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this pope Leo IX. replied; and, in his apology for the Latins, declaimed very ■warmly against the false doctrine of the Greeks, and interposed at the same time, the authority of his see. He likewise, by his legates, excommunicated the patriarch in the church of Santa Sophia, which gave the last shock to the reconciliation attempted a long time after, but to no purpose; for from that time the hatred of the Greeks to the Latins, and of the Latins to the Greeks, became insuperable, insomuch that they have continued ever since separated from each other's communion.
II. Greek church, tenets of. The following are some of the chief tenets held by the Greek church:—They disown the authority of the pope, and deny that the church of Rome is the true catholic church. They do not baptize their children till they are three, four, five, six, ten, nay, sometimes eighteen years of age: baptism is performed by trine immersion. They insist that the sacrament of the Lord's supper ought to be administered in both kinds, and they give the sacrament to children immediately after baptism. They grant no indulgences, nor do they lay any claim to the character of infallibility, like the church of Rome. They deny that there is any such place as purgatory ; notwithstanding they pray for the dead, that God would have mercy on them at the general judgment. They practise the invocation of saints; though, they say, they do not invoke them as deities, but as intercessors with God. They exclude confirmation, extreme unction, and matrimony, out of the seven sacraments. They deny auricular confession to be a divine precept, and say it is only a positive injunction of the church. They pay no' religious homage to the euchanst. They administer the communion in both kinds to the laity, both in sickness and in health, though they have never applied themselves to their confessors, because they are persuaded that a lively faith is all which is requisite for the worthy receiving of the Lord's supper. They maintain that the Holy Ghost proceeds only from the Father, and not from the Son They believe in predestination. They admit of no images in relief or embossed work, but use paintings and sculptures in copper or silver. They approve of the marriage of priests, provided they enter into that state before their admission into holy orders. They condemn all fourth marriages. They observe a number of holy days, and keep four fasts in the year more solemn than the rest, of
which the fast in Lent, before Easter,
is the chief. They believe the doctrine
of consubstantiation, or the union of the
j body of Christ with the sacramentbread.
III. Greek church, state and discipline of. Since the Greeks became subject to the Turkish yoke, they have sunk into the most deplorable ignorance, in consequence of the slavery and thraldom under which they groan; and their religion is now greatly corrupted. It is, indeed, little better than a heap of ridiculous ceremonies and absurdities. The head of the Greek church is the patriarch of Constantinople, who is chosen by the neighbouring archbishops and metropolitans, and confirmed by the emperor or grand vizier. He is a person of great dignity, being the head and director of the Eastern church. The other patriarchs are those of Jerusalem, Antioch, and Alexandria. Mr.Tournefort tells us, that the patriarchates are now generally set to sale, and bestowed upon those who are the highest bidders. The patriarchs, metropolitans, archbishops, and bishops, are always chosen from among the caloyers, or Greek monks. The next person to a bishop, among the clergy, is an archimandrite, who is the director of one or more convents, which are called mandren; then comes the abbot, the arch-priest, the priest, the deacon, the under-deacon, the chanter, and the lecturer. The secular clergy are subject to no rules, and never rise higher than high-priest. The Greeks have few nunneries, but a great many convents of monks, who are all priests; and (students excepted) obliged to follow some handicraft employment, and lead a very austere life.
The Russians adhere to the doctrine and ceremonies of the Greek church, though they are now independent of the patriarch of Constantinople. The Russian church, indeed, may be reckoned the first, as to extent of empire; yet there is very little of the power of vital religion among them. The Roskolniki, or, as they now call themselves, the Starovcrtzi, were a sect that separated from the church of Russia, about 1666: they affected extraordinary piety and devotion, a veneration for the letter of the Holy Scriptures, and would not allow a priest to administer baptism who had that day tasted brandy. They harboured many follies and superstitions, and have been greatly persecuted; but, perhaps, there will be found among them "some that shall be counted to the Lord for a generation." Several settlements of German Protestants have been established in the Wolga. The Moravians also have done good in Livonia, and the adjacent isles in the Baltic under the Russian government. See Mosheim, Gregory, and Hawies's Church History; King's Rites and Ceremonies of the Greek Church in Russia; The Russian Catechism; Secret Memoirs of the Court of Petersburgh; Tooke's History of Russia; Ricaut's State of the Greek Church; £nc. Brit.
