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goodness of God, attended with a spiritual frame of mind, a heart devoted to God, and a holy, useful life: however this may be branded with the name of enthusiasm, it certainly is from God, because bare human efforts, unassisted by him, could never produce such effects as these. Th.eol. Mite. vol. ii. p. 43.; Locke on Undent., vol. ii. ch. 19.; | Sfiect., No. 201. vol. iii.; Wesley's Ser. on Enthusiasm; Mrs. H. Moore's Hints towards forming the Character of a young Princess, vol. ii. p. 246.
EN V Y, a sensation of uneasiness and disquiet, arising from the advantages which others are supposed to possess above us, accompanied with malignity towards those who possess them. "This, says a good writer, "is universally admitted to be one of the blackest passions in the human heart No one, indeed, is to be condemned for defending his rights, and showing displeasure against a malicious enemy; but to conceive ill will at one who has attacked none of our rights, nor done us any injury, solely because he is more prosperous than we are, is a disposition altogether unnatural. Hence the character of an envious man is universally odious. All disclaim it; and they who feel themselves under the influence of this passion, carefully conceal it. The chief grounds of envy may be reduced to three: accomplishments of mind; advantages of birth, rank, and fortune ; and superior success in worldly pursuits. To subdue this odious disposition, let us consider its sinful avid criminal nature; the mischiefs it occasions to the world; the unliappiness it produces to him who possesses it; the evil causes that nourish it, such as pride and indolence: let us, moreover, bring often into view those religious considerations which regard us as Christians: how unworthy we are in the sight of God; how much the blessings we enjoy are above what we deserve. Let us learn reverence and submission to that divine government which has appointed to every one such a condition as is fittest for him to possess; let us consider how opposite the Christian spirit is to envy; above all, let us offer up our prayers to the Almighty, that he would purifv our hearts from a passion which is so base and so criminal?'
KONIANS, the followers of Eon, a wild fanatic, of the province of Bretagne, in the twelfth century: he concluded, from the resemblance between eum, in the form for exorcising malignant spirits, viz. "per eum qui veuturus est judicare vivos et mortuos," and his own name Eon, that he was the son of
God, and ordained to judge the quick and dead. Eon was, however, solemnly condemned by the council at Rhcims, in 1148, and ended his days in a prison. He left behind him a number of followers, whom persecution and death, so weakly and cruelly employed, could not persuade to abandon his cause, or to renounce an absurdity, which, says Mosheim, one would think, could never have gained credit but in such a place as Bedlam.
EOQU1NIANS, a denomination in the sixteenth century; so called from one Eoquinus, their master, who taught that Christ did not die for the wicked, but for the faithful only.
EPICURIANS, the disciples of Epicurus, who flourished about A. M. 3700. This sect maintained that the world was formed not by God, nor with any design, but by the fortuitous concourse of atoms. They denied that God governs the world, or in the least condescends to interfere with creatures below: they denied the immorality of the soul, and the existence of angels; they maintained that happiness consisted in pleasure; but some of them placed this pleasure in the tranquillity and joy of the mind arising from the practice of moral virtue, and which is thought by some to have been the true principle of Epicurus-; others understood him in the gross sense, and placed all their happiness in corporeal pleasure. When 1'aul was at Athens, he had conferences with the Epicurean philosophers, Acts xvii. 18. Tne word Rfiicurean is used, at present, for an indolent, effeminate, ana voluptuous person, who only consults his private and particular pleasure. See Academics.
EPIPHANY, a Christian festival, otherwise called the manifestation of Christ to the Gentiles, observed on the 6th of January, in honour of the appearance of our Saviour to the three magi, or wise men, who came to adore and bring him presents.
EPISCOPACY, that form of church government in which diocesan bishops are established as distinct from and superior to priests or presbyters.
