« ΠροηγούμενηΣυνέχεια »
on the ground, and rolling in the dust; beating their breasts, and even tearing their nesli with their nails.
The funeral rites among the Romans were very numerous.—They kept the deceased seven days, and washed him every day with hot water, and sometimes with oil, if possibly he might be revived, in case he were only in a slumber ; and every now and then his friends, meeting, made a horrible shout with the same view : but if they found he did not revive, he was dressed and embalmed with a performance of a variety of singular ceremonies, and at last brought to the funeral pile, and burnt: after which his ashes were gathered, inclosed in an urn, and deposited in the sepulchre or tomb.
The ancient Christians testified their abhorrence of the paean custom of burning their dead, and always deposited the body entire in the ground; and it was usual to bestow the honour of embalming upon the martyrs, at least, if not upon others. They prepared the body for burial by washing it with water, and dressing it in a funeral attire. This was performed by near relations, or persons of such dignity as the circumstances of the deceased required. Psalmody, or singing of Psalms, was the great ceremony used in all funeral processions among the ancient Christians.
In the Romish church, when a person is dead, they wash the body, ana put a crucifix in his hand. At the feet stands a vessel of holy water, and a sprinkler, that they who come in may sprinkle both themselves and the deceased. In the mean time some priest stands by the corpse, and prays for the deceased till it is laid in the earth. In the funeral procession the exorcist walks first, carrying the holy water; next the cross bearer; afterwards the rest of the clergy ; and, last of all, the officiating priest. They all sing the miserere, and some other psalms; and at the end of each psalm a requiem. It is said, that the laces of deceased laymen must be turned towards the altar when they are placed in the church, and those of the clergy towards the people. The corpse is placed in the church, surrounded with lighted tapers. After the office for the dead, mass is said; then the officiating priest sprinkles the corpse thrice with holy water, and as otten throws incense on it. The body being laid in the grave, the friends and the relations of the deceased sprinkle the grave with holy water.
The funeral ceremonies of the Greek church are much the same with those
of the Latin. It needs only to be observed, that, after the funeral service, they kiss the crucifix, and salute the mouth and forehead of the deceased; after which, each of the company eats a bit of bread, and drinks a glass of wine in the church, wishing the soul a good repose, and the afflicted family all consolations. Bingham's Amiqtt. b. 2. Enc. Brit.; Buxtorf's Swag. p. 502.
FUTURE STATE, a term made use of in relation to the existence of the soul after death. That there is such a state of existence, we have every reason to believe; "for if we suppose," says a good writer, "the events of this life to have no reference to another, the whole state of man becomes not only inexplicable, but contradictory and inconsistent. The powers of the inferior animals are perfectly suited to their station. They know nothing higher than their present condition. In gratifying their appetites, they fulfil their destiny, and pass away.—Man, alone, comes forth to act a part which carries no meaning and tends to no end. Endowed with capacities which extend far beyond his present sphere, fitted by his rational nature for running the race of immortality, he is stopped short in the very entrance of his course He squanders his activity on pursuits which he discerns to be vain. He languishes for knowledge which is placed beyond his reach. He thirsts after a happiness which he is doomed never to enjoy. He sees and laments the disasters of his state, and yet, upon this supposition, can find nothing to remedy them. Has the eternal God any pleasure in sporting himself with such a scene of misery ana folly as this life (if it had no connection with another) must exhibit to his eye? Did he call into existence this magnificent universe, adorn it with so much beauty and splendour, and surround it with those glorious luminaries which we behold in the heavens only that some generations of mortal men might arise to behold these wonders, and then, disappear for ever? How unsuitable in this case were the habitation to the wretched inhabitant! How inconsistent the commencement of his being, and the mighty preparation of his powers and faculties, with his despicable end! How contradictory, in fine, were every thing which concerns the statcof man, to the wisdom and perfections of his Maker!"