GROWTH IN GRACE. See
GUARDIAN ANGEL. "Some," says Dr. Doddridge, "have thought, that not only every region but every man has some particular angel assigned him as a guardian, whose business it is generally to watch over that country or person; for this opinion they urge Matt. xviii. 10. Acts xii. IS. But the argument from both these places is evidently precarious; and it seems difficult to reconcile the supposition of such a continued
attendance with what is said of the stated residence of these angels in heaven, and with Heb. i. 14, where all the angels are represented as ministering to the heirs of salvation: though, as there is great reason to believe the number of heavenly spirits is vastly superior to that of men upon earth, it is not improbable that they may. as it were, relieve each other, and in their turns perform these condescending services to those whom the Lord of Angels has been pleased to redeem with his own blood; but we must confess that our knowledge of the laws and orders of those celestial beings is very limited, and consequently that it is the part of humility to avoid dogmatical determinations on such heads as these." See Angel; and Doddridge's Lectures, lect. 212.
GUILT, the state of a person justly charged with a crime; a consciousness of having done amiss. See Sin.
HABIT, a power and ability of doing any thing, acquired by frequent repetition of the same action. It is distinguished from custom. Custom respects the action ; habit the actor. By custom we mean a frequent reiteration of the same act; and by habit the effect that custom has on the mind or body. "Man," as one observes, "is a bundle of habits. There are habits of industry, attention, vigilance, advertency; of a prompt obedience to the judgment occurring, or of yielding to the first impulse of passion; of apprehending, methodizing, reasoning; of vanity, melancholy, fretfulness, suspicion, covetousness. Sec. In a word, there is not a quality or function, either of body or mind, which does not feel the influence of this great law of animated nature." To cure evil habits, we should be as early as we can in our application, flrinciptis obsta; to cross and mortify the inclination by a frequent and obstinate practice of the contrary virtue. To form good habits, we should get our minds well stored with knowledge; associate with the wisest and best men; reflect much on the pleasure' good habits are productive of; and, above all, supplicate the Divine Being for direction and assistance. Kaimes's Rlem. of Crit. ch. xiv. vol. 1; Grove's Mor. Phil. vol. L p. 143; Paley's Mor. PhiL vol. i. p. 46; Jortin on Bad Habits, ser. 1. vol.
iii; Reid on the Active Powers, p. 117; Cogan on the Passions, p. 235.
H/ERETICO COMBURENDO. a writ which anciently lay against an heretic, who, having once been convicted of heresy by his bishop, and having abjured it, afterwards falling into it again, or into some other, is thereupon committed to the secular power. This writ is thought by some to be as ancient as the common law itself; however, the conviction of heresy by the common law was not in any petty ecclesiastical court, but before the archbishop himself, in a provincial synod, and the delinquent was delivered up to the king, to do with him as he pleased; so that the crown had a controul over the spiritual power: but by 2 Henry IV. cap. IS. the diocesan alone, without the intervention of a synod, might convict of heretical tenets; and unless the convict abjured his opinions, or if after abjuration he relapsed, the sheriff was bound ex officio, if required by the bishop, to commit the unhappy victim to the flames, without waiting for the consent of the crown. This writ remained in force, and was actually executed on two Anabaptists, in the seventh of Elizabeth, and on two Arians in the ninth of James I. Sir Edward Coke was of opinion that this writ did not lie in his time; but it is now formallytaken away by statute 29 Car. II. cap. 9.
But this statute does not extend te take! away or abridge the jurisdiction of Pro-1 testant archbishops, or bishops, or any other judges of any ecclesiastical courts, in cases of atheism, blasphemy, heresy, or schism; but they may prove and punish the same, according to his majesty's ecclesiastical laws, by excommunication, deprivation, degradation, and other ecclesiastical censures, not extending to death, in such sort, and no other, as they might have done before the making fit this act.
HAGIOGRAPHIA. a name given to part of the books of the Scriptures, called by the Jews cetuvim. See article Bible, sec. 1.
HAMPTON-COURT CONFERENCE, a conference appointed by James I. at Hampton-Court, in 1603, in order to settle the disputes between the church and the Puritans. Nine bishops, and as many dignitaries of the church, appeared on one side, and four Puritan ministers on the other. It lasted for three days. Neale calls it a mock conference, because all things were previously concluded between the king and the bishops; and the Puritans borne down not with calm reason and argument, but with the royal authority, the king being both judge and partv. The proposals and remonstrances of the Puritans may be seen in JVeale'a History of the Puritans, chap. i. part ii.