The controversy respecting episcopacy commenced soon after the reformation; and has been agitated with frreat warmth, between the Episcopalans on the one side, and the Presb> tcrians and Independents on the other. Among the Protestant churches abroad, those which were reformed by Luther and his associates are in general e/iiscoftal: whilst such as follow the doctrines of Calvin, have for the most part thrown off the order of bishops as one of the corruptions of popery. Id England, however, the controversy has been considered as of greater importance than on the continent. It has been strenuously maintained by one party, that the efiiscofial order is essential to the constitution of the church; and by others, that it is a pernicious encroachment on the rights of men, for 'which there is no authority in Scripture. We will just briefly state their arguments.
I. £fiisco/iacy, arguments for. 1. Some argue that the nature of the office which the apostles bore was such, that the edification of the church would require they should have some successors in those ministrations which are not common to Gospel ministers.—2. That Timothy and Titus were bishops of Kphesus and Crete, whose business it was to exercise such extraordinary acts of jurisdiction as are now claimed by diocesan bishops, 1 Tim. i. 3. Tim.iii. 19,22. 2Tim.ii. 2. Tit. i. 5, &c. Tit. iii. 10.—3. Some have argued from the mention of angels, i. e. as they understand it, of diocesan bishops, in the seven churches of Asia, particularly the angel of Ephesus, though there were many ministers employed in it long before the date of that epistle, Acts xx. 17, 18.—4. It is urged that some of the churches which were formed in large cities during the lives of the apostles, and especially that at Jerusalem, consisted of such vast numbers as could not possibly assemble atone place.—5. That in the writers who succeeded the inspired penmen, there is a multiplied and concurring evidence to prove the apostolic institution of episcopacy.
II. JZfiiscofiacy, arguniftits against. 1. To the above it is answered, that, as the office of the apostles was such as to require extraordinary and miraculous endowments for the discharge of many
Earts of it; it is impossible that they can ave any successors in those services who are not empowered for the execution of them as the apostles themselves werei and it is maintained, that so far as ordination, confirmation, and excommunication, may be performed without miraculous gifts, there is nothing in them but what seems to suit the pastoral office in general.
2. That '1 imothy and Titus had not a stated residence in these churches, but only visited them for a time, 2 Tim. iv. 9, 13. Tit iii. 12. It also appears, from other places in which the journeys of Timothy and Titus are mentioned, that they were a kind of itinerant offi
cers, called evangelists, who were assistants to the apostles; for there is great reason to believe the first epistle to Timothy was written prior to those from Rome in the time of Paul's imprisonment, as some think the second was also. To which we may add, that it seems probable, at least, that they had very extraordinary gifts to furnish them for their superior offices, 1 Tim. iv. 14. Eph iv. 11. 2 Tim. iv. 5. And though Timothy was with Paul when he took his leave of the elders of Ephesus (Acts xx.,) the apostle gives not the least hint of any extraordinary power with which he was invested, nor says one word to engage their obedience to him; which is a very strong presumption that no such relation did subsist, or was to take place.
3. As to the angels of the seven churches in Asia, it is certain that, for any thing which appears in our Lord's epistles to them (Rev. ii. and iii.) they might be no more than the pastors of single congregations with their proper assistants.
4. I'o the fourth argument it is answered, 1. That the word ^uu/uafcc may only signify great numbers, and may not be intended to express that there were several times ten thousand, in an exact and literal sense: compare Luke, ch. xii. ver. 1. (Greek.)—2. That no sufficient proof is brought from Scripture of there being such numbers of people in any particular place as this supposes; for the myriads of believing Jews spoken of in the preceding text, as well as the numbers mentioned, Acts ii. 41. Acts iv. 4, might very probably be those who were gathered together at those great feasts from distant places, of which few might have their stated residence in that city. See Acts, ch. viii. ver. 1—3. If the number were so great as the objection supposes, there might be, for any thing which appears in Scripture, several ois/wfis in the same city, as there are, among those who do not allow of diocesan episcopacy, several co-ordinate pastors, overseers, or bishops: and though Eusebius does indeed pretend to give us a catalogue of the bishops of Jerusalem, it is to be remembered how the Christians had been dispersed from thence for a considerable time, at and after the Roman war, and removed into other parts, which must necessarily very much increase the uncertainty which Eusebius himself owns there was, as to the succession of bishops in most of the ancient sees.