But that there is such a state is clear from many passages of the New Testament, John v. 24. Acts vii. 9. Rom. viii. 10, 11. 2 Cor. v. 1, 2. Phil. i. 211 Thess. iv. 14. 1 Thess. v. 10. Luke xvi. 22, &c. But, though these texts prove the point, yet some have doubted whether there be any where in the Old Testament any reference to a future state at all. The case, it is said, appears to be this: the Mosaic covenant contained no promises directly relating to a future state , probably, as Dr Warburton asserts, and argues at large, because Moses wis secure of an equal providence, and therefore needed not subsidiary sanctions taken from a future state, without the belief of which the doctrine of an universal providence cannot ordinarily be vindicated, nor the general sanctions of religion secured. But, in opposition to this sentiment, as Doddridge observes, " it is evident that good men, even before Moses, were animated by views of a future state, Heb. xi. 13, 16, as he himself plainly was, 24 to 26 verse . and that the promises of heavenly felicity were contained even in the covenant made with Abraham, which the Mosaic could not disannul. Succeeding providences al-o confirmed the natural arguments in its favour, as every remarkable interposition would do; and when general promises were made to the obedient, and an equal providence relating to the nation established on national conformity to the Mosaic institution, and not merely to the general precepts of virtue; as such an equal providence would necessarily involve many of the best men in national ruin, at a time when, by preserving their integrity in the midst of
general apostasy, their virtue was most conspicuous; such good men. in such a state, would have vast additional reasons for expecting future rewards, beyond what could arise from principles common to the rest of mankind; so that we cannot wonder that we find in the writings of the prophets many strong expressions of such an expectation, particularly Gen. xlix. 18. Ps. xvi. 9 to 11. Ps. xvii. last ver. Ps. lxxiii. 17, 27. Eccl. Hi. 15, 16, 8cc. Eccl. vii. 12, 15. Is. iii. 10, 11. Ezek. xviii. 19, 21. Job xix. 23, 37. Dan. xii. 2. Is. xxxv. 8. Is. xxvi. 19. The same thing may also be inferred from the particular promises made to Daniel, Dan. xii. 13. to Zerubbabel, Hag. ii. 23. and to Joshua, the high priest. Zech. iii. 7. as well as from those historical facts recorded in the Old Testament of the murder of Abel, the translation of Enoch and Elijah, the death of Moses, and the story of the witch of Endor, and from what is said of the appearance of angels to, and their converse with good men." See articles Intermediate State, ResurrecTion, and Soul ; also Doddridge's Lectures, lect. 2J6; IVarburton's Divine Legation of Motes, vol. ii. p. 55J-568; Dr. Addington's Dissertations on the Religious Knowledge of the ancient Jevis and Patriarchs, containing an enquiry into the evidences of their belief and expectation of a future state; Blair's Sermons, ser. 15. vol. i; Robinson's Claude, vol. i. p. 132; IV. Jones's Works, vol. vi. ser. 12; Logan's Sermons, vol. ii. p. 413.
GAIAN JTJE, a denomination which derived its name from Gaian, a bishop of Alexandria, in the sixth century, who denied that Jesus Christ, after the hypostatical union, was subject to any of the infirmities of human nature.
GALILEANS, a sect of the Jews ■which arose in Judea some years after the birth of our Saviour. They sprang from one Judas, a native of Gaulam, in upper Galilee, upon the occasion of Augustus appointing the people to be mustered, which they looked upon as an instance of servitude which all true Israelites ought to oppose. They pretended that God alone should be owned as master and lord, and in other respects were of the opinion of the Pharisees; but as they judged it unlawful to
pray for infidel princes, they separated themselves from the rest of the Jews, and performed their sacrifices apart. As our Saviour and his apostles were ot Galilee, they were suspected to be of the sect of the Galileans; and it was on this principle, as St. Jerome observes, that the Pharisees laid a snare for him, asking, Whether it were lawful to give tribute to Cxsar ? that in case he denied it, they might have an occasion of accusing him.