HAPPINESS, absolutely taken, denotes the durable possession of perfect good, without any mixture of evil; or the enjoyment of pure pleasure unalloyed with pain, or a state in which all our wishes are satisfied; in which senses, happiness is only known by name on this earth. The word ha fifty, when applied to any state or condition of human life, will admit of no positive definition, but is merely a relative term; that is, when we call a man happy, we mean that he is happier than some others with •whom we compare him; than the generality of others; or than he himself was in some other situation. Moralists justly observe, that happiness does not consist in the pleasures of sense; as eating, drinking, music, painting, theatric exhibitions, &c. 8cc. for these pleasures -continue but a little while, by repetition lose their relish, and by high expectation often bring disappointment. Nor .does happiness consist in an exemption from labour, care, business, &c. such a state being usually attended with depression of spirits, imaginary anxieties, and the whole train of hypochondriacal affections. Nor is it to be found in greatness, rank, or derated stations, as mat
ter of fact abundantly testifies; but happiness consists in the enjoyment of the divine favour, a good conscience, and uniform conduct. In subordination to these, human happiness may be greatly promoted by the exercise of the social affections; the pursuit of some engaging end; the prudent constitution of the habits; and the enjoyment of our health. Bolton and Lucas on Hafifiiness; Henry's Pleasantness of a Religious Life; Grove's and Paley's Mor. Phil. Barrow's Ser. ser. L Young's Centaur, 41 to 160; Wollaston's Religion of Nature, sec. 2.
HARMONY OF THE GOSPELS, a term made use of to denote the concurrence or agreement of the writings of the four Evangelists; or the history of the four Evangelists digested into one continued series. By this means each story or discourse is exhibited with all its concurrent circumstances; frequent repetitions are prevented, and a multitude of seeming oppositions reconciled. Among some of the most valuable harmonies, are those of Cradock, Le Clerc, Doddridge, Macknight, JVcwcombe, and Townson's able Harmony on the concluding Part of the Gosficls; Thompson's Diatessaron. The term harmony is also used in reference to the agreement which the Gospel bears to natural religion, the Old Testament, the history of other nations, and the works of God at large.
HASSIDEANS, or Assideans, those Jews who resorted to Mattathias, to fight for the laws of God and the liberties of their country. They were men of great valour and zeal, having voluntarily devoted themselves to a more strict observation of the law than other men. For, after the return of the Jews from the Babylonish captivity, there were two sorts of men in their church; those who contented themselves with that obedience only which was prescibed by the law of Moses, and who were called Zadikin, i. e. the righteous; and those who, over and above the laws, superadded the constitutions and traditions of the elders, and other rigorous observances; these latter were called the Chasiilim, i. e. the pious. From the former sprang the Samaritans, Sadducees, and Caraites: from the latter, the Pharisees and the Essenes; which see.
HATRED is the aversion of the will to any object considered by us as evil, or to any person or thing we suppose can do us harm. See Antipathy. Hatred is ascribed to God, but is not to be considered as a passion in him as in man; nor can he hate any of the creatures he has made as his creatures. Yet he is said to hate the wicked, Ps. v. 5; and indignation and wrath, tribulation and anguish, will be upon every soul of man that does evil. See Wrath Of God.
HATTEMISTS, in ecclesiastical history, the name of a modern Dutch sect, so called from Pontian Van Hattem, a minister in the province of Zealand, towards the close of the last century, who, being addicted to the sentiments of Spinosa, was on that account degraded from his pastoral office. The Verschorists and Hattemists resemble each other in their religious systems, though they never so entirely agreed as to form one communion. The founders of these sects deduced from the doctrine of absolute decrees a system of fatal and uncontrollable necessity; they denied the difference between moral good and evil, and the corruption of human nature; from whence they farther concluded, that mankind were under no sort of obligation to correct their manners, to improve their minds, or to obey the divine laws; that the whole of religion consisted not in acting, but in suffering; and that all the precepts of Jesus Christ are reducible to this one, that we bear with cheerfulness and fiaticnce the events that happen to us through the divine will, and make it our constant and only study to maintain a fiermanent tranquillity of mind. Thus far they agreed: but the Hattemists further affirmed, that Christ made no expiation for the sins of men by his death; but had only suggested to us, by his mediation, that there was nothing in us that could offend the Deity: this, they say, was Christ's manner of justifying his servants, and presenting them blameless before the tribunal of God. It was one of their distinguished tenets, that God does not punish men for their sins, but by their sins. These two sects, says Mosheim, still subsist, though they no longer bear the names of their founders.