5. As to the ancient writers, it is observed, that though Clemens Romanus recommends to the Corinthians the example of the Jewish church, were the high priest, ordinary priest, and Levitts knew and observed their respective offices, yet he never mentions presbyters and bishops as distinct, nor refers the contending Corinthians to any one ecclesiastical head as the centre of unity, which he would probably have done if there had been any diocesan bishops among them, nay, he seems evidently to speak of presbyters as exercising the episcopal office. See sec. xxxix. of his epistle.—2. As for Irensus, it does not appear that he made any distinction between bishops and presbyters. He does indeed mention the succession of bishops from the apostles, which is reconcileable with the supposition of their being parochial, nor altogether irreconcileable •with the supposition of joint pastors in those churches.—3. It is allowed that Ignatius in many places distinguishes between bishops and presbyters, and requires obedience to bishops from the whole church, but as he often supposes each of the churches to which he wrote to meet in one place, and represents them as breaking one loaf, and surrounding one altar, and charges the bishop to know all his flock by name, it is most evident that he must speak of a parochial and not a diocesan bishop.—4. Polycarp exhorts the Christians at Philippi to be subject to the presbyters and deacons, but says not one word about any bishop.—5. Justin Martyr speaks of the president, but then he represents him as being present at every administration of the eucharist, which he also mentions as always making a part of their public worship; so that the bishop here must have only been the pastor of one congregation.—6. Tertullian speaks of approved elders; but there is nothing said of them that proves a diocesan, since all he says might be applied to a parochial bishop.—7. Though Clemens Alexandrinus speaks of bishops, priests, and deacons, yet it cannot be inferred from hence that the bishops of whom he speaks were any thing more than parochial.—8. Origen speaks distinctly of bishops and presbyters, but unites them both, as it seems, under the common name of priests, saying nothing of the power of bishops as extending beyond one congregation, and rather insinuates the contrary, when he speaks of offenders as brought before the whole church to be judged by it.—9. The apostolic constitutions frequently distinguish between bishops and presbyters; but these constitutions cannot be depended on, as they are supposed to be a forgery
of the fourth century.—10. It is allowed that in succeeding ages, the difference between bishops and presbyters came to be more and more magnified, and various churches came under ihe care of the same bishop: nevertheless, Jerom does expressly speak of bishops and presbyters as of the same order; and Gregory Nazianzen speaks of the great and affecting distinction made between ministers in prerogative of place, and other tyrannical privileges (as he calls them,) as a lamentable and destructive thing.
III. Episcopacy, how introduced— It is easy to apprehend how episcopacy, as it was in the primitive church, with those alterations which it afterwards received, might be gradually introduced. The apostles seem to have taught chiefly in large cities; they settled ministers there, who, preaching in country villages, or smaller towns, increased the number of converts: it would have been most reasonable that those new converts, which lay at a considerable distance from the large towns, should, when they grew numerous, have formed themselves into distinct churches, under the care of their proper pastors or bishops, independently of any of their neighbours, but the reverence which would naturally be paid to men who had conversed with the apostles, and perhaps some desire of influence and dominion, from which the hearts of very good men might not be entirely free, and which early began to work, (John iii. 9. 2 Thess. ii.7.) might easily lay a foundation for such a subordination in the ministers of new erected churches to those which were more ancient; and much more easily might the superiority of a pastor to his assistant presbyters increase, till it at length came to that great difference which we own was early made, and probably soon carried to an excess. And if there were that degree of degeneracy in the church, and defection from the purity and vigour of religion, which the learned Vitringa supposes to have happened between the time of Nero and Trajan, it would be less surprising that those evil principles, which occasioned episcopal, and at length the papal usurpation, should before that time exert some considerable influence.
