after at Constance, having poisoned himself, as was believed by some. Had his life been taken away before he had found an opportunity of making the discovery already mentioned, this execrable and horrid plot, which in many of its circumstances was conducted with art, would have been handed down to posterity as a stupendous miracle.
The Dominicans were perpetually employed in stigmatizing with the name of heresy numbers of learned and pious men; in encroaching upon the rights and properties of others, to augment their possessions; and in laying the most iniquitous snares and stratagems for the destruction of their adversaries. They were the principal counsellors by whose instigation and advice Leo X. was determined to the public condemnation of t.uther. The papal see never had more active and useful abettors than this order, and that of the Jesuits.
DOMINION OF GOD. is his absolute right to, aud authority over, all his creatures, to do with them as he pleases. It is distinguished from his power thus: his dominion is a right of making what he pleases, and possessing what he makes, and of disposing what he doth possess; whereas his^owr is an ability to make what he hath a right to create, to hold what he doth possess, and to execute what he hath purposed or resolved.
DONATISTS, ancient schismatics, iii Africa, so denominated from their leader, Donatus. They had their origin in the year 311, when, in the room of Mensunus, who died in that year, on his return to Rome, Csecilianwaselccted bishop of Carthage, and consecrated, without the concurrence of the Numidian bishops, by those of Africa alone, whom the people refused to acknowledge, and to whom they opposed Majorinus, who accordingly was ordained by Donatus bishop of Casx Nigra. They were condemned, in a council held at Rome, two years after their separation; and afterwards in another at Aries, the vear following; and again at Milan, before Constantine the Great, in 316, who deprived them of their churches, and sent their seditious bi
shops into banishment, and punished some of them with death. Their cause was espoused by another Donatus called the Great, the principal bishop of that sect, who, with numbers of his followers, was exiled by order of Constans. Many of them were punished with great severity.—See CircumcelLiones. However, after the accession of Julian to the throne in 362, they were permitted to return, and restored to their former liberty. Gratian published several edicts against them, and in 377 deprived them of their churches, and prohibited all their assemblies. But, notwithstanding the severities they suffered, it appears that they had a very considerable number of churches towards the close of this century; but at this time they began to decline, on account of a schism among themselves occasioned by the election of two bishops, in the room of Parmenian, the successor of Donatus: one party elected Primian, and were called Frimianists; and another Maximian, and were called Maximianists. Their decline was also precipitated by the zealous opposition of St. Augustine, and by the violent measures which were pursued against them by order of the emperor Honorius, at the solicitation of two councils held at Carthage, the one in 404, and the other in 411. Many of them were fined, their bishops were banished, and tome put to death. 1'his sect revived and multiplied under the protection of the Vandals, who invaded Africa in 427, and took possession of this province: but it sunk again under new severities, when their empire was overturned, in 534. Nevertheless, they remained in a separate body till the close of this century, when Gregory, the Roman pontiff, used various methods for suppressing them: his zeal succeeded, and there are few traces to be found of the Donatists after this period. They were distinguished by other appellations, as Circumctlliones, Montenses or Mountaineers, Competes, Kufiites, &c. They held three councils, that of Cita in Numidia, and two at Carthage.
The Donatists, it is said, held that baptism conferred out of the church, that is, out of their sect, was null; and accordingly they rebaptized those who joined their party from other churches; they also re-ordained their ministers. Donatus seems likewise to have embraced the doctrine of the Avians: though St. Augustine affirms that the Donatists in this point kept clear of the errors of their leader.