HEARING THE WORD OF GOD, is an ordinance of divine appointment. Rom. x. 17. Prov. viii. 4,5. Mark iv. 24.
Public reading of the Scriptures was a part of synagogue worship. Acts xiii. 15. Actsi xv. 21. and was the practice of the Christians in primitive times. Under the former dispensation there was a public hearing of the law at stated seasons, Deut. xxxi. 10, 13. Neh. viii. 2, 3. It seems, therefore, that it is a duty incumbent on us to hear, and, if sensible of our ignorance, we shall also consider it our privilege. As to the manner of
hearing, it should be constantly, Prov, viii. 34. Jam. i. 24,25. Attentively, Luke xxi. 38. Acts x. 33. Luke iv. 20, 22. With reverence, Ps. lxxxix. 7. With faith, Heb. iv. 2. With an endeavour to retain what we hear, Heb. ii. 1. Ps.cxix. 11. With an humble docile disposition, Luke x. 42. With firayer, Luke xviii. The advantages of hearing are, information, 2 Tim. iii. 16. Conviction, 1 Cor. xiv.24,25. Actsii. Conversion, Ps. xi.7. Acts iv. 4. Confirmation, Acts xiv. 22. Acts xvi. 5. Consolation, Phil. i. 25. Is. xl. 1, 2. Is. xxxv. 3, 4. Stennet's Parable of the Sower; Massilon's Ser. vol. ii. p. 131. Eng. trans. GUI's Body of Dw. vol. iii. p. 340. oct. ed.
HEART is used for the soul, and all the powers thereof; as the understanding, conscience, will, affections, and memory. The heart of man is naturally, constantly, universally, inexpressibly, openly, and evidently depraved, and inclined to evil, Jer. xvii 9. It requires a divine power to renovate it, and render it susceptible of right impressions, Jer. xxiv. 7. When thus renovated, the effects will be seen in the temper, conversation, and conduct at large. See Faith, Hope, See. Hardness of heart is that state in which a sinner is inclined to, and actually goes on in rebellion against God. This state evidences itself bv light views of the evil of sin; partial acknowledgment and confession of it; frequent commission of it; pride and conceit: ingratitude; unconcern about the word and ordinances of God: inattention to divine providences; stifling convictions of conscience; shunning reproof; presumption, and general ignorance of divine things. We must distinguish, however, between that hardness of heart which even a good man complains of, and that of a judicial nature. 1. Judicial hardness is very seldom perceived, and never lamented; a broken and contrite heart is the least thing such desire; but it is otherwise with believers, for the hardness they feel is always a matter of grief to them, Rom. vii. 24.-2. Judicial hardness is perpetual; or, if ever there be any remorse or relenting, it is only at such times when the sinner is under some outwatd afflictions, or filled with the dread of the wrath of God; but as this wears off or abates, his stupidity returns as much or more than ever, Exod. ix. 27; hut true believers, when no adverse dispensations trouble them, are often distressed because their hearts are no more affected in holv duties, or inflamed with love to Ood, Rom. vii. 15.—3. Judicial hardness is attended with a total neglect of duties, especially
those that are secret; but that hardness of heart which a believer complains of, though it occasions his going uncomfortably in duty, vet does not keep him from it. Job xxiii. 2,3.-4. When a person is judicially hardened, he makes use of indirect and unwarrantable methods to maintain that false peace which he thinks himself happy in the enjoyment of; but a believer, when complaining of the hardness of his heart, cannot be satisfied with any thing short of Christ, Ps. ci. 2.-5. Judicial hardness generally opposes the interest of truth and godliness; but a good man considers this as a cause nearest his heart; and although he have to lament his lukewarmness, yet he constantly desires to promote it, Ps. lxxii. 19.