IV. Episcopacy, reduced, plan of. Archbishop Usher projected a plan for die reduction of episcopacy, by which he would have moderated it in such a manner as to have brought it very near the Presbyterian government of the Scotch church; the weekly parochial vestry answering to their church aeaaion i the monthly synod to be held by the CAorefiiscofii answering to thejr presbyteries; the diocesan synod to their provincial, and the national to their general, assembly. Themeetingof the dean and chapter, practised in the church of England, is but a faint shadow of the second, the ecclesiastical court of the third, and the convocation of the fourth. JJingrAam'a Originea Eccteaiaatict; Stiiitngfieet'a Originea Sacra; Boyae and Howe on Ejus-; Benaon'a Diaaertation concerning the Jirat Set. of the Christian Church ; King'a Conat. of the Cfrurch; Doddridge's Lectures, lect. J 96; Clarkaon and Dr. Maurice on JZ/iisco/iacy; Enc. Brit.
EPISCOPALIAN, one who prefers the episcopal government and discipline to all others. See last article.
EPIS PLES OF BARNABAS. See Barnabas.
EQUANIMITY is an even uniform state of mind, amidst all the vicissitudes of time and changes of circumstances to -which we are subject in the present state. One of this disposition is not dejected when under adversity, nor elated when in the height of prosperity: he is equally affable to others, and contented in himself. The excellency of this disposition is beyond all praise. It may be considered as the grand remedy for all the diseases and miseries of life, and the only way by which we can preserve the dignity of our characters as men and as Christians.
EQUITY is that exact rule of righteousness or justice, which is to be observed between man and man. Our Lord beautifully and comprehensively expresses it in these words: " All things whatsoever ye would that men should do unto you, do ye even so to them, for this is the law and the prophets," Matt, vii. 12. This golden rule, says Dr. Watts, has many excellent properties in it. 1. It is a rule that is easy to be understood, and as easy to be applied by the meanest and weakest understanding, Isa. xxxv. 8.—2. It is a very short rule, and easy to be remembered: the weakest memory can retain it: and the meanest of mankind may carry this about with them, and have it ready upon all occasions.—3. This excellent precept carries greater evidence to the conscience, and a stronger degree of conviction in it, than any other rule of
moral virtue i. his particularly fitted
for practice, because it includes in it a powerful motive to stir us up to do what it enjoins.—5. It is such a rule as, if well applied, will almost always secure
our neighbour from injury, and secure us from guilt if we should chance to hurt him.—6. It is a rule as much fitted to awaken us to sincere repentance, upon the transgression of it, as it is to direct us to our present duty.—7. It is a most extensive rule, with regard to all the stations, ranks, and characters of mankind, for it is perfectly suited to them all.—8. It is a most comprehensive rule with regard to all the actions and duties that concern our neighbours. It teaches us to regulate our temper and behaviour, and promote tenderness, benevolence, gentleness, &c—9. It is also a rule of the highest prudence with regard to ourselves, and promotes our own interest in the best manner.—10. This rule is fitted to make the whole world as happy as the present state of things will admit. See Watta'a Sermona, ser. 3.3. v. i. Evan'a Ser. ser. 28; Morning Exerciaea at Crififtlegate, ser. 10.
EQUIVOCATION,the usingaterm or expression that has a double meaning. Equivocations are said to be expedients to save telling the truth, and yet without telling a falsity; but if an intention to deceive constitute the essence of a lie, which in general it does, I cannot conceive how it can be done without incurring guilt, as it is certainly an intention to deceive.
ERASTIANS, so called from Erastus, a German divine of the 16th century. The pastoral office, according to him, was only persuasive, like a professor of science over his students, without any power of the kevs annexed. The Lord's supper and other ordinances of- the Oospel were to be free and open to all. The minister might dissuade the vicious and unqualified from the communion; but might not refuse it, or inflict any kind of censure ; the punishment of all offences, either of a civil or religious nature, being referred to the civil magistrate.
ERROR, a mistake of our judgment, giving assent to that which is not true. Mr. Locke reduces the causes of error to four. 1. Want of proofs.—2. Want of ability to use them.—3. Want of will to use them.—4. Wrong measures of probability. In a moral and scriptural sense it signifies sin. See Sin.