DORT, Synod of; a national synod, summoned by authority of the statesgeneral, the provinces of Holland, Utrecht, and Overyssel excepted, and held at Dort, 1618. The most eminent divines of the United Provinces, and deputies from the churches of England, Scotland, Switzerland, Bremen, Hessia, and the Palatinate, assembled on this occasion, in order to decide the controversy between the Calvinists and Arminians. The synod had hardly commenced its deliberations before a dispute on the mode of proceeding, drove the Arminian party from the assembly. The Arminians insisted upon beginning ■with a refutation of the Calvinistic doctrines, especially that of reprobation; ■whilst the synod determined, that, as the remonstrants were accused of departing from the reformed faith, they ought first to justify themselves by scriptural proof of their own opinions. All means to persuade the Arminians to submit to this procedure having failed, they were banished the synod, for their refusal. The synod, however, proceeded in their examination of the Arminian tenets, condemned their opinions, and excommunicated their persons: whether justly or unjustly, let the reader determine. Surely no one can be an advocate for the persecution ■which followed, and which drove these men from their churches and country into exile and poverty. The authority of this synod was far from being universally acknowledged, either in Holland or in England. The provinces of Friesland, Zealand, Utrecht, Guelderland, and Groningen, could not be persuaded to adopt their decisions; and they were opposed by king James I. and archbishop Laud, in England.
DOS1THEANS, an ancient sect among the Samaritans, in the first century of the Christian sera; so called from Dositheus, who endeavoured to persuade the Samaritans that he was the Messiah foretold by Moses. He had many followers, ana his sect was still subsisting at Alexandria in the time of the patriarch Kulogius, as appears from a decree of that patriarch published by Photius. In that decree, Eulogius accuses Dositheus of injuriously treating the ancient patriarchs and prophets, and attributing to himself the bpirit of prophesy". He makes him contemporary with Simon Magus; and accuses him of corrupting the Pentateuch, and of composing several books directly contrary to the law of God.
DOUBTS and Fears, are terms frequently used to denote the uncertainty nf mind vte are in respecting our inter
est in the divine favour. The causes of our doubts may be such as these: personal declension: not knowing the exact time, place, or means of our conversion; improper views of the character and decrees of God; the fluctuation of religious experience as to the enjoyment of God in prayer, hearing, «c.; the depth of our affliction; relapses into sin; the fall of professors; and the hidings of God's face. While some are continually harassed with doubts and fears, there are others who tell us they know not what it is to doubt: yea, who think it a sin to doubt: so prone are men to run to extremes, as if there were no medium between constant full assurance and perpetual doubt. The true Christian, perhaps, steers between the two. He is not always doubting, nor is he always living in the full exercise of faith. It is not unlawful at certain seasons to doubt. "It is a sin," says one, "for a believer to live so as not to have his evidences clear, but it is no sin for him to be so honest and impartial as to doubt, when in fact his evidences are not clear." Let the humble Christian, however, beware of an extreme. Prayer, conversation with experienced Christians, reading the promises, and consideration of the divine goodness, will have a tendency to remove unnecessary doubts.
DOXOLOGY, aliymnused in praise of the Almighty, distinguished by the titles of the Greater and the Less. Both the doxologies are used in the church of England j the former being repeated after every psalm, and the Tatter used in the communion service. Doxology the Greater* or the angelic hymn, was of great note in the ancient church. It began with the words the angels sung at the birth of Christ, " Glory to God," 8cc. Doxology the Less, was anciently only a single sentence without a response, running in these words: "Glory be to the Father, and to the Son, and to the Holy Ghost, world without end, amen." Part of the latter clause," as it was in the beginning, is now, and ever shall be," &c. was inserted some time after the first composition.
DRAGOONING, one of the methods used by papists after the revocation of the edict of Nantz, under Lewis XIV., for converting refractory heretics, and bringing them within the pale of their church. If the reader's feelings will suffer him to peruse the account of these barbarities, ne will find it under the article Persecution In this work.
DREAD, is a degree of permanent fear, an habitual andpainful apprehension of some tremendous event. It keeps the mind in a perpetual alarm, in an eager watchfulness of every circumstance that bears any relation to the evil apprehended.