GAZ A RES, a denomination which appeared about 1197 at Gazare, a town of Dalmatia. They held almost the same opinions with the Albigenses; but their distinguishing tenet was, that no human power had a right to sentence men to death for any crime whatever
GEMARA. See Talmud. GENERAL CALL. See Calling. GENERATION, ETERNAL, is a
term used as descriptive of the Father's communicating the Divine Nature to the Son. The Father is said by some divines to have produced the Word, or Son, from all eternity, by way of generation; on which occasion the word generation raises a peculiar idea: that procession which is really affected in the way of understanding is called generation, because, in virtue thereof, the Word becomes like to Him from whom he takes the original; or, as St. Paul expresses it the figure or image of his substance ; i. e. of his being and nature. —And hence it is, they say, that the second person is called the Son; and that in such a way and manner as never any other was, is, or can be, because of his own divine nature, he being the true, proper, and natural Son of God, begotten by him before all worlds. Thus, he is called his own Son, Rom. viii. 3. his only begotten Son, John iii. 16. Many have attempted to explain the manner of this generation by different similitudes; but as they throw little or no light upon the subject, we .'•hall not trouble the reader with them. Some, however, suppose that the term Son of God refers to Christ as mediator; and that his Sonship does not lie in his divine or human nature, separately considered, but in the union of both in one person. See Luke i. 35. Matt. iv. 3. John L 49. Matt. xvi. 16. Acts ix- 20, 22. Rom. i. 4. It is observed, that it is impossible that a nature properly divine should be begotten, since begetting, whatever idea is annexed to it, must signify some kind of production, derivation, and inferiority; consequently, that •whatever is produced must have a beginning, and whatever had a beginning ■was not from eternity, as Christ is said to be. Is. ix. 6. Col. i. 16,17. That the Sonship of Christ respects him as mediator will be evident, if we compare John x. 30. with John xiv. 28. In the former it is said, "I and my Father are one;" in the latter, "My Father is greater than I." These declarations, however opposite they seem, equally respect him as he is the Son; but if his Sonship primarily and properly signify the generation of his divine nature, it will be difficult, if not impossible, according to that scheme, to make them harmonize. Considered as a distinct person in the Godhead, without respect to his office as mediator, it is impossible, that, in the same view, he should be both equal and in/trior to his
Father. Again: he expressly tells us himself, that " the Son can do nothing of himself; that the Father showeth him all things that he doth; and that he giveth him to have life in himself," John v. 19, 20, 26. which expressions, if applied to him as God, not as mediator, will reduce us to the disagreeable necessity of subscribing either to the creed of Anus, and maintain him to be God of an inferior nature, and thus' a plurality of Gods, or to embrace the doctrine of Socinus, who allows him only to be a God by office. But if this title belong to him as mediator, every difficulty is removed. And, lastly, it is observed, that though Jesus be God, and the attributes of e'ernal existence ascribed to him, yet the two attributes, eternal and son, are not once expressed in the same text as referring to eternal generation. See article Son Of God; Owen on the Person of Christ; Pearson on the Creed; Ridgley's Body of Divinity, p. 73,76. 3d edition; Gill's Ditto; p. 205, vol. i. 8vo. edition; Lambert's Sermons, ser. 13. text John xi. 35.; Hodton's £ssay on the Eternal Filiation of the Son of God; Watls's Works, vol. v. p. 77.
GENEROSITY.thedisposiiion which promp'.s us to bestow favours which are not the purchase of any particular merit. It is different from humanity. Humanity is an exquisite feeling we possess in relation to others, so as to grieve for their sufferings, resent their injuries, or to rejoice at their prosperity; and as it arises from sympathy, it requires no great self-denial, or self-command : but generosity is that by which we are led to prefer some other person to ourselves, and to sacrifice any interest of our own to the interest of another.
GENIUS, a good or evil spirit or dxmon, who the ancients supposed was set over each person to direct his birth, accompany him in his life, and to be his guard.
Genius signifies that aptitude which a man naturally possesses to perform well and easily that which others can do but indifferently, and with a great deal of pain.
GENTILE, in matters of religion, a Pagan, or worshipper of false gods. The origin of this word is deduced from the Jews, who called all those who were not of their name D«m gojim, i. c. gentes, which in the Greek translation of the Old Testament is rendered T« i5r», in which sense it frequently occurs in the New Testament; as in Matt. vi. 32. "All these things the nations or Gentiles seek." Whence the Latin
Works, vol. ii. p. 379; Doddridge's Ltet. lee. 141.