ESSENES, a very ancient sect, that was spread abroad through Syria, Egypt, and the neighbouring countries. They maintained that religion consisted wholly in contemplation and silence. Some of them passed their lives in a state of celibacy; others embraced the state of matrimony, which they considered as lawful, when entered into with the sole design of propagating the species, and not to satisfy the demand of lust. Some of them held the possibility of appeasing the Deity by sacrifices, though different from that of the Jews; and others maintained that no offering was acceptable to God but that of a serene and composed mind, addicted to the contemplation of divine things. They looked upon the law of Moses as an allegorical system of spiritual and mysterious truths; and renounced, in its explication, all regard to the outward letter.
ESTABLISHMENTS, Religious. By a religious establishment is generally understood such an intimate connection between religion and civil government as is supposed to secure the best interests and great end of both. This article, like many others, has afforded matter of considerable dispute. In order that the reader may judge for himself, we shall take a view of both sides of the question.
The partisans for religious establishments observe, that they have prevailed universally in every age and nation. The ancient patriarchs formed no extensive or permanent associations but such as arose from the relationships of nature. Every father governed his own family, and their offspring submitted to his jurisdiction. He presided in their education and discipline, in their religious worship, and in their general government. His knowledge and experience handed down to them their laws and their customs, both civil and religious; and his authority enforced them. The offices of prophet, priest, and king, were thus united in the same patriarch, Gen. xviii. 19. Gen. xvii. and xxi. Gen. xiv. 18. The Jews enjoyed a religious establishment dictated and ordained by God. In turning our attention to the heathen nations we shall find the same incorporation of religious wiih civil government, Gen. xlvii. 22. 2 Kings xvii. 27, 29. Every one who is at all acquainted with the history of Greece and Rome, knows that religion was altogether blended with the policy of the state. The Koran may be considered as the religious creed and civil code of all the Mahometan tribes. Among the Celtes, or the original inhabitants of Europe, the druids were both their priests and their judges, and their judgment was final. Among the Hindoos, the priests and sovereigns are of different tribes or casts, but the priests are superior in rank; and in China, the emperor is sovereign pontiff, and presides in all public acts of religion.
Again; it is said, that, although there is no form of church government absolutely prescribed in the New Testament, yet from the associating law, on which the Gospel lays so much stress, by the respect for civil government it so earnestly enjoins, and by the practice which followed, and finally prevailed, Christians cannot be said to disapprove, but to favour religious establishments.
Religious establishments, also, it is observed, are founded in the nature of man, and interwoven with all the constituent principles of human society: the knowledge and profession of Christianity cannot be upheld without a clergy; a clergy cannot be supported without a legal provision; and a legal provision for the clergy cannot be constituted without the preference of one sect of Christians to the rest. An established church is most likely to maintain clerical respectability and usefulness, by holding out a suitable encouragement to young men to devote themselves early to the service of the church; and likewise enables them to obtain such knowledge as shall qualify them for the important work.
They who reason on the contrary side observe, that the patriarchs sustaining civil as well as religious offices, is no proof at all that religion was incorporated with the civil government, in the sense above referred to; nor is there the least hint of it in the sacred Scriptures. That the case of the Jews can never be considered in point, as they were under a theocracy, and a ceremonial dispensation that was to pass away, and consequently not designed to be a model for Christian nations. That whatever was the practice of heathens in this respect, this forms no argument in favour of that system which is the very opposite to paganism. The church of Christ is of a spiritual nature, and ought not, yea cannot, in fact, be incorporated with the state without sustaining material injury. In the three first and purest ages of Christianity, the church was a stranger to any alliance with temporal powers; and, so far from needing their aid, religion never flourished so much as while they were combined to suppress it. As to the support which Christianity, when united to civil government yields to the peace and good order of society, it is observed, that this benefit will be derived from it, at least, in as great a degree without an establishment as with it. Religion, if it have any power, operates on the conscience of men; and, resting solely on the belief of invisible realities, it can