DRUIDS, the priests or ministers of religion among the ancient Gauls, Britons, and Germans. They were chosen out of the best families; and the honours of their birth, joined with those of their function, procured them the highest veneration among the people. They were versed in astrology, geometry, natural philosophy, politics, and geography; they were the interpreters of religion, and the judges of all affairs indifferently. Whoever refused obedience to them was declared impious and accursed. We know but little as to their peculiar doctrines, only that they believed the immortality of the soul, and, as is generally also supposed, the transmigration of it to other bodies , though a late author makes it appear highly probable they did not believe this last, at least not in the sense of the Pythagoreans. The chief settlement of the Druids in Britain was in the isle of Anglesey, the ancient Mono, which they might choose for this purpose, as it is well stored with precious groves of their favourite oak. They were divided into several classes or branches, such as the priests, the poets, the augurs, the civil judges, and instructors of youth. Strabo, however, does not comprehend all these different orders under the denomination of druids; he only distinguishes three kinds; barili, poets; the vales, priests and naturalists; and the druids, who, besides the study of nature, applied themselves likewise to morality.
Their garments were remarkably long; and when employed in religious ceremonies, they likewise wore a white •surplice. They generally carried a wand in their hands, and wore a kind of ornament, enchased with gold, about their necks, called the druid's egg. They had one chief, or arch-druid, in every nation, who acted as high priest. <or fioniifex maximus. He had absolute authority over the rest, and commanded, decreed, and puni-hed at pleasure. They worshipped the Supreme Being under the name of Esus or Htsus, and the symbol of the oak; and had no other temple than a wood or a grove, where all their religious rites were performed. Nor was any person pevmitted to enter that sacred recess unless he carried with him a chain in token of his absolute dependence on the Deity. Indeed, their whole religion originally consisted in acknowledging that the Su
preme Being, who made his abode in these sacred groves, governed the universe; and, that every creature ought to obey his laws, and pay him divine homage. They considered the oak as the emblem, or rather the peculiar residence of the Almighty; and accordingly chaplets of it were worn, both by the druids and people, in their religious ceremonies: the altars were strewed with its leaves, and encircled with its branches. The fruit of it, especially the misletoe, was thought to contain a divine virtue, and to be the peculiar gift of Heaven. It was, therefore, sought for on the sixth day of the moon with the greatest earnestness and anxiety; and when found, was hailed with sure rapture of jov, as almost exceeds imagination to conceive. As soon as the druids were informed of the fortunate discovery, they prepared every thing ready for the sacrifice under the oak, to which they fastened two white bulls by the horns; then the arch-druid, attended by a prodigious number of people, ascended the tree, dressed in white; and, with a consecrated golden knife, or pruning hook, cropped the misletoe, which he received in his robe, amidst the rapturous exclamations of the peo
Ele. Having secured this sacred plant, e descended the tree ; the bulls were sacrificed; and the Deitv invoked to bless his own gift, and render it efficacious in those distempers in which it should be administered.
DRUNKENNESS, intoxication with strong liquor. It is either actual or habitual ; just as it is one thing to be drunk, and another to be a drunkard. The evil of drunkenness appears in the following had effects: 1. It Defrays most constitutions either to extravagance of anger, or sins of lewdness—2. It disqualifies men for the duties of their station, both bv the temporary disorder of their faculties, and at length by a constant incapacity and stupefaction.—3. It is attended with expense, which can often be ill spared.—4. It is sure to occasion uneasiness to the family of the drunkard—5. It shortens life.—6. It is a most pernicious awful example toothers.—7. It is hardly ever cured.—8. It is a violation of God's word, Prov. xx. 1. Eph. v 18. Is. v. 11. Rom. xiii. 13. "The appetite for intoxicating liquor appears to me," says Paley, "to be almost always acquired. One proof of » hich is, that it is apt to return only at particular times and places; as after dinner, in the evening, on the market-day, in such a company, at such a tavern." How careful, then, should we be, lest we