GILBERTINES, a religious order; thus called from St. Gilbert, of Sempringham, in the county of Lincoln, who founded the same about the year 1148 . the monks of which observed the rule of St. Augustine, and were accounted canons, and the nuns that of St Benedict. The founder of this order erected a double monastery, or rather two different ones, contiguous to each other , the one for men, the other for women, but parted by a very high wall. St. Gilbert himself founded thirteen monasteriesof this order; viz. four for men alone, and nine for men and women together, ■which had in them 700 brethren, and 1500 sisters. At the dissolution, there were about twenty-five houses of this order in England and Wales.
GLORY, praise, or honour, attributed to God, in adoration or worship. The state of felicity prepared for the righteous See Heaven.
The Glory of God is the manifestation of the divine perfections in creation, providence, and grace. We may be said to give glory to God when we confess our sins, when we love him supremely, when we commit ourselves to him. are zealous in his service, improve our talents, walk humbly, thankfully, and cheerfully before him, and recommend, proclaim, and set forth his excellencies, to others. Jos. vii. 19. Gal. ii. 20. John xv. 8. Ps. 1.23. Mat. v. 16.
GNOSIMACHI, a name which distinguished those in the seventh century ■who were professed enemies to the Gnosis; i. e. the studied knowledge or science of Christianity, which they rested wholly on good works , calling it a useless labour to seek for knowledge in the Scripture. In short, they contended for the practice of morality in all simplicity, and blamed those who aimed at improving and perfecting it by a deeper knowledge and insight into the doctrines and mysteries of religion. The Gnosimachi were the very reverse of the Gnostics.
GNOSTICS (from rrarrooc, knowing,) ancient heretics, famous from the first rise of Christianity, principally in the east. It appears from several passages of Scripture, particularly 1 John ii. 18; 1 Tim. vi. 20; Col. ii. 8; that many persons were infected with the Gnostic heresy in the first century; though the sect did not render itself conspicuous either for numbers or reputation, before the time of Adrian, when some writers erroneously date its
rise. The name was adopted by this sect, on the presumption that they were the only persons who had the true knowledge of Christianity. Accordingly they looked on all other Christians as simple, ignorant, and barbarous persons, who explained and interpreted the sacred writings in a low, literal, and unedifying signification. At first, the Gnostics were the only philosophers and wits of those times, who formed for themselves a peculiar system of theology, agreeable to the philosophy of Pathagoras and Plato; to which they accommodated all their interpretations of Scripture. But Gnostics afterwards became a general name, comprehending divers sects and parties of heretics, who rose in the first centuries; and who, though they differed among themselves as to circumstances, yet all agreed in some common principles. They corrupted the doctrine of the Gospel by a profane mixture of the tenets of the oriental philosophy, concerning the origin of evil and the creation of the world, with its divine truths. Such were the Valentinians, Simonians, Carpocralians, Nicholaitans, &c.
Gnostics sometimes also occurs in a good sense, in the ancient ecclesiastical writers, particularly Clemens Alcxandrinus, who, in the person of his Gnostic, describes the characters and qualities of a perfect Christian. This point he labours in the seventh book of his Stromata, where he shows that none but the (inostic, or learned person has any true religion. He affirms, that, were it possible for the knowledge of God to be separated from eternal salvation, the Gnostic would make no scruple to choose the knowledge; and that if God would promise him impunity in doing of any thing hi- has once spoken against, or offer him heaven on those terms, he would never 'alter a whit of his measures. In this sense the father uses Gnostics, in opposition to the heretics of the same name; affirming, that the true Gnostic is grown old in the study of the holy Scripture, and that he preserves the orthodox doctrine of the apostles, and of the church; whereas the false Gnostic abandons all the apostolical traditions, as imagining himself wiser than the apostles.
Gnostics was sometimes also more particularly used for the successors of the Nicholaitans and Carpocratians, in the second century, upon their laying aside the names of the first authors. Such as would be thoroughly acquainted with all their doctrines, reveries, and visions may consult St. Jrenteus, Tertul