Keeping the heart, is a duty enjoined in the sacred Scriptures. It consists, says Mr. Flavel, in the diligent and constant use and improvement of all holy means and duties to preserve the soul from sin, and maintain communion with God; and this, he properly observes, supposes a previous work of sanctification, which hath set the heart right by giving it a new bent and inclination.
1. It includes frequent observation of the frame of the heart, Ps. lxxvii. 6.—
2. Deep humiliation for heart evils and disorders, 2 Chron. xxxii 26—3. Earnest supplication for heart purifying and rectifying grace, Ps. xix. 12.—4. A constant holy jealousy over our hearts, Prov. xxvii. 14.—5. It includes the realising of God's presence wiih us, and setting him before us, Ps. xvi. 8. Gen. xvii. 1. This is, 1. The hardest work; heart work is hard work, indeed.—2. Constant work, Exod. xvii. 12.—3. The most important work, Prov. xxiii. 26. This is a duty which should be attended to, if we consider it in connection with, 1. The honour of God, Is. lxvi. 3.-2. The sincerity of our profession, 2 Kings x. 31. Ezek. xxxiii. 31, 32.-3. The beauty of our conversation, Prov. xii. 26. Ps. xlv. 1.—4. The comfort of our souls, 2 Cor. xiii. 5.—5. The improvement of our graces, Ps. lxiii. 5, 6.—6. The stability of our souls in the hour of temptation, 1 Cor. xvi. 13.—The seasons in which we should more particularly keep, our hearts are, I. The time of prosperity, Deut. vi. 10, 12.—2. Under afflictions, Heb. vii. 5, 6.—3. The time of Sion's troubles, Ps. xlvi. 1, 4.—4. In the time of great and threatened dangers, Is. xxvi. 20, 21.—
5. Under great wants, Phil. iv. 6, 7.—
6. In the time of duty, Lev. x. 3.-7. Under injuries received, Rom. xii. 17, &c. —8. In the critical hour of temptation. Matt. xxvi. 41.—9. Under dark and
doubting seasons, Heb. xii. 8. Is. 1.10.— 10. In time of opposition and suffering, 1 Pet.-iv. 12,13.—11. The time of sickness and death, Jer. xlix. 11. The means to be made use of to keep our hearts,
are, 1. Watchfulness, Mark xiii. 37
2. Examination, Prov. iv. 26.—3 Prayer, Luke xviii. 1.—-4. Reading God's word, John v. 39.-5. Dependence on divine grace, Ps. lxxxvi. 11. See Flavel on Keeping the Heart; Jameison's Sermons on the Heart; Wright on Selfpossession; Ridgley's Div. qu. 20.
HEATHEN, pagans who worship false gods, and are not acquainted either with the doctrines of the Old Testament or the Christian dispensation. For many ages before Christ, the nations at large were destitute of the true religion, and gave themselves up to the grossest ignorance, the most absurd idolatry, and the greatest crimes. Even the most learned men among the heathens were in general inconsistent, and complied with or promoted the vain customs they found among their countrymen. It was, however, divinely foretold, that in Abraham's seed all nations should be blessed ; that the heathen should be gathered to the Saviour, and become his people, Gen. xxii. 18. Gen. xlix. 10. Ps. ii. 8. Isa. xiii. 6, 7. Ps. lxxii. Isaiah lx. In order that these promises might be accomplished, vast numbers of the Jews, after the Chaldean captivity, were left scattered among the heathen. The Old Testament was translated into Greek, the most common language of the heathen; and a rumour of the Saviour's appearance in the flesh was spread far and wide among them. When Christ came, he preached chiefly in Galilee, where there were multitudes of Gentiles. He assured the Greeks that vast numbers of the heathen should be brought into the church, Matt. iv. 23. John xii. 20, 24. For 1700 years past the Jews have been generally rejected, and the church of God has been composed of the Gentiles. Upwards of 480 millions (nearly half the globe,) however, are supposed to be yet in pagan darkness. Considerable attempts nave been made of late years for the enlightening of the heathen; and there is every reason to believe good has been done. From the aspect of Scripture prophecy, we are led to expect that the kingdoms of the heathen at large shall be brought to the light of the Gospel, Matt. xxiv. 14. Isa. lx. Ps. xxii. 28, 29. Ps. ii. 7, 8. It has been much disputed whether it be posi sible that the heathen should be saved without the knowledge of the Gospel: